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Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

Print version ISSN 0037-8682On-line version ISSN 1678-9849

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.49 no.3 Uberaba May./June 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0066-2016 

Short Communication

First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon

Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti1  2 

Gabriela Vieira de Souza Castro2 

Mariane Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Castro2 

Janis Lunier de Souza2 

Jader de Oliveira3  4 

João Aristeu da Rosa3  4 

Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo2  5  6 

1Colégio de Aplicação, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil.

2Programa de Pós Graduação Stricto Sensu em Ciência da Saúde na Amazônia Ocidental, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil.

3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brasil.

4Programa de Pós Graduação Stricto Sensu em Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brasil.

5Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas-5, Universidade de São Paulo, Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brasil.

6Departamento de Medicina, Faculdade São Lucas, Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION:

This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon.

METHODS:

Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco.

RESULTS:

The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon.

CONCLUSIONS:

The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since this species has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities.

Keywords: Triatominae; Rhodnius stali; Western Amazon

Triatomines are bloodsucking insects of the subfamily Triatominae and family Reduviidae. Their importance lies in the fact that they can transmit South American Trypanosomiasis, also called Chagas disease1) (2, named after Carlos Chagas, who first described it in 19093.

In the Amazon rainforest, there are 29 recognised species of triatomines, grouped into nine genera: Rhodnius [12], Psammolestes [1], Triatoma [4], Panstrongylus [3], Eratyrus [2], Cavernicola [2], Alberprosenia [2], Belminus [2] and Microtriatoma [1]2) (4) (5. In the Brazilian Amazon, at least 20 species of sylvatic triatomines belonging to eight genera have been identified, of which more than 10 are related to infection by the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi6) (7. In the state of Acre, there have been reports of five triatomine species belonging to three genera, namely: Rhodnius montenegrensis2, Rhodnius robustus8, Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus geniculatus6, and Eratyrus mucronatus9.

The present study aims to report for the first time, the presence of the species Rhodnius stali in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon.

In October 2015, one female of R. stali (Figure 1A and Figure 1B) was collected while at the Complexo Bionorte da Amazônia Ocidental, located on the Campus of Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC)], Brazil (Lat. 9º57´12''S, Long. 65º'51´.48''W). This is situated 100m from a large urban forest fragment (Zoobotanica Park of UFAC with 144 hectares), where several palm trees of the genus Attalea can be found. Those trees may have served as natural ecotopes for the species, since R. stali has been found in Attalea phalerata palms in the Southwestern Amazon4. Possibly, the specimen was attracted by the light, as it happened with another specimen, namely a male that was captured with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-type trap in the Campus of UFAC.

Figure 1 A) Dorsal and B) Ventral views of Rhodnius stali specimens found in the municipality of Rio Branco, State of Acre, Brazil. C) Dorsal and D) Ventral views of Rhodnius pictipes.  

The identification of triatomines was carried out in the Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Tropical Medicine of UFAC, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, based on the keys previously described by Lent et al.10. Later, the specimens were referred to the Insectarium of the Department of Biological Sciences of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP)], Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, where the identification of the specimens was confirmed, through the characteristics of the genitalia11 and its comparison with R. pictipes from the same insectarium (CTA 71), collected in Belém, Pará (Figure 1C and Figure 1D; Figure 2A, Figure 2B, Figure 2C, Figure 2D, Figure 2E and Figure 2F). Additionally, the specimens were similar to the description provided by Lent et al.10.

Rhodnius stali (Figure 1) has a length of 16.5 to 17mm, speckled yellowish brown color, usually with small blemishes. It has an elongated head with the anteocular region of up to 2.5 times longer than the post-ocular; the corium is brown, irregularly covered with black marks. It shows yellowish, black-speckled legs, thighs, trochanter, and especially femurs. Its tibia presents two black annulations, one at the base of the middle third and the other at the apex12. Feces from the specimens were diluted in saline solution, prepared on microscope slides, and then examined with an optical microscope (640× magnification). The two specimens collected in this study were naturally infected with trypanosomatids. Thus, further studies are needed in order to confirm the species of trypanosomatids and to better understand the ecological context and host-parasite relationships of R. stali in this region.

