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Acta Amazonica

Print version ISSN 0044-5967On-line version ISSN 1809-4392

Acta Amaz. vol.48 no.4 Manaus Oct./Dec. 2018

https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392201800771 

Chemistry and Pharmacology

First record of the chemical composition of essential oil of Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum and Piper consanguineum from the Brazilian Amazon forest

Primeiro registro da composição química de óleos essenciais de Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum e Piper consanguineum da Floresta Amazônica no Brasil

Carolina Alves de ARAUJO1 

Claudio Augusto Gomes da CAMARA1  * 

Marcilio Martins de MORAES1 

Geraldo José Nascimento de VASCONCELOS2 

Marta Regina Silva PEREIRA3 

Charles Eugene ZARTMAN3 

1Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Química. Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, CEP 52171-030 Recife, PE, Brazil

2Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus ICET. Rua Nossa Senhora do Rosário, 3863, Tiradentes, CEP 69103-128, Itacoatiara, Amazonas, Brazil

3Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade. Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, CEP 69060-001, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil


ABSTRACT

Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum and Piper consanguineum are bushes that occur in the Amazon and are morphologically similar. With the aim of analyzing the chemical profile of the volatile constituents of these species, essential oils from the leaves were obtained through steam distillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The chemical analysis enabled the identification of 95 compounds representing 96.3 ± 0.6% of the P. bellidifolium oil, 95.5 ± 0.71% of the P. durilignum oil, 98.0 ± 1.0% of the P. acutilimbum oil and 96.1 ± 2.1% of the P. consanguineum oil. Although sesquiterpenes were the predominant chemical class in the oils of the four species, qualitative and quantitative differences were found in their chemical composition. The major constituents were (E)-nerolidol (20.3 ± 0.4%) in the P. bellidifolium oil, germacrene D (11.1 ± 0.3%) in the P. durilignum oil, and γ-eudesmol in both the P. consanguineum (18.6 ± 0.5%) and P. acutilimbum (7.5 ± 0.4%) oils. Despite their morphological similarity, a principal component analysis (PCA) of the GC-MS data clearly separated the four species according to the chemical profile of the essential oil extracted from their leaves.

KEYWORDS: Amazon biome; Piper ssp; (E)-Nerolidol; Germacrene D; γ-Eudesmol

RESUMO

Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum e Piper consanguineum são arbustos que ocorrem na Amazônia e são morfologicamente similares. Com o intuito de analisar o perfil químico dos constituintes voláteis dessas espécies, óleos essenciais das folhas foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por cromatografia gasosa - detector por ionização de chama (CG-FID) e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa (CG-EM). A análise química permitiu identificar 95 compostos, representando 96.3 ± 0.6% do óleo de P. bellidifolium; 95.5 ± 0.71% de P. durilignum; 98.0 ± 1.0% de P. acutilimbum e 96.1 ± 2.1% de P. consanguineum. Apesar dos óleos das quatro espécies terem sesquiterpeno como classe química predominante, diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas em sua composição química foram observadas. Os principais componentes encontrados foram: (E)-nerolidol (20.3 ± 0.4%) em P. bellidifolium; germacreno D (11.1 ± 0.3%) em P. durilignum; e γ-eudesmol nos óleos de P. consanguineum (18.6 ± 0.5%) e P. acutilimbum (7.5 ± 0.4%). Apesar da similaridade morfológica entre as espécies, uma análise de componentes principais (PCA) dos dados de CG-EM claramente separou as quatro espécies quanto ao perfil químico do óleo essencial extríado de suas folhas.

Palavras-chave: bioma Amazônia; Piper ssp; (E)-Nerolidol; Germacreno D; γ-Eudesmol

INTRODUCTION

Piperaceae is considered one of the most basal clades among angiosperms encountered in tropical and subtropical regions (Frodin 2004). Among the genera belonging to the family, Piper is by far the largest, with nearly 2000 species found in both hemispheres in tropical and temperate regions (Machado 2007; Quijano-Abril et al. 2006). In Brazil, approximately 290 species occur throughout the country, with a greatest representation in the equatorial north, as demonstrated by the 136 species with registered occurrences in the state of Amazonas (Guimarães et al. 2017). However, different authors report an excessive and unproven multiplication of species names for Piper, which hinders an objective evaluation of the true number of species of the genus (Ruschel 2004).

