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Iheringia. Série Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0073-4721On-line version ISSN 1678-4766

Iheringia, Sér. Zool. vol.107  supl.0 Porto Alegre  2017  Epub May 02, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2017155 

Articles

Checklist of mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Lista de mamíferos do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

Walfrido Moraes Tomas1  4 

Pâmela Castro Antunes1  4 

Marcelo Oscar Bordignon2  4 

André Restel Camilo3 

Zilca Campos1 

George Camargo4 

Luiz Felipe Alves da Cunha Carvalho4 

Nicolay Leme da Cunha2 

Erich Fischer2  4 

Mauricio Neves Godoi4 

Wellington Hannibal4  5 

Guilherme Mourão4 

José Rimoli6  7 

Carolina Ferreira Santos3 

Mauricio Silveira4 

Marcelle Aiza Tomas8 

1Laboratório de Vida Selvagem, Embrapa Pantanal, Rua 21 de Setembro, 1880, 79320-900 Corumbá, MS, Brasil. (walfrido.tomas@embrapa.br)

2Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900 Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil.

3Bolsista Fundect/Embrapa Pantanal. Laboratório de Vida Selvagem, Embrapa Pantanal, Rua 21 de Setembro, 1880, 79320-900 Corumbá, MS, Brasil.

4Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária s/n, Caixa Postal 549, 79070-900 Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

5Laboratório de Ecologia e Biogeografia de Mamíferos, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Av. Brasil, Q.03, L.01, 75860-000 Quirinópolis, GO, Brasil.

6.Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campus de Aquidauana (CPAq), Rua Oscar Trindade de Barros, 749, 79200-000 Aquidauana, MS, Brasil.

7Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Cidade Universitária s/n, Caixa Postal 549, 79070-900, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

8Bolsista Biota-MS/Embrapa Pantanal, Laboratório de Vida Selvagem, Embrapa Pantanal, Rua 21 de Setembro, 1880, 79320-900, Corumbá, MS, Brasil.


Abstract

We updated the checklist of mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil based on primary records only. One hundred and sixty-six mammal species were listed as occurring in the state, 47 of them being medium to large, 47 small mammal and 73 bat species. The listed species are distributed in 31 families: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 spp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (16 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidade (1 sp.). These numbers represent an increase of fourteen species with primary records for the state in comparison with the previously published checklist. However, it is evident the scarcity of information at several regions of the state, and the need of implementation of regional zoological collections. The state of Mato Grosso do Sul represent only 4.19% of the Brazilian territory, but the number of mammal species reach 24.13% of the known species occurring in the country.

Keywords  Mammals; Mato Grosso do Sul; checklist; Biota-MS Program

Resumo

Atualizamos a lista de mamíferos do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil com base em registros primários. Cento e sessenta e seis espécies são listadas como ocorrentes no estado, sendo 47 de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, 46 de pequenos mamíferos e 73 de morcegos. As espécies listadas estão distribuídas em 31 famílias: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 sp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (16 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp) e Natalidade (1 sp.). Estes números representam um aumento de quatorze espécies com registro primário para o estado em comparação com a listagem publicada anteriormente. Ainda assim, é evidente a escassez de informações em diversas regiões do estado, e a necessidade de implementação de coleções zoológicas regionais. O estado de Mato Grosso do Sul representa apenas 4,19% do território brasileiro, mas o número de mamíferos atinge 24,13% do total de espécies que ocorrem no país.

Palavras-chave Mamíferos; Mato Grosso do Sul; Lista; Programa Biota-MS

The mammalian fauna from Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil was first compiled by Cáceres et al. (2008), but checklists have been published for specific regions in the state, such as the Acurizal ranch, in the Amolar mountain range ( Schaller, 1983; Tomas & Mourão, 2007), the Nhumirim ranch, in the Nhecolândia region of the Pantanal ( Alho et al., 1987), the Bodoquena mountain range (Cáceres et al., 2007b; Camargo et al., 2009), Serra de Maracaju ( Hannibal & Godoy, 2015), and the Urucum mountains, near Corumbá ( Bordignon & França, 2009; Godoi et al., 2010a; Cáceres et al., 2011). Additional publications report the distribution of isolated species or group of species, often not comprehending solely the Mato Grosso do Sul territory (e.g., Carmignotto, 2004; Carmignotto & Monfort, 2006; Cáceres et al., 2006, 2007b; Santos et al., 2010; Godoi et al., 2010b; Silveira et al., 2011; Hannibal et al., 2012; Teribele et al., 2012).

Collections of zoological material have been conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul since 1817 by naturalist expeditions crossing the western region of Brazil, with specimens usually deposited in several overseas and national museums. J. Natterer, for example, visited the western region of the modern state of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1824 to 1830 ( Pelzen, 1883; Vanzolini, 1993); H. H. Smith travelled through the state up to Cuiabá, in the modern state of Mato Grosso, navigating along the Paraguay river in 1882 and 1886 ( Cope, 1889; Allen, 1891, 1892, 1893); many mammal records and specimens were obtained during the construction of telegraph lines by Marechal Cândido M. S. Rondon, crossing also many parts of the sate ( Miranda Ribeiro, 1914), and by the Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition, which crossed the Pantanal region from 1913 to 1914 ( Miller, 1915). The Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, conducted expeditions to the Cuiabá and São Lourenço rivers in 1922, which separate Mato Grosso from Mato Grosso do Sul states ( Travassos et al., 1927). Collections of zoological material were also conducted in Salobra region, Mato Grosso do Sul, along the Noroeste do Brasil railway (e.g., Vieira, 1940, 1955; Travassos, 1940). These expeditions provided relevant scientific material that become the basis for many published mammal checklists for Brazil (e.g, Vieira, 1955) and are still supporting regional analysis of the vertebrate fauna in the western region of the country.

Since then, little effort has been applied to establish regional zoological collections, as well as to conduct sound inventories in most of the state. Two comprehensive inventories were conducted more than 30 years ago, both in the Pantanal wetland ( Schaller, 1983; Alho et al., 1987). Recently, some inventories have been conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul, such as those in the Aporé and Sucuriú river basins, in the northeastern region of the state ( Bordignon et al., 2006), in the Bodoquena mountain range, in the southwestern region of the state ( Cáceres et al., 2007a), in the Pousada Araraúna, located in the southeastern region of the Pantanal ( Mamede & Alho, 2006), in the northwestern region ( Pulchério-Leite et al., 1998; Alho et al., 2011), at the Serra do Amolar ( Tomas & Mourão, 2007), Serra de Maracaju ( Hannibal & Godoy, 2015) and in the Urucum mountains near Corumbá ( Godoi et al., 2010a; Cáceres et al., 2011). However, these inventories do not include all taxonomic groups among mammals. Additional publications are restricted to species distribution, such as Tomas et al. (2009).

