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Acta Amazonica

Print version ISSN 0044-5967On-line version ISSN 1809-4392

Acta Amaz. vol.48 no.1 Manaus Jan./Mar. 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392201703340 

Chemistry and Pharmacology

First phytochemical description of essential oils from Piper cachimboense (Piperales, Piperaceae)

Primeira descrição fitoquímica de óleos essenciais de Piper cachimboense (Piperales, Piperaceae)

Diones KRINSKI1  * 

Luís Amilton FOERSTER2 

Cicero DESCHAMPS2 

1Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Universitário de Tangará da Serra, Caixa Postal 287, Jardim Aeroporto, CEP 78300-000 Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil

2Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo, Caixa Postal 19061, CEP 80035-050, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

ABSTRACT

Piper cachimboense is recorded only for the Amazon region of Brazil and Colombia, and the objective of this study was to report the first phytochemical assessment of the composition of the essential oils (EOs) from this species collected in the Amazon rainforest, in Novo Progresso, Pará State, Brazil. Samples of leaves were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical identification was carried out by gas chromatography. The yield of oils was of 11.03 ± 5.94% for fresh leaves, and 1.07 ± 0.27% for dry leaves. The analysis showed 36 volatile compounds from fresh leaves and 49 from dried leaves. Main constituents in EOs of both fresh and dried leaves from P. cachimboense were (E)-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, γ-amorfene, δ-cadinene and apiole.

KEYWORDS: safrole; (E)-caryophyllene; germacrene-D; spathulenol; dillapiole

RESUMO

Piper cachimboense é registrada apenas para a região amazônica do Brasil e Colômbia, e o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar, pela primeira vez, a composição fitoquímica dos óleos essenciais (OEs) desta espécie coletada na floresta amazônica, em Novo Progresso/PA, Brasil. Amostras de folhas foram submetidas a hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger. A identificação química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa e o rendimento dos óleos foi de 11,03 ± 5,94% para as folhas frescas e de 1,07 ± 0,27% para as folhas secas. A análise mostrou 36 compostos voláteis para folhas frescas e 49 para folhas secas. Os constituintes principais dos OEs de folhas frescas e secas de P. cachimboense foram (E)-cariofileno, germacreno-D, γ-amorfeno, δ-cadineno e apiol.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: safrol; (E)-cariofileno; germacreno-D; espatulenol; dilapiol

Piperaceae Giseke, 1792, is a family of tropical and subtropical plants which occur in both hemispheres, including about 3,500 species, and the Piper genus is the largest, with more than 700 species, of which about 285 grow natively in Brazil and 192 are considered endemic (Monteiro and Guimarães 2009; Guimarães and Carvalho-Silva 2012).

Essential oils (EOs) from Piper are used in various sectors of the pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetics industry (Andrade et al. 2009). However, although various Piperaceae produce essential oils in their leaves, only about 10% of Piper species have been chemically studied (Dyer et al. 2004). Piper cachimboense Yunck. (1966) has been recorded only in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon, and the few publications about the species are restricted to distribution records (Bernal et al. 2016). Therefore, the objective of this study was to carry out the first phytochemical assessment of the composition of essential oils obtained from leaves of P. cachimboense.

Piper cachimboense leaves were harvested at the flowering stage (Figure 1) in the Florentino farm, in the municipality of Novo Progresso, Pará State, Brazil (7°06’56.31”S 55°24’22.19”W) at 210 masl, in March 2015. The species was identified and had vouchers deposited at Herbarium Tangará (TANG) of the State University of Mato Grosso, Campus of Tangará da Serra (UNEMAT/CUTS).

Figure 1 Plant of Piper cachimboense (Note the characteristic fruit/inflorescence of this species) Photo: D. Krinski. This figure is in color in the electronic version. 

Samples of leaves (in triplicates of 100 g for fresh leaves, and of 50 g for dry leaves) were subjected to hydrodistillation in the Vegetable Ecophysiology Laboratory, at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). For the extraction of EOs from dry leaves, the materials were dried into forced air oven for 96 hours at 50 °C. For all oil extraction the leaves (fresh and dry) were placed in a glass flask (2 L) containing 1 L of distilled water. The water was boiled for 4 hours and the oil collected in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The volume measurement of EOs extracted from leaves was determined with the assistance of precision micropipettes (0-100 uL) and the yield was corrected to a dry basis after obtaining the constant weight of dried sub-samples in forced air oven at 65 °C. The yield was calculated based in the dry matter (DM), which is a standardized method that can be repeated at any time, without significant deviations (Santos et al. 2004).