The leaves of many species of Piper are used in folk medicine in the form of infusions for the treatment of ailments and also have economic importance due to their culinary uses and the production of essential oils (Gogosz et al. 2012). Phytochemical investigations of different Piper species and plant parts have led to the isolation of numerous active components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans and essential oils (Santana et al. 2015; Morais et al. 2007). These oils are basically composed of phenylpropanoids, such as safrole, dillapiole and myristicin, and/or terpenes, such as limonene, β-caryophyllene, spathulenol, (E)-nerolidol, bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol (Guerrini et al. 2009; Santos et al. 2001; Maia and Andrade 2009). Investigations of the biological properties of essential oils from this genus have revealed antimicrobial (Oliveira et al. 2016), antioxidant (Woguem et al. 2013), acaricidal (Araújo et al. 2012) and insecticidal activities (Santana et al. 2015).

According to Guimarães et al. (2017), approximately 80% of the species of Piper registered for the Brazilian state of Amazonas have not been submitted to studies on the chemical composition of their essential oils. Such is the case of P. acutilimbum C. DC., P. consanguineum (Kunth) Trel. & Yunck., P. durilignum C. DC. and P. bellidifolium Yunck., which occur in the municipalities of Rio Preto da Eva and Manaus in the state of Amazonas and are popularly known as long pepper (pimenta longa) and monkey pepper (pimenta de macaco) due to the length of their inflorescences. These plants are bushes that are morphologically quite similar. Despite this morphological similarity, there are no synonyms described for these species.

As part of a survey of the aromatic flora of Amazonia, this work offers the first description of the chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of the species P. acutilimbum, P. consanguineum, P. durilignum and P. bellidifolium.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Collection of plant material

The fresh leaves of Piper acutilimbum C.DC. and Piper durilignum C.DC. were collected in Rio Preto da Eva, metropolitan region of Manaus (02°44’00”S, 59°47’26”W). Piper bellidifolium Yunk. was collected in Itacoatiara, metropolitan region of Manaus (03°01’42”S, 58°42’37”W). Piper consanguineum (Kunth) Trel. & Yunck. was collected in the Adolpho Ducke Reserve in Manaus, Amazonas (02°57’18”S, 59°55’41”W). Samples were taken from three individual plants of each species. The plants were identified by botanist Marta Regina Silva Pereira, of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). Vouchers of samples were mounted and deposited in the INPA herbarium, under numbers 673 (Piper acutilimbum), 680 (Piper consanguineum), 674 (Piper durilignum) and 694 (Piper bellidifolium).

Chemicals

All monoterpenes (β-Pinene, Limonene, 1,8-Cineole, Terpinolene, Terpinen-4-ol e α-Terpineol), and sesquiterpenes (α-Copaene, β-Caryophyllene, Aromadendrene, α-Humulene, Germacrene D, (E)-Nerolidol and Spathulenol) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich - Brazil and used for co-injetion to confirm the chemical identification.

Essential oil extraction and GC-FID analysis

The essential oils from fresh leaves (100 g from each of three plants of each species), were separately isolated using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and hydrodistillation for 2 h. The oil layers were separated and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, stored in hermetically sealed glass containers, and kept at low temperature (-5 ºC) until analysis. Total oil yields were expressed as percentages (grams of oil per grams of fresh plant material). Quantitative GC (500 GC, PerkinElmer Clarus, Shelton, CO, USA) analyses were carried out using an apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) and a non-polar DB-5 fused silica capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm film thickness) (J & W Scientific). The oven temperature was programmed from 60 to 240 °C at a rate 3 °C min-1. Injector and detector temperature was 260 °C. Hydrogen was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 in split mode (1:30). The injection volume was 0.5 µL of diluted solution (1/100) of oil in n-hexane. The amount of each compound was calculated from GC-FID peak areas in the order of DB-5 column elution and expressed as a relative percentage of the total area of the chromatograms. All analyses were carried out in triplicate.