This article aims to update the checklist of mammal species from Mato Grosso do Sul in the light of recent data, especially those based on museum specimens and geo-referenced photographs and videos cataloged in image collections. As a result, the present checklist should be considered conservative, as non-primary records were excluded. We also intend to point out taxonomic inconsistencies that should be subjected to more detailed studies concerning taxonomy and species distribution.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The list of mammal species ( Tab. I) is based only on primary records. Specimens deposited at regional and national collections were obtained directly from specimens examination and from recent publications that listed vouchers used to report species occurrence, taxonomic reviews, and species distributions. Given the difficulties in accessing important mammal collections at relevant national and international museums, especially those that do not offer online information on the specimens, we consider this list as a basic checklist. Overall taxonomic nomenclature follows Paglia et al. (2012), which incorporates Wilson & Reeder (2005). Recent modifications were used, such as Lim et al. (2004) for Artibeus planirostris, Weksler et al. (2006) for the genera Cerradomys, Euryoryzomys and Hyaleamys, Lynch Alfaro et al. (2011) for Cebus, Garbino & Tejedor (2012) for Natalus macrourus, and Nascimento et al. (2013) for Thrichomys. The specimens and image records considered in this article are listed in the Table III. To avoid an inflated list of species, we did not include in the present checklist undetermined or not yet described species (reported as Genus). Taxonomic entities described as “group” were not considered, as the authors who published them stated that this treatment was adopted due to the impossibility to precisely identify the voucher species with cariotipying as not suitable samples are available. Data from and reports based on interviews were avoided. Pictures of signs (tracks, burrows and other evidence) were included only if they permit unmistakably identification of the species. All taxa were considered up to the species level, not considering sub-species. Non-native species were not included.

Tab. I Checklist of mammal species from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. 

ORDER FAMILY Species
DIDELPHIMORPHIA
DIDELPHIDAE
Caluromys lanatus (Olfers, 1818)
Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758
Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann, 1780)
Cryptonanus agricolai (Moojen, 1943)
Cryptonanus chacoensis (Tate, 1931)
Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840
Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826)
Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758
Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854)
Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804)
Marmosa ( Micoureus) constantiae (Thomas, 1904)
Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758
Marmosops ocellatus (Tate, 1931)
Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842)
Monodelphis kunsi Pine, 1975
Phillander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Thylamys macrurus (Olfers, 1818)
CINGULATA
DASYPODIDAE
Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758
Dasypus semptemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758
Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus,1758)
Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792)
Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804)
Cabassous unicinctus (Linnaeus, 1758)
PILOSA
MYRMECOPHAGIDAE
Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758
Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758)
PRIMATES
CEBIDAE
Sapajus cay (Illiger, 1815)
CALLITHRICHIDAE
Mico melanurus (É. Geoffroy, 1812)
Callithrix penicillata (É. Geoffroy, 1812)
AOTIDAE
Aotus azarae (Humboldt, 1812)
PITHECIIDAE
Callicebus cf. pallescens Thomas, 1907
ATELIDAE
Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812)
LAGOMORPHA
LEPORIDAE
Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758)
CARNIVORA
FELIDAE
Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782)
Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Leopardus guttulus (Schreber, 1775)
Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821)
Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771)
Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803)
Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758)
CANIDAE
Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766)
Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815)
Lycalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842)
Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842)
MUSTELIDAE
Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818)
Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788)
Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758)
Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782)
Galictis vitatta (Scheber, 1776)
MEPHITIDAE
Conepatus semistriatus (Boddaert, 1785)
Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782)
PROCYONIDAE
Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766)
Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798)
PERISSODACTYLA
TAPIRIDAE
Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758)
ARTIODACTYLA
TAYASSUIDAE
Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758)
Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795)
CERVIDAE
Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815)
Mazama americana (Erxleben, 1777)
Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer, 1814)
Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
RODENTIA
SCIURIDAE
Urosciurus spadiceus (Olfers, 1818)
CRICETIDAE
Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913
Akodon toba Thomas, 1921
Calomys aff . callidus (Thomas, 1916)
Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830)
Cerradomys maracajuensis (Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002)
Cerradomys scotti (Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002)
Euryoryzomys nitidus (Thomas, 1884)
Holochilus chacarius Wagner, 1842
Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814)
Necromys lasiurus (Lund 1841)
Nectomys rattus (Pelzeln, 1883)
Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827)
Oecomys bicolor (Thomas, 1860)
Oecomys catherinae Thomas, 1909
Oecomys mamorae (Thomas, 1906)
Oecomys paricola (Thomas, 1904)
Oligoryzomys chacoensis (Myers & Carleton, 1981)
Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973)
Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818)
Oxymycterus delator Thomas, 1903
Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge, 1887)
Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855)
ERETHIZONTIDAE
Coendou prehensilis (Linnaeus, 1758)
CAVIIDAE
Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777
Cavia fulgida Wagler, 1831
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766)
DASYPROCTIDAE
Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823
CUNICULIDAE
Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766)
ECHIMYIDAE
Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909)
Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830)
Proechimys roberti Thomas, 1901
Thrichomys fosteri (Thomas, 1903)
CHIROPTERA
PHYLLOSTOMIDAE
Lophostoma brasilienses Peters, 1866
Lophostoma silvicolum d’Orbigny, 1836
Macrophyllum macrophyllum (Schinz, 1821)
Micronycteris sanborni Simmons, 1996
Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856)
Micronycteris megalotis Gray, 1842
Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856)
Lonchorhina aurita Tomes 1863
Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838)
Mimon crenulatum (E. Geoffroy, 1803)
Phylloderma stenops Peters, 1865
Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810)
Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767)
Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843
Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823)
Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823)
Vampyrum spectrum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1856)
Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823)
Artibeus obscurus (Schinz, 1821)
Artibeus lituratus (Olferns, 1818)
Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860
Chiroderma doriae O. Thomas, 1891
Platyrrhinus helleri (Peters, 1866)
Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810)
Pygoderma bilabiatum (Peters, 1863)
Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866
Uroderma magnirostrum Davis, 1868
Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843)
Vampyrodes caraccioli (Thomas, 1889)
Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810)
Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810)
Diaemus youngi (Jentink, 1843)
Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838
Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818)
Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766)
Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983
Lonchophylla mordax (Thomas, 1903)
Lionycteris spurrelli (Thomas, 1913)
Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758)
EMBALLONURIDAE
Peropteryx macrotis (Wagner, 1843)
Rhynchonycteris naso (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
MOLOSSIDAE
Cynomops abrasus (Temminck, 1827)
Cynomops planirostris (Peters, 1865)
Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874)
Eumops dabbenei Thomas 1914
Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843)
Eumops patagonicus Thomas, 1924
Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821)
Eumops auripendulus (Shaw, 1800)
Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854)
Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805)
Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1856)
Molossus pretiosus (Miller, 1902)
Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840)
Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805)
Promops centralis Thomas, 1915
Promops nasutus (Spix, 1823)
Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy, 1824)
VESPERTILIONIDAE
Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny, 1847)
Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819)
Lasiurus blossevillii (Lesson & Garnot, 1826)
Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois, 1796)
Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856)
Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821)
Myotis simus Thomas, 1901
Myotis riparius Handley, 1960
Myotis albescens (E. Geoffroy, 1806)
MORMOOPIDAE
Pteronotus parnellii (Gray, 1840)
NOCTILIONIDAE
Noctilio albiventris (Desmarest, 1818)
Noctilio leporinus (Linneaus, 1758)
NATALIDAE
Natalus macrourus (Gervais, 1856)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

One hundred and sixty-six mammal species were listed as occurring in the Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, 47 of them being medium to large, 46 small mammal and 73 bat species. These numbers represent an increase of fourteen species to the previous publication ( Cáceres et al., 2008), considering that we did not account for undefined species cited as Genus, or group of species, or species with no primary records. The mammal species confirmed to the state are distributed in 31 Families: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 sp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (17 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp.) and Natalidade (1 sp.). However, these numbers should be considered not definitive, as sound inventories are still rare in several regions of the state. As an example, in the Southern Cone (south of the Ivinhema river basin), once covered by the Atlantic Forest, little is known about the mammal fauna, and only one checklist for this region has been published (Hannibal, 2014). We estimate that about 14 species may be included in future checklists as additional inventories and taxonomic studies are developed. To date, there is no evidence of any endemic mammal species occurring in the state.

