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Acta Amazonica

Print version ISSN 0044-5967On-line version ISSN 1809-4392

Acta Amaz. vol.9 no.2 Manaus June 1979

https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-43921979092299 

ECOLOGIA

Evolução de florestas amazônicas inundadas, de igapó - um exemplo do rio Tarumã-Mirim (*)

Georg Irion** 

Joachim Adis** 

**— Max-Planck-Institut für Limnologie. Plön, Alemanha


Resumo

Este trabalho tenta compreender o comportamento dos artrópodos do solo da floresta de inundação do rio Tarumã-Mirim, perto de Manaus, Amazonas, em relação à evolução sedimentológica durante o período quaternário.

Summary

An attempt has been made to understand the ground-living arthropods behaviour in relation to the sedimentological evolution of rio Tarumã-Mirim, near Manaus. Amazonas, during the quaternary period. The area examined originally was covered by a Terra-Firme forest, exposed since about 1 million years B.P. to the annual water-level fluctuations of the rio Negro during periods of high sea-level. The last annual inundations of the area studied probably took place 100.000 years ago for a period of approximately 20.000 — 30.000 years; others probably occurred about 60.000 and 35.000 years ago for a period of approximately 10.000 years. The annual inundation-periods within the last 1.000.000 years gradually caused the formation of the present vegetation which is typical for inundation-forests in blackwater areas. According to Ellenberg (verbal communication), this vegetation may have been displayed periodically by terra-firme vegetation during low seawater periods (because of competition pressure). 6000 years ago the sea-level reached a height of about 5 m below NN. As a result of back pressure at this sea-level position, the water-level of the river-system increased; since then the examined forest in annually inundated between March/April and August/September. Because the sea-level rose very slowly, the annual duration of inundation was possibly shorter in the beginning. The first inundation-forests arose approximately 1 million years ago in the direct surroundings of the rio Negro bank, consequently at the confluence of rio Tarumã Mirim and rio Negro too. These forests have been exposed since that time to the annual fluctuations of the rio Negro water-level. The inundation-periods led to adaptions of ground-living arthropods.

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*— Por cooperação entre Senckenberg-lnstitut Wilhemshaven, Alemanha, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil, e Max-Planck-Institut für Limnologie, Plön, Alemanha. Este estudo foi subsidiado pelo Deutsche Forschumgsgemeischaft (Aktenzeich en Ir 6/2). Agradecimento ao INPA (Projeto OEA) e ao Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volks.

Creative Commons License  This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.