GC-MS analysis

The qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (220-MS IT GC, Varian, Walnut Creek, CA, USA) analyses were carried out using a system with a mass selective detector, mass spectrometer in EI 70 eV with a scan interval of 0.5 s and fragments from 40 to 550 Da fitted with the same column and temperature program as that for the GC-FID analyses, with the following parameters: carrier gas = helium; flow rate = 1 mL min-1; split mode (1:30); injected volume = 1 µL of diluted solution (1/100) of oil in n-hexane.

Identification of components

Identification of the components was based on GC-MS retention indices with reference to a homologous series of C8-C40 n-alkanes calculated using the Van der Dool and Kratz equation (Van den Dool and Kratz 1963) and by computer matching against the mass spectral library of the GC-MS data system (NIST 14 and WILEY 11th) and co-injection with authentic standards as well as other published mass spectra (Adams 2007). Area percentages were obtained from the GC-FID response without the use of an internal standard or correction factors.

Principal component analysis

Principal component analysis (PCA) based on the complete data set (all parameters measured and the three independent samples for each species) was conducted to evaluate the chemical variation of essential oils within and among the four species. The GC-MS data were exported in ASCII format to Microsoft Excel to produce a data matrix of sample versus metabolite peak with associated peak areas. All the analyses were performed using the Unscrambler® software version 9.5 (CAMO Process AS, Norway, 1996-2007).

RESULTS

The steam distillation of the leaves yielded yellowish oils with critic aromas. The greatest yield was achieved with P. consanguineum (0.30 ± 0.02%), followed by P. acutilimbum (0.18 ± 0.01%), P. durilignum (0.12 ± 0.00%) and P. bellidifolium (0.01 ± 0.00%) (Table 1).

The GC-MS analysis enabled the identification of 95 compounds representing 96.3 ± 0.6% of the chemical composition of the oil from P. bellidifolium, 95.5 ± 0.71% of P. durilignum, 98.0 ± 1.0% of P. acutilimbum and 96.1 ± 2.1% of P. consanguineum. All Piper oils were composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpernes. Piper bellidifolium (95.1 ± 0.5%), P. durilignum (72.2 ± 0.3%), P. acutilimbum (97.3 ± 1.1%) and P. consanguineum (95.5 ± 0.4%) oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes (Table 1).

Table 1 Percentage composition yield of essential oils from leaves of Piper bellidifolium (P.bel), Piper durilignum (P.dur), Piper acutilimbum (P.acu) and Piper consanguineum (P.con). 