The total number of mammal species in the world is nearly 5,490 (IUCN, 2012), while the estimated number of bat species is 1,100 ( Jan et al., 2012), resulting in 4,390 non-flying mammal species. In comparison, the number of mammal species in Brazil has been estimated as 688 ( Reis et al., 2011), including bats and cetaceans. The Mato Grosso do Sul state comprises only 4.19% of the Brazilian Territory (357,125 km2 and 8,515,767 km2, respectively), but the number of species in the state represent 24.13% of the known mammalian fauna for the entire country. The number of non-flying mammal species in the Mato Grosso do Sul fits well in an expected species-area relationship curve ( Fig. 1), which includes data from Brazil, Okavango Delta ( Ramberg et al., 2006), Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado, Chaco, Llanos from Venezuela and Colombia ( Ojasti, 1990), Congo Rainforest, Borneo Rainforest, Guinean Rainforest (see Tomas et al., 2011; Myers et al., 2000), Paraguay ( Yahnke et al., 1998), the São Paulo State ( De Vivo et al., 2011), and Brazil as a whole (Reis et al., 2011).

Fig 1 Species-area relationship for the number of non-flying mammal species from several tropical ecosystems and regions/countries (modified from Tomas et al., 2011). The fitted model is: Number of species = 11.78*AREA0.41; Mean corrected R2(1-residual/corrected) = 0.88; Regions: AM, Amazon rainforest; AR, Argentina; AT, Atlantic rainforest; BO, Borneo rainforest; BR, Brazil; CA, Caatinga; CE, Cerrado; CH, Chaco; CO, Congo rainforest; GU, Guinean rainforest; LL, Llanos; MS, Mato Grosso do Sul state (this checklist); OK, Okavango delta; PA, Pantanal wetland; PY, Paraguay; SP, São Paulo state. 

The present list of species reveals a necessity of better taxonomic evaluation for specific taxa. One example is the Callicebus from the western limit of the Pantanal wetland, in the border with Bolivia. The species recognized as occurring in this region is Callicebus pallescens ( Groves, 2001; Roosmalen et al., 2002), despite several publications since Hershkovitz (1990), including the last review of the Genus (Roosmalen et al., 2002), place the species as occurring inside the Pantanal wetland. In reality, within Mato Grosso do Sul State, Callicebus is restricted to the mountainous region near Corumbá and in the Serra do Amolar range ( Tomas et al., 2011). The taxonomic identity of these Callicebus populations are still confuse, since both phenotypic traits, such as coat color patterns ( Tomas et al., 2011), and molecular genetic data ( Auricchio, 2005) indicate that individuals from Corumbá are distinguishable from both C. pallescens and C. donacophilus. The northern populations from the Serra do Amolar region resemble C. donacophilus ( Tomas et al., 2011), while the southern population seems to differ from both valid species ( C. pallescens and C. donacophilus). Thus, it is possible that the populations from Corumbá will correspond to a separated species, requiring more detailed taxonomic studies based on molecular genetics at finer geographic detail. Among primates, Sapajus seems to be represented by two species, considering the presumable occurrence of Sapajus libidinosus in the northeastern portion of the state. This species is well known to occur at Emas National Park and it is distributed along a diagonal gradient from northeastern to central Brazil ( Lynch Alfaro et al., 2011; Cáceres et al., 2015). There is no reason for its absence in the northeastern region of the Mato Grosso do Sul, as a portion of the Emas National Park is within the state.

Among carnivores, relatively common species are still little known regarding occurrence and taxonomic identity. The lack of museum specimens difficults the analysis on the occurrence and distribution of Conepatus and Galictis. Rare records have been published on Conepatus, but we present evidence of two species occurring in the state. Conepatus semistriatus occurs at Emas National Park ( Rodrigues et al., 2002), part of which is located in Mato Grosso do Sul, and we present a photographic record of this species in the northeastern region of Mato Grosso do Sul (MCPAPI 515). The dimensions of several tracks documented in the Pantanal wetland suggest C. semistriatus in the floodplains, but this evidence is not sufficient to confirm the species there. Another species of this genus, Conepatus chinga have been reported from Maracaju municipality (AMNH 133946), in the central-southern region of the state ( Dragoo et al., 2003). Based on these evidences, we included the two species in our checklist. Yensen & Tarifa (2003a) report the occurrence of Galictis vitatta for the state, but we found no museum specimen to document it. We included this species in our list based on photograph documentation from Pantanal, which is placed in the mammal reference collection at Embrapa Pantanal (MCPAPI 501). The occurrence of G. cuja follows the same situation (Yensen & Tarifa, 2003b:), and we have included this species in our list based on two photographic records placed in the Embrapa’s reference collection (MCPAPI 5008, 516). Among cats, we found no evidence of L. geofroyii in the state despite distribution maps often include this species in the southwestern region (e.g., Cheida & Santos, 2010).

After the review by Trigo et al.(2013), we considered Leopardus guttulus as the species valid for Mato Grosso do Sul, instead of L. tigrinus, cited by other authors before(e.g., Cáceres et al., 2008). Trigo et al. (2013) used in their analysis one sample collected from one individual originated from Miranda-MS, and kept in a Zoo at Catanduva, São Paulo state (bLti-072, deposited in the Banco de Amostras from the Laboratório de Biologia Genômica e Molecular, from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; this individual is identified as the number 017 in the Plano de Manejo de Pequenos Felinos Brasileiros). Thus, in the Tables II and III, all the specimens formerly considered as L. tigrinus will be considered as L. guttulus, despite additional genetic analysis is still required to clarify this issue.

We found in the Order Cingulata that Cabassous chacoensis has no confirmed records in Brazil, although it occurs in the Chaco region of Paraguay and Bolivia ( Wetzel, 1980). One C. chacoensis specimen has been labeled as “from Brazil”, but no further information is available about the locality of its collection ( Wetzel, 1980). Thus, the species has not been included in our list, even considering that the southwestern region of the state is in close contact with the Chaco, and presents typical Chacoan vegetation along the border with Paraguay in the Porto Murtinho municipality.

Among small mammals, we excluded Akodon gr. cursor reported by Carmignotto (2004), and also Proechimys gr . goeldii and Oecomys gr. catherinae listed by Carmignotto (2004) and Cáceres et al. (2008), as we adopted a conservative approach to construct the present checklist. Following the same approach, we did not include in our checklist Rhipidomys sp., listed by Carmignotto (2004), and Akodon sp. and Callomys sp., listed by Carmignotto (2004) and Cáceres et al. (2008) respectively (see Tables III and IV). Among potential species to be occurring in the state, we speculate that in the northeastern region of Mato Grosso do Sul it is possible to find Thylamys velutinus, Calomys expulsus and Carterodon sulcidens. These species do occur in the nearby region contiguous to the state of Goiás, where there are no evident geographic barriers, which would limit dispersion between both states (e.g., large rivers). Micoureus paraguayanus and Phillander frenatus may also occur in the southernmost part of the state, once covered by the Atlantic forest, as these species are known to occur in the adjacent eastern regions of Paraguay. The occurrence of Metachirus nudicaudatus was reported by Gardner & Dagosto (2008) in the Urucum Mountains, near Corumbá, and in the Dourados municipality. However, the authors did not provide information about voucher specimens. Thus, this species was not included in our checklist. A probable new species of Dasyprocta may occurs in the Serra do Amolar region ( Iack-Ximenez, 1999), but we did not include it in the present checklist, as it is still not formally described. As for bats, Coelho (2005) reported Rhinophylla pumilio for the northern region of the state, however without a voucher specimen.

