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Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

versão impressa ISSN 0037-8682

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.17 no.4 Uberaba out./dez. 1984

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86821984000400005 

ARTIGOS

 

Patogenia da leishmaniose cutânea experimental. A importância da necrose na eliminação dos parasitos das lesões

 

 

Zilton A. Andrade; Steven G. Reed; Silene B. Roters; Moysés Sadigursky

 

 


RESUMO

Um estudo histopatológico e ultraestrutural das lesões da leishmaniose cutânea causada pela Leishmania mexicana amazonensis em duas cepas isogênicas de camundongo, uma susceptível (Balb/c) e outra resistente (A/J), demonstrou que os amastigotas ficavam bem preservados nos vacúolos parasitóforos dos macrófagos, igualmente em ambas as cepas. A reação de imunofluorescência revelou antigenos parasitários no interior e na membrana dos macrófagos de maneira idêntica para ambas as cepas. A diferença ocorria quando os macrófagos apareciam destruídos e as leishmanias ficavam livres ou fagocitadas por polimorfonucleares, neutrófilos e eosinófilos. Estes parasitos exibiam então graus variáveis de nítidas alterações degenerativas. No camundongo resistence, a necrose, de tipo caseoso ou fibrinóide, era mais disseminada e mais freqüente que no animal susceptível. Os achados observados indicaram que as leishmanias não são destruídas no interior dos macrófagos e sim fora deles, especialmente quando fagocitadas por leucócitos polimorfonucleares. A necrose apareceu como o mecanismo mais saliente através do qual o hospedeiro elimina os parasitos das lesões, sendo a mesma um aspecto importante da reação de hipersensibilidade tardia que ocorre nos animais resistentes.

Palavras-chave: Leishmaniose cutânea experimental. Camundongos Balb/c e A/J. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Necrose tíssular fibrinóide. Necrose tissular caseosa. Necrose tissular purulenta.


ABSTRACT

Amastigotes of Leshmania mexicana amazonensis appeared healthy and well preserved within the parasitophorous vacuoles of macrophages during the infection of a susceptible (Balb/c) or a relatively resistant (A/J) inbred strain of mice. Immunofluorescence showed the presence of leishmanial antigens within infected macrophages and in their external membranes similar for both strains. When the amastigotes were found extracellularly or within polymorphonuclear neutrophils or eosinophils, marked ultrastructural degenerative changes were observed in them. Such necrotic alterations were seen frequently in the resistant mice and rarely in the susceptible ones. Thus, necrosis of parasitized macrophages appeared as a major mechanism through which the resistant host eliminates the parasites from the lesions. It may be considered as a histological marker of resistance in leishmaniasis and represents a prominent component of the delayed-type immunological mechanism occurring in resistant hosts.

Keywords: Experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Balb/c and A/J mice. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Fibrinoid tissue necrosis. Caseous tissue necrosis. Purulent tissue necrosis.


 

 

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Recebido para publicação em 30/7/1984.

 

 

Centro de Pesquisas Gonçalo Moniz (FIOCRUZ/UFBA) Salvador, Bahia, com apoio dos Institutos Nacionais de Saúde, USA (Grant n.° 16282) e da FINEP (Convênio 43.82.0094.00).

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