Compound RIa RIb P.bel P.dur P.acu P.con
Yield (%) ± SD 0.01 ± 0.00 0.12 ± 0.00 0.18 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.02
α-Thujene 929 924 -- 2.0 ± 0.1 -- --
β-Pinene* 974 974 -- 5.0 ± 0.1 -- --
δ-3-Carene 1006 1008 0.3 ± 0.0 -- -- --
Limonene* 1022 1024 0.5 ± 0.0 10.7 ± 0.5 -- --
Terpinolene 1085 1086 -- -- 0.2 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0
Linalool 1095 1095 0.3 ± 0.0 5.1 ± 0.1 -- --
α-Terpineol* 1180 1186 0.2 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.0 -- --
y-Terpineol 1191 1199 -- -- 0.6 ± 0.0 --
Neo-3-Thujanol acetate 1270 1273 -- 0.1 ± 0.0 -- --
α-Cubebene 1339 1345 0.3 ± 0.0 -- 0.1 ± 0.0 --
Cyclosativene 1358 1369 0.2 ± 0.0 -- -- --
α-Ylangene 1370 1373 -- 4.1 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.0 --
Isoledene 1374 1374 -- -- 0.4 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.0
α-Copaene* 1376 1374 10.9 ± 0.2 -- -- --
β-Panasinsene 1381 1381 -- 5.1 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.0 1.3 ± 0.0
β-Cubebene 1386 1387 -- -- 0.6 ± 0.0 --
β-Elemene 1390 1389 0.4 ± 0.0 -- -- --
β-Longipinene 1399 1400 -- -- 6.2 ± 0.1 --
Longifoliene 1405 1407 5.4 ± 0.1 -- -- --
β-Funebrene 1413 1413 -- -- 0.2 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0
β-Caryophyllene* 1417 1417 -- 9.1 ± 0.2 -- 0.5 ± 0.0
β-Cedrene 1421 1419 0.7 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 --
β-Copaene 1426 1430 -- 0.7 ± 0.0 -- --
α-Trans-bergamotene 1430 1432 -- -- 2.7 ± 0.0 --
γ-Elemene 1435 1434 -- 2.9 ± 0.0 -- --
α-Guaiene 1438 1437 -- -- 0.3 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 0.0
Aromadendrene* 1440 1439 13.3 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.1 -- 0.6 ± 0.0
Cis-Muurola 3,5-diene 1444 1448 0.8 ± 0.0 -- -- 3.8 ± 0.1
α-Humulene* 1447 1452 -- -- 0.3 ± 0.0 --
α-Patchoulene 1449 1454 -- -- 0.7 ± 0.0 1.3 ± 0.0
allo-Aromadendrene 1460 1458 1.1 ± 0.1 -- -- 1.1 ± 0.0
Dehydro-Aromadendrane 1462 1460 0.5 ± 0.0 -- -- --
9-epi-(E)-Caryophyllene 1464 1464 0.3 ± 0.0 1.2 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0
β-Acoradiene 1476 1469 5.0 ± 0.1 -- -- --
y-Muurolene 1480 1478 -- -- -- 1.4 ± 0.0
y-Himachalene 1482 1481 3.7 ± 0.0 -- 2.6 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.0
Germacrene D* 1484 1484 1.7 ± 0.1 11.1 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.0 3.2 ± 0.1
β-Selinene 1485 1489 3.6 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.1 -- --
Epi-Cubebol 1498 1493 0.4 ± 0.0 -- 3.8 ± 0.0 0.9 ± 0.0
Trans-β-Guaiene 1504 1502 1.1 ± 0.0 1.6 ± 0.1 -- --
α-Bulnesene 1506 1509 -- -- 0.6 ± 0.0 --
y-Cadinene 1515 1513 -- -- 0.6 ± 0.0 11.3 ± 0.1
(Z)-Bisabolene 1515 1514 -- -- -- 0.8 ± 0.1
Cubebol 1516 1514 -- -- 1.0 ± 0.0 --
α-Dehydro ar-Himachalene 1518 1516 -- -- 1.4 ± 0.6 --
7-epi-α-Selinene 1520 1520 -- -- 1.0 ± 0.1 --
Trans-Calamenene 1523 1521 0.4 ± 0.1 -- 1.2 ± 0.2 --
δ-Cadinene 1523 1522 0.6 ± 0.1 -- 4.4 ± 1.5 --
γ-Cuprenene 1534 1532 -- 0.8 ± 0.0 -- --