The specimens from Mato Grosso do Sul considered by Cáceres et al. (2008) and Carmingnoto (2004) as Holochilus sciureus are still in need of analysis to clarify if they actually correspond to H. chacarius, as the presence of the former species in the state have been questioned by Brandão & Nascimento (2015). These specimens originated in the state and deposited elsewhere are AMNH 37077, FMNH 26758-2678, USNM 390249-39050, MN 1989-4207-4209- 4205-4271, AMNH 37077, MN 1987, MZUSP 3780-27430, UFSM 266, USNM 390249, and those deposited as MCPAP 217-218-221-223 (see Table III for the institution names). The consistence of H. chacarius occurring in the state is indicated in the recent publication by D’elía et al.(2015), based on molecular analysis.

At least four exotic species are known to occur in the Mato Grosso do Sul as feral populations. The feral pig, Sus scrofa, also known as “porco monteiro”, has been introduced by the first settlers two centuries ago, and is presently abundant in the Pantanal wetland. The wild hog, also Sus scrofa, is invading several regions of the state after releases from captivity few years ago, and is about to become a nuisance in the central and southern areas of the state. The European hare, Lepus europaeus, have been reported for the Bodoquena mountains ( Cáceres et al., 2007a), despite no primary records are available to the present. Rattus rattus has been reported by Cáceres et al. (2007a). Finally, relatively small populations of feral water buffaloes Bubalus bubalis scattered in the Pantanal floodplains ( Mourão et al., 2002).

Twelve mammal species listed by the Brazilian government as threatened do occur in the Mato Grosso do Sul state, all of them classified as Vunerable: nine for Carnivora, one for Artiodactyla, one for Cingulata, and one for Pilosa. The IUCN Red List included 17 globally threatened species recorded in the state: eight for Carnivora, three for Artiodactyla, two for Cingulata, two Chiroptera, one for Pilosa, and one for Didelphimorphia, from which eight species are Vulnerable, 10 are Near Threatened, and one Edangered ( Tab. II). Some of these species are known to present large populations in the state ( Tomas et al., 2011), especially in the Pantanal wetlands, 65% of which is located in Mato Grosso do Sul. For example, we may cite the Marsh deer ( Mourão et al., 2000), the Giant otter (Tomas et al., 2014, in press), the Jaguar ( Cavalcanti et al., 2012; Camilo, 2011), and the Pampas deer (Mourão et al., 2000).

Tab. II Threatened mammals species listed by Brazilian government (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, 2014) and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) occurring in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Categories: NT, Near Threatened; VU, Vulnerable; EN, Endangered).  

Species Common name Brazil IUCN
Blastocerus dichotomus Marsh deer VU VU
Chrysocyon brachyurus Manned wolf VU NT
Leopardus colocolo Pampas cat VU NT
Leopardus pardalis Ocelot VU
Leopardus guttulus Oncilla EN VU
Leopardus wiedii Magay VU NT
Lonchophylla dekeyseri Dekeyser’s nectar bat EN NT
Lonchorhina aurita Tome’s sword-nosed bat VU
Lycalopex vetulus Hoary fox VU
Myrmecophada tridactyla Giant anteater VU
Natalus macrourus Brazilian funnel-eared bat VU
Ozotoceros bezoarticus Pampas deer VU NT
Panthera onca Jaguar VU NT
Priodontes maximus Giant armadillo VU VU
Pteronura brasiliensis Giant otter VU EN
Puma concolor Puma VU
Puma yagouarondi Weasel cat VU
Sapajus cay Capuchin monkey VU
Speothos venaticus Bush dog VU NT
Tapirus terrestris Tapir VU VU
Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary VU VU
Thylamys macrurus Paraguayan fat-tailed mouse possum EN NT
Tolypeutes matacus Southern three-banded armadillo NT
Vampyrum spectrum Spectral bat NT

Tab. III Specimens considered in the elaboration of the checklist of non-flying mammals of the Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The specimens examined by other authors are followed by the reference to the correspondent publication. The taxons follow an alphabetical order, independent of their higher level taxonomic classification (Subfamily, Family, Order). The collections included are: MCPAP, Coleção de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MCPAPI, Coleção de Imagens de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MN, Museu Nacional; MZUSP, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo; UFSM, Coleção de Mamíferos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History; CEUCM, Centro Universitário de Corumbá - Coleção de Mamíferos; FMNH, Field Museum of Natural History; MHNCI, Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia; OMNH, Oklahoma Museum of Natural History; UEMS, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul; UFMG, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; UFSC, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; USNM, National Museum of Natural History; JLP, James L. Patton (voucher at UFMG mammal collection, as cited by Weksler, 2003); CRB (Cibele R. Bonvicino); LBCE (Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios silvestres, Fiocruz); MVZ (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Bekerley) (*, records not included in present checklist; see Material and Methods). 