Figure 2 A) Phallus dorsal views of Rhodnius stali. B) Phallus dorsal views of Rhodnius pictipes. C) Median process of the pygophore of Rhodnius stali. D) Median process of the pygophore of Rhodnius pictipes. E) Parameres dorsal views of Rhodnius stali. F) Parameres dorsal views of Rhodnius pictipes

The presence of one more triatomine species in the State of Acre increases the total number of occurring species from five2 to six. This was expected because the map of R. stali presented by Carcavallo et al.13) shows that this species was likely to occur in Acre and also in Rondônia. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon, since this species had only been reported in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul6) (10) (Figure 3).

Figure 3 Distribution of Rhodnius stali. The black circles indicates the previous known locality of Rhodnius stali6) (11) (15, the red star indicates the new record of Rhodnius stali in Rio Branco, in the State of Acre. 

The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since it has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities. Furthermore, it is probably the vector responsible for Chagas disease seropositivity that was observed in the indigenous population of Alto Beni, La Paz, Bolivia14) (15.

Ethical considerations

The specimens were collected with permission from the [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA)], permanent license Nr. 52260-1.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Acre (FAPAC).

REFERENCES

1. Meneguetti DUO, Trevisan O, Camargo LMA, Rosa RM. Natural infection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by trypanosomatids in two different environments in the municipality of Ouro Preto do Oeste - Rondônia, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2012; 45:395-398. [ Links ]

2. Meneguetti DUO, Toja SD, Miranda PRM, Rosa JÁ, Camargo LMA. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Acre, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2015; 48:471-473. [ Links ]

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5. Abad-Franch F, Pavan MG, Jaramillo-O N, Palomeque FS, Dale C, Chaverra D, et al. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2013; 108:92-99. [ Links ]

6. Gurgel-Gonçalves R, Galvão C, Costa J, Peterson AT. Geographic distribution of Chagas disease vectors in Brazil based on ecological niche modeling. J Trop Med 2012; 1-15. [ Links ]

7. Meneguetti DUO, Trevisan O, Rosa RM, Camargo LMA. First report of Eratyrus mucronatus, Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2011; 44:511-512. [ Links ]

8. Barata JMS, Rocha RM, Rodrigues VLCC, Ferraz-Filho AN. Primeiro caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no Estado do Acre (Brasil) e sua correlação com as cepas isoladas do caso humano e de triatomíneos silvestres da área. Rev Saude Publica 1988; 22:401-410. [ Links ]

9. Obara MT, Cardoso AS, Pinto MCG, Souza CR, Silva RA, Gurgel-Gonçalves R. Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): First report in the State of Acre, Brazil, and updated geographic distribution in South America. Check List 2013; 9:851-854. [ Links ]

10. Lent H, Jurberg J, Galvão C. Rhodnius stali n. sp. afim de Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1993; 88:605-614. [ Links ]

11. Da Rosa JA, Rocha CS, Gardim S, Pinto MC, Mendonça VJ, Ferreira Filho JCR, et al. Description of Rhodnius montenegrensis n. sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Zootaxa 2012; 3478:62-76. [ Links ]

12. Jurberg J, Rodrigues JMS, Moreira FFF, Dale C, Cordeiro IRS, Lamas JRVD, et al. Atlas Iconográfico dos triatomíneos do Brasil - vetores da doença de Chagas. Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2014. [ Links ]

13. Carcavallo RU, Curto de Casas SI, Sherlock I, Galíndez-Girón I, Jurberg J, Galvão C, et al. Geographical distribution and alti-latitudinal dispersion. : Carcavallo RU, Galíndez-Girón I, Jurberg J, Lent H, editors. Atlas of Chagas Disease Vectors in the Americas. Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro , 1999; 3:747-792. [ Links ]

14. Matias A, De La Riva J, Martinez E, Torrez M, Dujardin JP. Domiciliation process of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Alto Beni, La Paz, Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health 2003; 8:264-268. [ Links ]

15. Justi SA, Noireau F, Cortez MR, Monteiro FA. Infestation of peridomestic Attalea phalerata palms by Rhodnius stali, a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Alto Beni, Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 15:727-732. [ Links ]

Financial Support

Programa Pesquisa Para o SUS: Gestão Compartilhada em Saúde (PPSUS) 001/2015Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Acre (FAPAC)

Received: February 25, 2016; Accepted: April 19, 2016

Corresponding author: Dr. Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti. e-mail: dionatas@icbusp.org

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License