Chromatographic analysis was performed in the Laboratory of Vegetable Ecophysiology and Laboratory of Natural Products and Chemical Ecology (LAPEQ), both at UFPR. The EOs were subjected to analysis by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (HP- Agilent 7890A GC-FID) and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) (60-240 °C at 3 °C minutes rate) using a fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 μm) coated with DB-5. The injector and detector temperatures were 280 °C. Hydrogen was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 2.4 mL/minutes; injection was in the split mode (1:20), and the injection volume was 1.0 μL. MS spectra were obtained using electron ionization at 70 eV with a scan interval of 0.5 seconds and mass range from 40 to 550 m/z. The initial identification of components of the EOs was carried out by comparison with previously reported values of retention indices, obtained by co-injection of oil samples and C11-C24 linear hydrocarbons and calculated according to the equation of Van den Dool and Kratz (1963). Subsequently, the MS acquired for each component was matched with those stored in the Wiley/NBS mass spectral library of the GC-MS system and with other published mass spectral data (Adams 2007).

The yield of EOs were 11.03 ± 5.94 % for fresh leaves and 1.07 ± 0.27 % for dry leaves. The analysis showed 36 volatile compounds identified for fresh leaves and 49 for dried leaves, representing 78.62% and 82.51% of the total oil identified respectively.

According to Costa et al., (2005) the levels and chemical composition of essential oils of aromatic plants are influenced by several factors, such as the drying or not of the material used to obtain the oils. We observed in P. cachimboense a higher percentage of each compound for the oils obtained from dry leaves, although some compounds (δ-elemene, germacrene D, asaricin, γ-cadinene, globulol, dilapiolle, apiole and methyl linoleate) showed a higher percentage yield when using fresh leaves. A possibility for this result would be that in the process of drying the leaves, not only water but also part of these compounds would be lost. But, in general terms, both oils showed some similarity in the qualitative composition (Table 1).

Table 1 Phytochemical composition of fresh and dried leaves of Piper cachimboense sampled at Novo Progresso, Pará State, Brazil. RIc= retention index calculeted; RIt= retention index tabulated (Adams 2007). Numbers for the relative area of leaves are means followed by the standard deviation. 