Species Specimens Photographic records
Akodon gr. cursor* AMNH 134495-134498-134499-134829-134830-134837-134856-134859, MN 5177-5178-5180-4325-4368 (Carmignotto, 2004 - see the comments of the author on the impossibility of using caryotipe to discriminate species from these vouchers).
Akodon montensis UFMG 2682-2714, UFMG 2715 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 09 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); UFMG 2682 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 386
Akodon sp. * APC 975 985 996 997 (Carmignotto, 2004).
Akodon toba USNM 390251-390252-390160-390162, CEUC 58 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 269, USNM 390251 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 258-269 (Godoi et al., 2010a).
Alouatta caraya MN 4813, MZUSP 778-3364-3365-3769-19033-19034-5891-5892, (Gregorin, 2006); MN 4794-4813-19176, MZUSP 3769 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 116-117-121-125-362-527. MCPAPI 520
Aotus azarae MN 9608, MZUSP 9608 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Blastocerus dichotomus MHNCI 4037-4077, MZUSP 28867 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 014-017-018-030-031-196-499. MCPAPI 471
Cabassous unicinctus MN 4975 (Cáceres et al., 2008) MCPAPI 405-465
Cabassous tatouay AMNH M-133384
Callicebus cf. pallescens MN 3355-3356-3358-3359-3351 (Auricchio, 2005); MZUSP 3356-3358 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 528. MCPAPI 446 (a,b,c, d)-447-448-449-450-454-457-458-459-460-462
Callithrix penicillata MCPAPI 502-503-504
Callomy sp. * UFSM 28 (Cáceres et al., 2007a).
Species Specimens Photographic records
Calomys aff . callidus UFSM 109 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Calomys callosus APC 897-934-951-957-971, CN 700-763 (Carmignoto, 2004); UFSM 162-165 (Godoi et al., 2010a); MCPAP 232-343.
Caluromys lanatus AMNH 133206 (Carmignotto, 2004). MCPAPI 384
Caluromys philander AMNH 139815 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 234 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 425
Cavia aperea FMNH 26638-26639-26870, MZUSP 4292-4293, MN 4476-4481 (Carmignotto, 2004); FMNH 26638, MN 4476, MZUSP 4292 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 325.
Cavia fulgida MZUSP 28757 (Carmignotto, 2004); MZUSP 28757 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Cerdocyon thous MN 4908, MN 25602, MZUSP 3769 (Cáceres, 2008); MCPAP 103-106-135-136-140-145-302-321. MCPAPI 392
Cerradomys maracajuensis MN 4409-4410-5207-34199, MN 44178, MZUSP 28766 (Carmignotto, 2004 - citado como Oryzomys maracajuensis); MN 44178, MZUSP 28766, UFSM 088 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Cerradomys scotti OMNH 19655, APC 885-887, MN 4414 (Carmignotto; 2004; citado como Oryzomys scottii); UFSM 02-03-04-08-25 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); MN 4414, OMNH 19655, UFSM 025-360 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 226-228.
Chironectes minimus UFSM 031 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 467
Chrysocyon brachyurus UFSM 081 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 368-396-466-484-485-517-518
Clyomys laticeps UFMG 2346- 2350, MN 24156-24158-31565, MN 24159 (Carmignotto, 2004); MN 24156-63945, UFMG 2346 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 188-207-213-216-278-294-313-342.
Coendou prehensilis MN 3635, MZUSP 1859 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 234.
Conepatus chinga AMNH 133946 (Dragoo et al., 2003).
Conepatus semistriatus MCPAPI 515 (a,b,c)
Cryptonanus agricolai UFSM 089-477 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 385-389-404
Cryptonanus chacoensis UFSM 267 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 220-341-346-355.
Cuniculus paca MN 4871 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 481
Dasyprocta azarae MN 4968, MZUSP 5896 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 112-113-114.
Dasypus novencinctus MHNCI 5660, MZUSP 28768 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 131. MCPPI 369
Dasypus septemcinctus MCPAPI 541 (a, b, c, d, e, f)
Didelphis albiventris MZUSP 3779-28753-28755-28803, MN 1187-4486-4487-4493-4497-4498-4766-4900-46898, AMNH 132988, UFMG 2560-2558-2559-2561-2562 (Carmignotto, 2004); MN 4486, MZUSP 3779-28753, UFMG 2558, UFSM 045 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 219-285-297. MCPAPI 393
Didelphis aurita AMNH 133036 (Carmignotto 2004, Cáceres et al., 2008).
Eira barbara MN 3110-5163, MZUSP 3375 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 118-165-301. MCPAPI 377-412-419-488-510
Euphractus sexcinctus MHNCI 5663, MN 4972, MZUSP 28544 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 128-129-131-309.
Galictiss cuja MCPAPI 508 - 514(a,b,c) - 516 (a,b)
Galictis vittata MCPAPI 501
Gracilinanus agilis MZUSP 11800-11801-1712-342, PNPA 203, USNM 390025, UFMG 2500-2533, APC 896, CN 70, MN 4465-4783-4787-4790, AMNH 133225-133227-133230-133231 (Carmignotto, 2004); MN 4465, MZUSP 1712-11800, UFMG 2500, UFSM 086, USNM 390025 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 243-318. MCPAPI 395- 406
Gracilinanus chacoensis PNPA 205-207 (Carmignotto, 2004)
Holochilus chacarius MN 1987, MZUSP 27430-3780 (Cáceres et al. 2008, after Brandão & Nascimento, 2015).
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris MHNCI 5658, MZUSP 25358 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 077-087-092-094-179.
Hylaeamys megacephalus UFSM 11-30 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); MZUSP 4303, UFMG 2909, UFSM 016-033-061 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 383
Leopardus colocolo AMNH 133977-354 (Garcia Perea, 1994); MN 24904, MZUSP 7786 (Cáceres et al., 2008); video registrado (Sánchez-Soto, 2007). MCPAP 428-491-513 (a,b)
Leopardus pardalis MN 68885, MZUSP 13673, UFSC 346-413 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 033-034-036-040-174-176-324. MCPAPI 410- 495-512
Leopardus guttulus UEMS-Mundo Novo (Cáceres et al., 2008); LBGM- UFRS bLti-072.
Leopardus wiedii MCPAP 168.
Lontra longicaudis MN 3020 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 312
Lutreolina crassicaudata APC 655-657, MN 4780-4781-4784-20977, AMNH 133250-133251-133254-133255 (Carmignotto, 2004); MN 20977, UFSM 326 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 374-507(a,b)
Lutreolina crassicaudata APC 655-657, MN 4780-4781-4784-20977, AMNH 133250-133251-133254-133255 (Carmignotto, 2004); MN 20977, UFSM 326 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 374-507(a,b)
Lycalopex vetulus MN 4869-5151 (Cáceres et al., 2008)
Marmosa (Micoureus) constantiae PNPA 102-313, APC 883-895-899-947-984 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 06-14 (Cáceres et al., 2007a);UFSM 13-263-534 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Marmosa murina APC 658, MZUSP 1704-28756, UFMG 2599 (Carmignotto, 2004); MZUSP 1704-28756, UFMG 2599, UFSM 536 (Cáceres et al., 2008) MCPAPI 375-379
Marmosops ocellatus PNPA 312-314-315- 95-320-332-353-354-356 (Carmignotto, 2004); MZUSP 32877, UFSM 213-268 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Mazama americana MZUSP 3735 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 014. MCPAPI 387-390-463- 473-492
Mazama gouazoubira MZUSP 3785 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 001-003-007-011-012-015-029.