10-epi-Cubebol 1534 1533 0.4 ± 0.0 -- 3.0 ± 0.0 1.5 ± 0.0
Selina-3-7(11)-diene 1540 1545 -- -- 0.3 ± 2.4 --
Italiene epoxide 1545 1547 -- 0.6 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 1.3 --
Elemol 1550 1548 -- 2.4 ± 0.0 4.1 ± 2.4 --
Germacrene B 1554 1559 -- 2.7 ± 0.0 6.9 ± 1.7 1.2 ± 0.1
(E)-Nerolidol* 1561 1561 20.3 ± 0.4 6.2 ± 0.2 -- 6.2 ± 0.0
Maaliol 1565 1566 -- 0.9 ± 0.0 1.6 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.1
Palustrol 1570 1567 -- -- -- 3.4 ± 0.2
Longipinanol 1571 1567 1.9 ± 0.1 -- -- 1.2 ± 0.2
α-Cedrene epoxide 1573 1574 3.6 ± 0.2 -- 0.7 ± 0.0 --
Spathulenol* 1576 1577 -- -- 1.4 ± 0.0 --
Trans-Sesquisabinene hidrate 1577 1577 -- -- 1.6 ± 0.0 --
Himachalene epoxide 1580 1578 -- -- 0.7 ± 0.1 --
Caryophyllene oxide 1586 1582 -- -- 4.2 ± 0.1 --
Globulol 1595 1590 -- 1.6 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 3.7 ± 0.1
Viridiflorol 1597 1592 -- 0.4 ± 0.0 1.4 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.1
Carotol 1599 1594 -- -- 4.6 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.1
Longiborneol 1600 1599 0.8 ± 0.0 -- 2.9 ± 0.1 --
Cedrol 1600 1600 -- -- 4.1 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.0
Guaiol 1603 1600 -- 1.1 ± 0.1 -- 1.8 ± 0.0
Ledol 1604 1602 -- 0.6 ± 0.0 -- --
1,10-di-epi-Cubenol 1612 1618 1.1 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.1 -- 1.2 ± 0.0
β-Cedrene epoxide 1625 1621 -- 0.8 ± 0.0 -- --
1-epi-Cubenol 1631 1627 1.2 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 0.0 5.6 ± 0.2 --
γ-Eudesmol 1635 1630 2.3 ± 0.0 0.9 ± 0.0 7.5 ± 0.4 18.6 ± 0.5
epi-α-Cadinol 1638 1638 -- 5.2 ± 0.1 -- --
allo-Aromadendrene epoxide 1640 1639 1.3 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0 1.2 ± 0.1
Hinesol 1640 1640 5.7 ± 0.1 -- -- --
α-Muurolol 1650 1644 -- 1.0 ± 0.1 6.4 ± 0.1 5.0 ± 0.2
Cubenol 1652 1645 -- -- -- 1.7 ± 0.0
Pogostol 1656 1651 -- -- -- 1.5 ± 0.4
Valerianol 1660 1656 -- -- -- 1.2 ± 0.1
cis-Calamenen-10-ol 1665 1660 0.4 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0 0.3 ± 0.1 --
Intermedeol 1668 1665 0.5 ± 0.0 -- -- --
14-hydroxy (Z)-Caryophyllene 1670 1666 -- 0.7 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.2
(E)-Bisabol-11-ol 1672 1667 0.7 ± 0.0 -- -- --
14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)- Caryophyllene 1673 1668 0.7 ± 0.0 -- -- --
Khusinol 1683 1679 -- 0.6 ± 0.0 -- --
Germacra-4(15), 5,10(14)-trien-1-α-ol 1689 1685 -- 0.6 ± 0.0 -- --
(Z)-trans-Bergamotol 1686 1690 1.4 ± 0.1 -- -- --
Eudesm-7(11)-em-4-ol 1699 1700 0.7 ± 0.1 -- -- --
Amorpha-4,9-dien-2-ol 1701 1700 1.2 ± 0.1 -- -- --
Cis-Thusopsenal 1712 1708 0.2 ± 0.0 -- -- 0.1 ± 0.0
14-hydroxy-α-Humulene 1719 1713 -- -- -- 0.3 ± 0.0
Vetiselinenol 1734 1730 -- -- -- 0.5 ± 0.1
Epi-Cyclocolorenone 1768 1774 -- -- -- 0.9 ± 0.1
Monoterpenes 1.2 ± 0.0 23.3 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.0 0.6 ± 0.0
Sesquiterpenes 95.1 ± 0.5 72.2 ± 0.3 97.3 ± 1.1 95.5 ± 0.4
Total 96.3 ± 0.6 95.5 ± 0.7 98.0 ± 1.0 96.1 ± 0.4

