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Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

Print version ISSN 0071-1276

An. Esc. Super. Agric. Luiz de Queiroz vol.16  Piracicaba  1959

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0071-12761959000100012 

A absorção de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxôfre e silício pela cana de açúcar, Co 419, e o seu crescimento em função da idade*

 

The uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and silicon by sugar cane, variety Co 419, and its growth according to the age of the plant

 

 

R. A. CataniI; H. C. ArrudaII; D. PelegrinoI; H. Bergamin F.°I

IE. S. A. "Luiz de Queiroz"
IIInstituto Agronômico do Estado

 

 


SUMMARY

This paper describes the data obtained for the growth of sugar cane, Variety Co 419, and the amount and rate of absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and silicon, according to the age of the plant, in the soil and climate conditions of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil.
An experiment was installed in the Estação Experimental de Cana de Açúcar "Dr. José Vizioli", at Piracicaba, state of S. Paulo, Brazil, and the soil "tèrra-roxa misturada" presented the following composition:
Sand (more than 0,2 mm)........................................................................ 8.40 %
Fine sand (from 0,2 to less than 0,02 mm)................................................. 24.90 %
Silt (from 0,02 to less than 0,002 mm)...................................................... 16.40 %
Clay (form 0,002 mm and less)................................................................ 50.20 %
pH 10 g of soil and 25 ml of distilled water)..................................................... 5.20
%C (g of carbon per 100 g of soil)................................................................. 1.00
%N (g of nitrogen per 100 g of soil)............................................................... 0.15
P04-3 (me. per 100 g of soil, soluble in 0,05 normal H2SO4) ............................... 0.06
K+ (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)....... 0.18
Ca+2 (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)...... 2.00
Mg+2 (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)...... 0.66
The monthly rainfall and mean temperature from January 1956 to August 1957 are presented in Table 1, in Portuguese.
The experiment consisted of 3 replications of the treatments: without fertilizer and with fertilizer (40 Kg of N, from ammonium sulfate; 100 Kg of P205 from superphosphate and 40 Kg K2 O, from potassium chloride).
Four complete stools (stalks and leaves) were harvested from each treatment, and the plants separated in stalks and leaves, weighed, dried and analysed every month from 6 up to 15 months of age.
The data obtained for fresh and dry matter production are presented in table 2, and in figure land 2, in Portuguese. The curves for fresh and dry matter production showed that fertilized and no fertilized sugar cane with 6 months of age presents only 5% of its total weight at 15 months of age. The most intense period of growth in this experiment is located, between 8 and 12 months of age, that is between December 1956 and April 1957. The dry matter production of sugar cane with 8 and 12 months of age was, respectively, 12,5% and 87,5% of the total weight at 15 months of age.
The growth of sugar cane in relation to its age follows a sigmoid curve, according to the figures 1, 2 and 3.
The increase of dry matter production promoted by using fertilizer was 62,5% when sugar cane was 15 months of age.
The concentration of the elements (tables 4 and 5 in Portuguese) present a general trend of decreasing as the cane grows older. In the stalks this is true for all elements studied in this experiment. But in the leaves, somme elements, like sulfur and silicon, appears to increase with the increasing of age. Others, like calcium and magnesium do not show large variations, and finally a third group, formed by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium seems to decrease at the beginning and later presents a light increasing.
The concentration of the elements was higher in the leaves than in the stalks from 6 up to 15 months of age. There were some exceptions. Potassium, magnesium and sulfur were higher in the stalks than in the leaves from 6 up to 8 or 9 months of age. After 9 months, the leaves presented more potassium, magnesium and sulfur than the stalks.
The percentage of nitrogen in the leaves was lower in the plants that received fertilizer than in the plants without fertilizer with 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 13 months of age. This can be explained by "dilution effect".
The uptake of elements by 4 stools (stalks and leaves) of sugar cane according to the plant age is showed in table 6, in Portuguese. The absorption of all studied elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and silicon, was higher in plants that received fertilizer.
The trend of uptake of nitrogen and potassium is similar to the trend of production of dry matter, that is, the maximum absorption of those two nutrients occurs between 9 and 13 months of age.
Finaly, the maxima amounts of elements absorbed by 4 stools (stalks and leaves) of sugar cane plants that received fertilizer are condensed in the following table:
Element                Maximum absorption in grams              Age of the plants in months
Nitrogen (N)                          81.0                                                  14
Phosphorus (P)                        6.8                                                  15
Potassium (K)                        81.5                                                  15
Calcium (Ca)                          19.2                                                 15
Magnesium (Mg)                     13.9                                                 13
Sulfur (S)                               9.3                                                 15
Silicon (Si)                            61.8                                                 15
It is very interesting to note the low absorption of phosphorus even with 100 kg of P2O5 per hectare, aplied as superphosphate. The uptake of phosphorus was lower than calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Also, it is noteworthy the large amount of silicon absorbed by sugar cane.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