Mico melanurus MN 3370, MZUSP 3370 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 464-497-521(a, b)
Monodelphis domestica MZUSP 17424-1705-1707-1709-1711-3781, PNPA 96-307-309-311-93-94-101-114-115-117-123-124-305-319-330-352-355, USNM 390016, OMNH 19132, AMNH 37098, APC 891-901-915-921-931-933-936-949-960-964-974-1000-1008 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 07-10-24-29 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); AMNH 37098, MZUSP 1709-3781-17424, UFSM 040 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 205-215-271-272-273-275-276-330-332-334-364. MCPAPI 413
Monodelphis kunsi PNPA 286, APC 884-917-965-980-989-1007 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 167-265 (Cáceres et al., 2008); ZUFMS-MA 10001 (Hannibal et al., 2012); MCPAP 222. MCPAPI 370- 414
Myrmecophaga tridactyla MZUSP 3727-7484-7485-7486-7487-7789-6893, MN 7053-24828 (Vaz, 2003); MHNCI 4048, MN 5073, MZUSP 7789 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 111-181-323. MCPAPI 371
Nasua nasua MNHNCI 2551, MN 4895, MZUSP 3366 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 104-105-107-127-134-144-147-300-320-347-357-359-361.
Necromys lasiurus PNPA 329-348-351, MZUSP 1701, FMNH 26640, AMNH 37103-37104-134496, FMNH 26759, APC 926, CN 732-744-745-765-766 (Carmignotto, 2004); AMNH 37104, FMNH 26640, MZUSP 1701-4301, OMNH 19132, UFSM 022 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 264-415 (Godoi et al., 2010a). MCPAPI 397, MCPAPI 400, MCPAPI 411, MCPAPI 427
Nectomys rattus UFSM 27 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); MN 46876, MZUSP 6010, UFSM 133 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 380-399
Nectomys squamipes MN 4371-4381-34198, MN 42685 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 44, MZUSP 28858 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Oecomys bicolor MN 2520-2528-2544, FMNH 26806, MN 34200, AMNH 134510-134511, UFMG 2818-2825-2817 (Carmignotto, 2004); FMNH 26806, MN 2520-34200, UFMG 2817-2825, UFSM 054-246-273 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 273 (Godoi et al., 2010a). MCPAPI 373-398-420
Oecomys catherinae USNM 531278, UFMG, FMNH 26811, UFMG 2345-2827-2828-2829-2838, AC 2270-2271, APC 902-961-970-988-990-993-999 (Carmignotto, 2004).
Oecomys gr. catherinae* MZUSP 28767 (Carmignotto, 2004); MZUSP 28767 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Oecomys mamorae JLP 16961 - voucher at UFMG (Weksler, 2003); CEUCCM 211, FMNH 26811, MZUSP 2270, UFMG 2827, UFSM 411, USNM 521278 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 229-239-247-268-269-329-331-333-363.
Oecomys paricola CEUCN 198 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Oligoryzomys chacoensis FMNH 26805-26807-26810-26641, USNM 390124-390125, APC 889-908-922-929, CN 758 (Carmignotto, 2004); FMNH 26641, UFSM 168-271, USMN 390125 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 174-271 (Godoi et al., 2010a).
Oligoryzomys fornesi OMNH 19657-19661-19660-19663, FMNH 26642, APC 907-966-981, CN 747 (Carmignotto, 2004); OMNH 19657, UFSM 020-242-272-367-378 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 403-408
Oligoryzomys nigripes MZUSP 25869, APC 890-903-906-909-913-923-927-928-945-946-948-958-959-967-969-979-1003-1004-1006, CN 699-746-764, MN 4301-4303-4306-5219, AMNH 134541-134546-134551, UFMG 2760-2763 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 01 (Cáceres et al., 2007): MN 5219, MZUSP 25869, UFMG 2760, UFSM 001-021-278-486 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 278-353 (Godoi et al., 2010a). MCPAPI 394
Oryzomys (Euryoryzomys) nitidus FMNH 26786, USNM 390109-390110 (Carmignotto, 2004); FMNH 26786, UFSM 260-261, USNM 390110 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Oryzomys megacephalus MZUSP 1700-4303, APC 898-916-925-937-939-941-943-953-955-963-973-977-978-982-991-992-998-1005, CN 743, UFMG 2909-2913-2924 (Carmignotto, 2004); MCPAP 242.
Oxymycterus delator MCPAPI 519 (a,b,c,d,e)
Ozotoceros bezoarticus MZUSP 01920 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 020-021-022-023-025-032-162. MCPAPI 422
Panthera onca MHNCI 4384, MN 24859, MZUSP 9018, UFSC 3105 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 045-046-047-048-049-306-530. MCPAPI 444-445-451-468-472-478-487-496-511
Pecari tajacu MN 3826, MZUSP 3342 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 051-052- 053-068-070-153-161-166-311 MCPAPI 381-409
Phillander opossum AMNH 37063, UFMG 2662-2665, MN 29949, MZUSP 8306 (Carmignotto, 2004); AMNH 37063, MN 29949, MZUSP 8306, UFMG 2662 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Priodontes maximus MN 1323 (Vaz, 2003); MCPAP 148-149. MCPAPI 415-416-475-477-480-483-486-490
Procyon cancrivorus MCPAP 120-123-126-164-172-173-180 MCPAPI 388
Proechimys gr . goeldii* FMNH 26732 (Carmignotto, 2004); FMNH 26732 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Proechimys longicaudatus PNPA 104-321-322-357, AMNH 37085-37086 (Carmignotto, 2004); AMNH 37085, UFSM 034-259 (Cáceres et al., 2008); UFSM 259-354 (Godoi et al., 2010a).
Proechimys roberti UFSM 282 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Pseudoryzomys simplex APC 659 (Carmignotto, 2004).
Pteronura brasiliensis MN 67470, MZSP 5890 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 115. MCPAPI 443
Puma concolor MZUSP 28868, UFSC 322 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 035-037-039-044. MCPAPI 376-391-407-418-426-489-494
Puma yagouaroundi UFSM 331 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 299-358-365. MCPAPI 474
Rhipidomys macrurus UFMG 2945 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFMG 2945-032-156 (Cáceres et al., 2008). MCPAPI 401
Rhipidomys sp. * MN 4297-4442-30018-30024 (Carmignotto, 2004).
Sapajus cay MZUSP 377-5133 (Mendes Pontes et al., 2006); MZUSP 19680 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 124. MCPAPI 382
Speothos venaticus MCPAP 119-322. MCPAPI 498
Sylvilagus brasiliensis MN 4774, UFSM 498 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 122. MCPAPI 479-493
Tamandua tetradactyla MN 5056, MZUSP 20000, UFSC 900 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 150-151-178-360. MCPAPI 402
Tapirus terrestris MZUSP 3727 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 066-067-191. MCPAPI 378
Tayassu pecari UFSM 334 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 152-154-159-160-171-182-308. MCPAPI 421-423
Thrichomys fosteri MZUSP 2673-26732-25868-25867-7499, PNPA 87-88-310-331-91-92-125-304-306, UFMG 3008, MN 6228-6229, APC 888-892-894-900-914-918-920-924-935-938-940-944-954-956-962-972-976-983-986-987-994-1001-1002, MN 46896 (Carmignotto, 2004); UFSM 15-26 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); MN 6228, MZUSP 7499-26731, UFMG 3008, UFSM 161 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 184-190-197-208-236-250-259-265-287-315-345-354; CRB 553, LBCE 1920-1903-1960, MVZ 197572-197573 (Nascimento et al., 2013).
Thylamys macrurus MZUSP 3782, APC 932-950-952-32097, NC 35-05 (Carmignotto, 2004); MZUSP 3782-32094-3296-32097, NC 05-35 (Carmignotto & Monfort, 2006); UFSM 35-05 (Cáceres et al., 2007a), MZUSP 32097 (Cáceres et al., 2007a); MZUSP 3782 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 225-231-326-328-335-336-337-338-339-340-356. MCPAPI 424
Tolypeutes matacus MCPAPI 452-453-455-456-461-469-476-509
Urosciurus spadiceus MN 1923, MZUSP 3352 (Cáceres et al., 2008); MCPAP 430.