Compounds identified Retention Index Relative area (%)
RI c RI t Fresh leaves Dried leaves
1) α-pinene 932 932 0.06 ± 0.07 0.14 ± 0.06
2) α-terpinene 1014 1015 - 0.72 ± 0.17
3) p-cimene 1022 1022 - 0.67 ± 0.15
4) limonene 1024 1026 - 0.12 ± 0.04
5) γ-terpinene 1054 1056 - 1.90 ± 0.35
6) terpinolene 1086 1087 - 0.46 ± 0.08
7) linalol 1095 1100 - 0.16 ± 0.03
8) terpinen-4-ol 1174 1174 - 0.12 ± 0.01
9) piperitone 1249 1250 - 0.20 ± 0.01
10) safrole 1285 1284 0.27 ± 0.10 0.92 ± 0.14
11) δ-elemene 1335 1334 0.94 ± 0.10 0.52 ± 0.03
12) α-cubebene 1345 1346 0.19 ± 0.05 0.31 ± 0.03
13) α-copaene 1374 1371 0.85 ± 0.12 2.00 ± 0.15
14) β-elemene 1389 1388 1.08 ± 0.06 1.10 ± 0.03
15) α-gurjunene 1409 1403 - 0.17 ± 0.01
16) (E)-caryophyllene 1417 1413 4.65 ± 0.58 7.46 ± 0.39
17) β-gurjunene 1431 1423 0.63 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.03
18) aromadendrene 1439 1432 0.64 ± 0.09 1.39 ± 0.04
19) 6,9-guiadiene 1442 1437 0.13 ± 0.03 0.17 ± 0.00
20) α-humulene 1452 1446 1.34 ± 0.06 1.78 ± 0.06
21) cis-cadina-1(6),9-diene 1461 1452 1.00 ± 0.11 1.59 ± 0.05
22) γ-muurolene 1478 1472 - 3.98 ± 0.04
23) germacrene D 1480 1475 27.64 ± 2.29 6.31 ± 0.20
24) β-selinene 1489 1479 0.23 ± 0.01 1.92 ± 0.07
25) γ-amorfene 1495 1490 6.57 ± 0.98 6.88 ± 0.12
26) α-muurolene 1500 1493 - 1.53 ± 0.07
27) asaricin 1495 1495 1.93 ± 0.08 1.51 ± 0.02
28) β-bisabolene 1505 1502 0.70 ± 0.16 0.45 ± 0.02
29) γ-cadinene 1513 1508 3.10 ± 0.22 2.65 ± 0.03
30) δ-cadinene 1522 1519 6.19 ± 0.16 9.20 ± 0.04
31) trans-cadina-1,4-diene 1533 1526 0.62 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.02
32) α-cadinene 1537 1532 0.58 ± 0.03 0.59 ± 0.01
33) α-calacorene 1544 1536 0.19 ± 0.03 0.68 ± 0.01
34) elemicin 1555 1558 0.31 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.02
35) (E)-nerolidol 1561 1562 2.54 ± 0.94 3.37 ± 0.04
36) spathulenol 1577 1570 0.87 ± 0.06 4.65 ± 0.24
37) caryophyllene oxide 1582 1574 2.13 ± 0.33 3.50 ± 0.09
38) globulol 1590 1583 0.44 ± 0.08 0.29 ± 0.01
39) guaiol 1600 1585 0.54 ± 0.06 0.49 ± 0.02
40) rosifoliol 1600 1594 0.60 ± 0.05 0.71 ± 0.03
41) humulene epoxide II 1608 1599 0.17 ± 0.07 0.67 ± 0.03
42) 10-epi-γ-eudesmol 1622 1604 0.42 ± 0.09 0.46 ± 0.03
43) dilapiolle 1620 1607 1.29 ± 0.17 0.79 ± 0.03
44) epi-α-muurolol 1640 1622 1.41 ± 0.14 2.85 ± 0.19
45) cubenol 1645 1627 - 0.16 ± 0.01
46) α-cadinol 1652 1631 - 0.24 ± 0.03
47) apiole 1677 1647 5.68 ± 0.66 3.05 ± 0.26
48) (E,Z)-linalol de garnil 1987 2025 0.23 ± 0.11 0.49 ± 0.04
49) methyl linoleate 2095 2081 2.42 ± 0.23 0.54 ± 0.05
Total 78.62 82.51

Some compounds often found in essential Piperaceae oils, like safrole, apiol, spathulenol and dillapiole (Scott et al. 2008) were also present in P. cachimboense, as well as in other Piper species (e.g. Santos et al. 2001; Andrade et al. 2009; Cruz et al. 2011). These compounds are of economic interest. For example, safrole is the raw material for the synthesis of piperonal, which is used in the composition of perfumes (Barbosa et al. 2012). Besides the industrial importance of its essential oils, Piper species have been used for many centuries in the traditional medicine for different purposes and many activities (Ghosh et al. 2014). Our data reinforce the accumulated knowledge that Piper species in general have a notable tendency to biosynthesize essential oils, independently of their natural habitats (Santos et al. 2001). This first report on the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cachimboense shows that the phytochemical potential of many Piper species is still untapped.

Other studies are necessary to assess the seasonal effect on the overall yield, and the amount of major compounds of the essential oil of P. cachimboense. Considering that the leaves of P. cachimboense are easily harvested, the species is a good candidate for bioactivity testing of its oils regarding pest control in its occurrence region (Krinski 2013; Krinski 2015; Krinski et al. 2015; Krinski and Foerster 2017), as already known for other Piperaceae species (Krinski and Foerster 2016; Turchen et al. 2016; Sanini et al. 2017).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for providing a scholarship to the first author, Dr. Micheline Carvalho-Silva, at Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), for the identification of Piper cachimboense, and Dr. Beatriz Helena Noronha Sales Maia, of the Department of Chemistry at Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) and the entire staff of the Laboratory of Natural Products and Chemical Ecology (LAPEQ/UFPR) for the chromatography analysis and help in the identification of chemical compounds.

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Associate editor: João Vicente Braga Souza

CITE AS: Krinski, D.; Foerster, L.A.; Deschamps, C. 2018. First phytochemical description of essential oils from Piper cachimboense (Piperales, Piperaceae). Acta Amazonica, 48: 70-74. DOI: 10.1590/1809-4392201703340.

Received: September 28, 2017; Accepted: October 03, 2017

* Corresponding author: diones.krinski@unemat.br

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