AGRADECIMENTO

Os autores agradecem à 1ª Cadeira, Física e Meteorologia, pelo fornecimento dos dados relativos à queda pluviométrica e temperatura, apresentados nêste trabalho.

 

BIBLIOGRAFIA

BOLTZ, D. F. & C. H. LUECK, 1958 - Phosphorus. Em Boltz, D. F. editor. Colorimetric determination of nonmetals. Interscience Publishers, New York. pp. 29-46.         [ Links ]

CAPÓ, B. G., G. SAMUELS & OUTROS, 1955 - The method of foliar diagnosis as applied to sugarcane. Bulletin 123. Agr. Sta. Univ. of Puerto Rico. 47 pg.         [ Links ]

CATANI, R. A., 1954 - A determinação do potássio pelos métodos do cobaltihexanitrito e de fotometria de chama; sua aplicação no estudo do potássio nos solos do Estado de S. Paulo. Tese, 145 pg. E. S. A. "Luis de Queiroz".         [ Links ]

CATANI, R. A. & F. R. PUPO DE MORAES, 1958 - A composição química do cafeeiro. Quantidade e distribuição de N, P2Os, K2O, CaO e MgO em cafeeiro de 1 a 5 anos de idade. Rev. Agricultura, 33: 45-52.         [ Links ]

CLEMENTS, H. F., 1951 - Environmental influences of the growth of sugar cane. Em Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Editado por E. Truog. pg. 451-469. The University of Wisconsin Press.         [ Links ]

CLEMENTS, H. F., 1955 - El registro agronomico em la Caña de Azucar de Ocidente. Yaritagua, Venezuela.         [ Links ]

COURY, T, E. MALAVOLTA & OUTROS, 1957 - A diagnose foliar na cana de açúcar. I.- Resultados preliminares. 28 pg. (Publicação avulsa sem referência de editora).         [ Links ]

EVANS, H., 1955 - Studies in the mineral nutrition of sugar cane in British Guiana. Trop. Agric. 34: 395-322 (Separata).         [ Links ]

KITSON, R. E. & M. G. MELLON, 1944 - Colorimetric determiation of phosphorus as molybdivanadophosphoric acid. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 16: 379-383.         [ Links ]

KOENIG, R. A. & C. R. JOHNSON, 1942 - Colorimetric determination of phosphorus in biological materials. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 14: 155-156.         [ Links ] 

LOTT, W. L., J. P. NERY & J. R. GALLO, 1956 - A técnica de análise foliar aplicada ao cafeeiro. Boletim n.° 79, 29 pg. Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Est. de S. Paulo.         [ Links ]

VAN DILLEWIJN, C, 1952 - Botany of sugarcane. Waltham, Mass., The Chronica Botânica Co. XXIII, 371 pg.         [ Links ]

YOUNG, H. Y. & R. F. GILL, 1951 - Determination of magnesium in plant tissue with thiazole yellow. Anal. Chem. 23: 751-754.         [ Links ]

 

 

* Trabalho executado com auxílio prestado pela Fundação Rockefeller (USA) - e pelo Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (Brasil).

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