Tab. IV Specimens considered in the elaboration of the checklist of Chiroptera of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The specimens examined by other authors are followed by the reference to the correspondent publication. The taxons follow an alphabetical order, independent of their higher level taxonomic classification (Subfamily, Family, Order). The collections included are: MCPAP: Coleção de Referencia de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MCPAPI: Coleção de Imagens de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; ZUFMS: Coleção Zoológica da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul; UNIDERP - Coleção do Laboratório de Quiróteros da Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal/ Anhanguera; UFSM: Coleção de Mamíferos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. 

Species Specimens
Anoura caudifer ZUFMS 1170, 1180, 1291 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 230 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 453 (Fernandes, 2009); ZUFMS 500 (Ferreira et al., 2010); ZUFMS 293, 292 (Cunha et al., 2011); ZUFMS 188, 192 (Erickson et al., 2011).
Anoura geoffroyi ZUFMS 0151, 0368, 0454; ZUFMS 0292, 0293 (Cunha et al., 2011); ZUFMS 454 (Fernandes, 2009).
Artibeus cinereus ZUFMS 0389 (Cunha et al., 2011); ZUFMS 0360.
Artibeus fimbriatus UFSM 541 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Artibeus lituratus ZUFMS 0577; ZUFMS 1145, 1161, 1191, 1232, 1252, 1300 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 913, 1064 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 316 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 2070, 2120 (Longo, 2009); ZUFMS 507 (Ferreira, 2010).
Artibeus obscurus ZUFMS 715, 717 (Bordignon & Santos, 2010).
Artibeus planirostris ZUFMS (0179, 0371, 0372); ZUFMS 1242, 1295 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 910, 1074 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 482 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 323, 328 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 444, 452 (Fernandes, 2009); ZUFMS 508 (Ferreira et al., 2010).
Carollia perspicillata ZUFMS 0258; ZUFMS 1157, 1160, 1253, 1298 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 916, 1040 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 218, 222 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 313 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 455, 459 (Fernandes, 2009); ZUFMS 497 (Ferreira et al., 2010); ZUFMS 521 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Chiroderma doriae ZUFMS 0258; ZUFMS 912, 1058, 1069 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 493 (Ferreira et al., 2010).
Chiroderma villosum ZUFMS 0158, 0159, 0208, 0209, 0505; ZUFMS 492 (Ferreira et al., 2010).
Chrotopteus auritus ZUFMS 0109, 0354; ZUFMS 1194 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 254, 255 (Camargo et al., 2009).
Cynomops abrasus ZUFMS 0377; ZUFMS 220 (Camargo et al., 2009).
Cynomops planirostris ZUFMS 0162; ZUFMS 1163, 1209 (Bordignon, 2006).
Desmodus rotundus ZUFMS 0115, 0121, 0340, 0364; ZUFMS 339 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 314 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 86 (Erickson et al., 2011).
Diaemus youngii ZUFMS 0078, 0164, 0165.
Eptesicus brasiliensis ZUFMS 0160; UFSM 390 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Eptesicus furinalis ZUFMS 525.
Eumops auripendulus ZUFMS 0146.
Eumops bonariensis ZUFMS 1240 (Bordignon, 2006).
Eumops dabbenei ZUFMS 1319 (Fischer et al., 2015)
Eumops glaucinus ZUFMS 0145, 0298; ZUFMS 1276 (Bordignon, 2006).
Eumops patagonicus ZUFMS 718 (Bordignon et al., 2011).
Eumops perotis ZUFMS 0045.
Glossophaga soricina ZUFMS 0283, 0344, 0366, 0367, 0369; ZUFMS 1181, 1255, 1250, 1282 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 920, 1088, 1124 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 248. 312 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 499 (Ferreira et al., 2010).
Lasiurus blossevillii ZUFMS 0134, 0135, 0171, 0252; UNIDERP 2043 (Alho et al., 2011).
Lasiurus cinereus UNIDERP 78 (Alho et al., 2011).
Lasiurus ega ZUFMS 0138, 0176, 0253; ZUFMS 1296 (Bordignon, 2006).
Lionycteris spurrelli ZUFMS 1288 (Bordignon, 2006).
Lonchophylla dekeyseri ZUFMS 522, 523 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Lonchophylla mordax ZUFMS 1179 (Bordignon, 2006).
Lonchorhina aurita ZUFMS 1287 (Bordignon, 2006).
Lophostoma brasiliense ZUFMS 0113, 0318, 0357; ZUFMS 1286 (Bordignon, 2006).
Lophostoma silvicolum ZUFMS 0110, 0181, 0356; ZUFMS 1159 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 1121 (Bordignon & França, 2009).
Macrophyllum macrophyllum ZUFMS 0072; ZUFMS 152 (Camargo et al., 2009).
Micronycteris megalotis ZUFMS 0347; ZUFMS 153 (Erckson et al., 2011).
Micronycteris minuta UNIDERP 117 (Alho et al., 2011).
Micronycteris sanborni ZUFMS 0161 (Santos et al., 2011).
Mimon bennettii ZUFMS 441 (Fernandes, 2009).
Mimon crenulatum ZUFMS 0108 (Camargo & Fischer, 2005).
Molossops temminckii ZUFMS 0147; ZUFMS 1279 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 291 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 494, 495 (Ferreira et al., 2010); ZUFMS 294 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Molossus molossus ZUFMS 0271; ZUFMS 1275 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 219 (Camargo et al., 2009).
Molossus pretiosus ZUFMS 682; UNIDERP 394 (Alho et al., 2011).
Molossus rufus ZUFMS 09, 011 (Caceres et al., 2008).
Myotis albescens ZUFMS 0141, 0170; UNIDERP 227.
Myotis nigricans ZUFMS 0133, 0137, 0172, 0175, 0203, 0204, 0283, 0378, 0379, 0381; ZUFMS 1156 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 213, 215 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 498 (Ferreira et al., 2010); UNIDERP 1616.
Myotis riparius ZUFMS 0140; UNIDERP 1516.
Species Specimens
Myotis simus ZUFMS 0006; UNIDERP 1498.
Natalus macrourus ZUFMS 0329, 0330, 0331; ZUFMS 144, 169 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 295 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Noctilio albiventris ZUFMS 0365; ZUFMS 0055, 0058 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Noctilio leporinus ZUFMS 0143 (Cáceres et al., 2008).
Nyctinomops laticaudatus ZUFMS 0008, 0012, 0018, 0149, 0305, 0306, 0478.
Nyctinomops macrotis ZUFMS 0148; UNIDERP 3401 (Alho et al., 2011).
Peropteryx macrotis ZUFMS 906 (Bordignon, 2005); UNIDERP 2175.
Phyllosderma stenops UNIDERP 547 (Pulchero-Leite et al., 1998).
Phyllostomus discolor ZUFMS 0105, 0155, 0355, 0468; ZUFMS 467 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Phyllostomus elongatus ZUFMS 1120 (Bordignon & França, 2009).
Phyllostomus hastatus ZUFMS 0106, 0352, 0353; ZUFMS 1195 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 1115 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 300, 301 (Cunha et al., 2009); ZUFMS 491 (Ferreira et al., 2010).
Platyrrhinus helleri ZUFMS 0158, 0361; ZUFMS 1173, 1292 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 442, 443 (Fernandes, 2009); UNIDERP 1328, 1923, 1936, 11668, 0058,0059, 10345 (Alho et al., 2011).
Platyrrhinus lineatus ZUFMS 0210, 0211, 0212, 0266, 0349, 0370; ZUFMS1149, 1234 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 899, 1099 (Bordignon & França, 2009); ZUFMS 223, 228 (Camargo et al., 2009); ZUFMS 503, 506 (Ferreira et al., 2010); UNIDERP 847, 863, 236, 745, 1329, 928, 532 (Alho et al., 2011).
Promops centralis ZUFMS 00039 (Caceres et al., 2008).
Promops nasutus ZUFMS 000021 (Caceres et al., 2008).
Pteronotus parnellii ZUFMS 1289 (Bordignon, 2006).
Pygoderma bilabiatum ZUFMS 128 (Erickson et al., 2011).
Rhynchonycteris naso ZUFMS 0234, 0260, 0261.
Sturnira lilium ZUFMS 1241, 1274 (Bordignon, 2006); ZUFMS 131, 216, 217 (Camargo et al., 2009).
Tadarida brasiliensis ZUFMS 623 (Santos & Bordignon, 2011).
Tonatia bidens ZUFMS 237 (Cunha et al., 2011); UNIDERP 941.
Trachops cirrhosus ZUFMS 524 (Cunha et al., 2011).
Uroderma bilobatum ZUFMS 132.
Uroderma magnirostrum UNIDERP 2397.
Vampyressa pusilla ZUFMS 356.
Vampyrodes caraccioli ZUFMS 129.
Vampyrum spectrum M-CPAP 307 (Silveira et al., 2011).