RIa = Retention indices calculated from retention times in relation to those of a series C8-C40 of n-alkanes on a 30m DB-5 capillary column; RIb = Retention indices from the literature. RI = retention index; MS = mass spectroscopy; CI: Co-injection with authentic compounds. Method of identification: RI, MS and *RI, MS, CI.

Forty-one constituents were identified for the P. bellidifolium oil, in which (E)-nerolidol (20.3 ± 0.4%) was the major constituent, followed by aromadendrene (13.3 ± 0.3%) and α-copaene (10.9 ± 0.2%). Hinesol (5.7 ± 0.1%), longifolene (5.4 ± 0.1%) and β-acoradiene (5.0 ± 0.1%) were also found in significant quantities in this oil (Table 1). With 47 constituents identified, representing 98.0 ± 1.0% of the total, the P. acutilimbum oil had the largest percentage of sesquiterpenes (97.3 ± 1.1%). The major constituents were γ-eudesmol (7.5 ± 0.4%), germacrene B (6.9 ± 1.7%), α-muurolol (6.4 ± 0.1%), β-longipinene (6.2 ± 0.1%) and 1-epi-cubenol (5.6 ± 0.2%). Forty compounds were identified, representing 96.1 ± 2.1% of the P. consanguineum oil. The most abundant compound was γ-eudesmol (18.6 ± 0.5%), followed by γ-cadinene (11.3 ± 0.1%), (E)-nerolidol (6.2 ± 0.0%) and α-muurolol (5.0 ± 0.2%). Thirty-eight compounds were identified in the P. durilignum oil, the major constituents of which were germacrene D (11.1 ± 0.3%), limonene (10.7 ± 0.5%) and β-caryophyllene (9.1 ± 0.2%). This oil had the highest percentage of monoterpenes among the oils analyzed (23.3 ± 0.5%). Other constituents were also identified in quantities higher than 5%: (E)-nerolidol (6.2 ± 0.2%), epi-α-cadinol (5.2 ± 0.1%) and linalool (5.1 ± 0.1%).

γ-Eudesmol was found in a greater proportion in the P. consanguineum oil (18.6 ± 0.5%), followed by P. acutilimbum (7.5 ± 0.4%), P. bellidifolium (2.3 ± 0.0%) and P. durilignum (0.9 ± 0.0%). Germacrene D was found in a greater proportion in the P. durilignum oil (11.1 ± 0.3%) and at less than 4% in the other species. 9-Epi-(E)-caryophyllene and allo-aromadendrene epoxide were found at less than 3% in all species.

The PCA grouped the samples closely within species and separated the samples clearly among the four species (Figure 1). Seventy-two percent of the variability in the data was explained by the first (PC1 = 47%) and second (PC2 = 25%) components.

Figure 1 Principal component analysis scores (PC1 and PC2) of the GC-MS of essential oil of leaves of P. bellidifolium (P.bel), P. durilignum (P.dur), P. acutilimbum (P.acu) and P. consanguineum (P.cos).  

DISCUSSION

The yields obtained in this study are in agreement with those reported in the literature for leaf oils from other species of Piper collected in Amazonia. Morais et al. (2007) and Rameshkumar et al. (2011) report yields of 0.01% for P. gaudichaudianum and 0.05% for P. longum, which are similar to that found for P. bellidifolium.Andrade and Zoghbi (2007) report a yield of 0.03% for P. glandulosissimum (0.3%), which is similar to that found for P. consanguineum. The differences in yields among our four species are likely due to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature, luminosity, seasonality, nutrition and water availability (Pacheco et al. 2016). Further analyses using samples from a wider geographical scale are necessary to reliably determine the inter-specific variability in leaf oil yield in these species.

There were significant qualitative differences in the chemical profiles among the oils of the four species, as was evident in the PCA analysis. Among the 95 compounds identified, only four were common to all four oils (germacrene D, 9-epi-(E)-caryophyllene, γ-eudesmol and allo-aromadendrene epoxide). The main compounds identified in this study have also been found in other Piper species in different regions of Brazil and the world. For instance, germacrene D has been found in large quantities in leaf oil of P. magnibaccum (40.8%) from Malaysia (Hashim et al. 2017) and P. pedicellatum (40.80%) from India (Saika et al. 2015). In Brazil, this sesquiterpene has been identified as a major constituent of the oils from P. regnellii (45.6 to 51.4%), P. umbellatum (55.8%) and P. arboreum (72.87%), which occur in the states of São Paulo (Anderson et al. 2017; Perigo et al. 2016) and Rondônia (Machado et al. 1994).

