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Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Print version ISSN 0037-8682

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.5 no.3 Uberaba May/June 1971

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86821971000300003 

Efecto de la temperatura de la piel en la leishmaniasis cutanea experimental

 

 

Rodrigo Zeledón

Universidad de Costa Rica

 

 


ABSTRACT

The literature on the thermosensitive properties of strains or species of Leishmania and of other miercorganisms is revised. Cutaneous or mucocutaneous strains that infect animais in the coldest areas of the skin or mucosa in general can not grow in tissue culture at 37°C or higher temperatures and their respiratory metabolism decreases at these temperatures. These facts suggest a thermosensitive event in some important metabolism phase of the organisme. The strains or species that are able to produce visceral leishmaniasis were probably originated from cutaneous strains after genetioally determined physiological adaptation, to warmer temperatures. These strains can not only visceralize in animais and man but will also grow in tissue culture at 36-37°C and the respiratory metabolism will be higher at such temperatures. There are reasons to believe that intermediate strains, i. e., with properties of both groupsí do exist.
A thermosensitive physiological event is a more general phenomenon and examples of it can also be found in the fields of virology, bacteriology and mycology.
It has practical applications since some of the diseases produced by these agents can be cured by treatments with heat or artificial fever.
Experiments along these line were performed on hamsters with a Costa Rican strain of L. braziliensis as an experimental model. Even after intraperitoneal inoculation lesions appear in the nose, ears, paws and tail with a subcutaneous temperature bellow 33°C at 22-24°C.
Healing of the lesión is accomplished by increasing room temperature. A good lesión is produced in the rump of the animal if the area is depilated (comercial cream depilatory) previously and the naked skin cooled artificially. Elevated temperature, or the growing back of the hair will tend to diminish or cure the lesion.


 

 

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REFERENCIAS

1) AMARAL, A. D. FRANCO DO — Observações sôbre a resistência das culturas de Leishmania braziliensis a varias temperaturas. Arq Inst. Biol. 11: 5-9, 1940.         [ Links ]

2) BAKER, A. C. & E. GUTIERREZ- BALLESTEROS. — Tratamiento experimental de las úlceras leishmaniásicas por el procedimiento del calor del vapor. (Nota preliminar). Rev. Inst. Salub. Enferm. Trop. 17(3): 115-119, 1957.         [ Links ]

3) BRAY, R. S. & LAISON, R. — The growth of various strains of Leishmania spp. and of Lankesterella garnhami in tissue cultures. Proc. lst. Int. Congr. Parasitol. (Roma 21-26 Sept. — 1964), p. 342. Pergamon Press, 1966.         [ Links ]

4) CASTRO, M. P. DE & PINTO, S. C. — Influence of the temperature on growth of Leishmania enrietti in tissue culture. J. Protozool. 7, suppl. :8., 1960.         [ Links ]

5) FROTHINGHAM, T. E., LEHTIMAKI, E. — Prolonged growth of Leishmania species in cell culture. J. Parasitol 55(1): 196-199, 1969.         [ Links ]

6) GREENBLATT, CHARLES, L. & GLASER, P. — Temperature effect on Leishmania enrietti in vitro. Exptl. Parasitol. 16: 36-52, 1965.         [ Links ]

7) GUTIERREZ - BALLESTEROS, E. — Tratamiento de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria por medio del calor de vapor de agua. Estúdio de 5 casos humanos. Rev. Inst. Salub. Enferm Trop. Mex. 19(4): 317, 1959.         [ Links ]

8) JANOVY, J. & POORMAN, A. E. — Temperature and metabolism in Leishmania. I. Respiration in L. donovani, L. mexicana, and L. tarentolae. Exptl. Parasitol. 25: 276-282, 1969.         [ Links ]

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10) LWOFF, A. — The thermosensitive critical event of the viral cycle., Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quart. Bioi. 27: 159-172, 1962.         [ Links ]

11) MACKINNON, JUAN E. — Revisión sobre observaciones experimentales y humanas, demostrativas del efecto de la temperatura en algunas Micosis. El Torax, 13(3-4): 266-270, 1964.         [ Links ]

12) PEREIRA, C., M. P. DE CASTRO & D. DE MELLO. — Influencia da temperatura cutânea no desenvolvimento de lesões leishmanióticas. Arq. Inst. Biol. S. Paulo. 25: 121-138, 1958.         [ Links ]

13) SEN GUPTA, P. C. — Pathogenicity of Leishmania donovani in man. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. S. Paulo 4, 130-135, 1962.         [ Links ]

14) SENEKJIE, H. A. & ZEBOUNI, N. — Biochemical reactions of the genus Leismania. Amer. J. Hyg. 34(2) : 67- 70, 1941.         [ Links ]

15) SILVEIRA, M. R. DA & BRENER, Z. —Nota preliminar sobre a piretoterapia na leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Hospital, 37(4): 637-641, 1950.         [ Links ]

16) ZELEDON, R., MONGE, E. DE & BLANCO, E. — Temperature of the host skin and physiology of the parasite in the experimental infection by Leishmania braziliensis Vianna. Int. Congr. Series N.° 91, Excerpta Med. Found. 133-134, 1965.         [ Links ]

17) ZELEDON, R., BLANCO, E. & MONGE, E. DE. — Comparative experimental infections with Costa Rican strains of Leishmania braziliensis Vianna, 1911. Acta Trop. 26: 136-155, 1969.         [ Links ]

 

 

Recibido para publicación el 18.2.71.

 

 

Trabajo presentado a la Mesa redonda "Leishmaniasis", VII Congresso Brasileiro de Medicina Tropical, Manaus, 14-18 febrero, 1971. Parte del trabajo relatado se hijo con la ayuda del subsidio TW 00148 del Servicio de Salud Pública de los Estados Unidos (NIAID) y con la ayuda del subsidio DADA-17-68-G-9254 de la U.S. Army Medical Research & Development Command.

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