(E)-nerolidol, which was the major constituent of the P. bellidifolium oil, is also reported to be the major constituent of the leaf oils from P. claussenianum (80%) from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil (Marques et al. 2017), P. gaudichaudianum (22.06%) from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Sperotto et al. 2013) and P. flaviflorum (40.5%) from China (Li et al. 2014). γ-Eudesmol, which was the major constituent of the P. acutilimbum and P. consanguineum oils, has also been reported to be the main component of the leaf oil of P. duckei (17.9%) from the state of Amazonas, Brazil (Carmo et al. 2012), P. arboretum (14.61%) from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Santos et al. 2001) and P. cernuum (11.65%) from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil (Gasparetto et al. 2016).

Other constituents found in significant percentages in the Piper oils investigated herein have been characterized as major constituents in leaf oils from several species of the genus collected in all regions of Brazil. For example, β-caryophyllene, which was identified in P. durilignum, has also been found in the leaf oil of P. cyrtopodon (34.6%) occurring in northern Brazil (Andrade et al. 2006), P. dilatatum (25.03%) from northeastern Brazil (Cysne et al. 2005), and P. gaudichaudianum (17.4%) from southern Brazil (Von Poser et al. 1994), as well as in P. arboreum (25.1%) (Navickiene et al. 2006), P. cernuum (20.69%) (Costantin et al. 2001) and P. truncatum (24.2%) (Trindade et al. 2010) from southeastern Brazil. β-Caryophyllene has also been reported as a major constituent of Piper species in other countries, such as P. longispicum (45.2%) in Panamá (Santana et al. 2015), P. hispidum (23.6%) in Colombia (Benitez et al. 2009), P. umbellatum (28.2%) in Cameroon (François et al. 2009), P. chaba (28.6%) in India (Rameshkumar et al. 2011), and P. nigrum (24.34%) in Malaysia (Bagheri et al. 2014). Limonene, which was found in P. durilignum, has been reported as a major constituent of leaf oils from P. vitaceum (33.2%) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil (Luz et al. 2000) and P. confertinodum (18.3%) in Colombia (Caballero-Gallardo et al. 2014).

The sesquiterpene α-copaene, which was present at over 10% in the P. bellidifolium oil, has also been reported as a major constituent of P. boehmeriafolium oil (28.3%) from Vietnam (Hieu et al. 2014). Aromadendrene was another sesquiterpene present in significant proportion in P. belldifolium and has been reported as a major constituent of the leaf oils of P. gaudichaudianum (15.55%) from the state of Rondônia, Brazil (Morais et al. 2007) and P. muricatum (16.2%) from Malaysia (Salleh et al. 2015). The sesquiterpene γ-cadinene has been characterized in the leaf oil of P. hispidum (25.13%) from the state of Rondônia, Brazil (Machado et al. 1994) and P. cubeba (16.6%) from Indonesia (Bos et al. 2007) in larger quantities than that found by us in the oil of P. consanguineum.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first report of the chemical composition of essential oils from Piper bellidifolium, P. durilignum, P. acutilimbum and P. consanguineum occurring in the Amazon region in Brazil. The abundance of sesquiterpenes in the leaf oils from these species is in agreement with the predominant class reported in the literature for species of Piper. The species were clearly differentiated by their qualitative chemical compositions, with only four constituents common to the four species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to the Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for awarding a grant (CAPES proc. # IBPG-0984-5.01/10); a productivity scholarship (CNPq, # 312277/2013-0), and research funding for this study (CNPq proc. # 403162/203-0; FACEPE proc. # APQ-1008-1.06/15; APQ-0476-1.06/14; APQ-08601.06/16).

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CITE AS: Araujo, C.A. de; Camara, C.A.G. da; Moraes, M.M. de; Vasconcelos, G.J.N. de; Pereira, M.R.S.; Zartman, C.E. 2018. First record of the chemical composition of essential oil of Piper bellidifolium, Piper durilignum, Piper acutilimbum and Piper consanguineum from in the Brazilian Amazon forest. Acta Amazonica 48: 330-337.

Received: March 07, 2018; Accepted: July 28, 2018

* Corresponding author: claudio_agc@hotmail.com

ASSOCIATE EDITOR:

Jorge David

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