The previous checklist of mammals from the Mato Grosso do Sul reports 151 species, including 61 bat species ( Cáceres et al., 2008). In comparison, the present list represents an increase in the number of 15 species with primary records for the state, even considering that we avoided the inclusion of grouped specimens, interview data, non-confirmed or cataloged records, and non-native species. Although we attempted to produce a conservative checklist, we maintained few taxa that are still in need of taxonomic evaluation, such as Callicebus cf . pallescens and Callomys aff . callidus. It is evident also that Dasyprocta, Akodon, Rhipidomys, and Callomys deserve detailed taxonomic studies, and that scientific, regional mammal collections should be implemented to better document the species from Mato Grosso do Sul. Finally, it is clear that inventories at specific regions in the state are urgent, such as in the Chaco of the southwestern region, in the southern region previously covered by the Atlantic forest, and in the northeastern region near the border with Goiás and Mato Grosso states. Beyond the list of species, data on species occurrence are also required, as distribution maps are not available, what difficult the evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving the species diversity, as well as the elaboration of an endangered species list for the Mato Grosso do Sul state.

Main research groups. At Mato Grosso do Sul there are few institutions studying mammals. At Embrapa Pantanal, in Corumbá, most of the research has been focused on ecology of medium to large mammals, and small mammals, with little effort on taxonomy and distributions. At the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) there are specialists on small mammals, primates and bats. Both institutions usually interact well, and partnership with several other institutions in Brazil increases the potential approaches to study the mammal fauna in the state. It is particularly relevant the role of post-graduation programs, such as the Ecology and Conservation Program, and the Animal Biology Program, at UFMS, in the establishment of partnership among institutions.

Main collections. The main in-state zoological collections are the Reference Vertebrate Collection of Embrapa Pantanal at Corumbá, the Zoological Collection of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul and the Zoological Collection of Laboratório de Quirópteros of Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal (UNIDERP) at Campo Grande. However, these are relatively small collections, which do not comprehend all taxonomic groups among mammals. It is clear from the data used in this article that most of the specimens came from larger collection in Brazil and abroad. The main depositories of specimens from the state are Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP; American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA; the collections of the Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California at Bekerley, USA; and the Mammal Collection of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. Therefore, it is important to incentive the implementation of representative zoological collections by the local universities and research institutions to improve the knowledge and the data base for taxonomic studies and distribution assessments.

Main knowledge gaps. It is still necessary to develop studies on distributions of most of the mammalian species in the state, especially in regions where the man-made changes has eliminated the natural ecosystems, such as in the southern, central and eastern regions of the state. The southern region was once covered by the Atlantic forest, and it is presently highly developed with mechanized agriculture. Little is known about the mammal fauna in this area, especially along the border with Paraguay. It is possible that new records would be produced in the region, as several species known to occur in the other side of the frontier has not yet been found in Mato Grosso do Sul. In the central and eastern regions little has been done to increase the knowledge on the mammal fauna, and these areas are currently under expansion of forestry and biofuel projects (sugarcane plantations), as well as the intensification of cattle ranching and agriculture. Most of these areas are in the Cerrado ecosystem, but several types of wetlands exist in the headwaters. Hydroelectric developments are also a threat to these ecosystems as wetlands are usually located in lower terrain, which are the first to be eliminated together with its terrestrial mammalian fauna. The southwestern region, influenced by the Paraguayan Chaco, requires sound inventories as some species may be restricted in Brazil to this relatively small area. There is still a need for specific studies on taxonomy and distribution of some taxa, such as Oligoryzomys, Callomys, and Callicebus. The role of protected areas in conserving representative mammalian faunas in the state is still in need of consistent evaluation, including estimation of population sizes and trends for the most sensitive or endangered species. The knowledge on mammalian ecological functions (e.g. predators, pollinators, seed dispersers, vector/host of diseases) have been well studied only for some particular species or sites, lacking a more general picture across species and regions. Other relevant research hiatus are related to population dynamics, genetic structure, landscape use, dispersal, and local evolutionary histories. Furthermore, the general focus of available studies is on biological patterns rather than on the process shaping them. The use of mammals as indicator species is also necessary for habitat recovery and impact evaluations. Finally, the Mato Grosso do Sul is still requiring an official list of endangered species and their habitats, in order to influence public policies to protect them.

Perspectives for the next 10 years. In the following decade the perspectives for mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul will depend on the development of a strategic approach to increase the knowledge on this taxonomic group, particularly if partnership among specialists and institutions is achieved. In this sense, the BIOTA-MS Program, focused on the biodiversity at the state, certainly will play an important role. The BIOTA-MS should incentive and coordinate inventories at priority regions in the state, as well as help to increase the institutional capacity to organize, maintain and make available information from zoological collections. Among priority areas, we may list the Chaco in the southwestern region, the wetlands, the southern region, the northeastern region, and the western region along the border with Bolivia. For the future, ongoing new research lines will provide knowledge on some identified gaps. For instance, research projects in progress, including Ph.D. thesis and Master dissertations, have increasingly focused important lines in population ecology, dispersal, genetics and landscape use. Large-scale biogeographical patterns and local community assembly processes are other research lines which have been recently launched, which tend to substantially improve the knowledge on Mato Grosso do Sul’s bat fauna and other mammalian groups in the state. Also, it may be expected an increase of the knowledge on ecology, natural history, and distribution of mammal species, as post-graduation program has been established and consolidated in the state. However, it is still necessary to understand the impact of economic development on mammal species, with focus on the responses to habitat fragmentation and degradation, and on the abundance and distribution of their populations. These types of knowledge are fundamental to establish conservation priorities, such as the selection of areas to be protected, the recovering of endangered species populations and habitats, the elaboration of public policies for ecosystem services payment schedules, and the strategies to ensure wildlife conservation in private lands.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Fundect) and Superintendência de Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Sucitec/MS), through the BIOTA-MS Program, for the invitation to participate in this special fascicle of the Iheringia, série Zoologia, as well as for their financial support for the publication; Atenise Pulchério-Leite, Janaína Casella, Ricardo Bocchese, and Thiago Bernardes Maccarini shared their records with us. We thank Marco Costacurta for sharing his photographic record of Dasypus sptemcinctus. NLC was supported by FUNDECT (Ph.D. fellowship 23/200.118/2011). MS was granted by CNPq (MSc. fellowship) and CAPES (Ph.D. fellowship). MAT was granted by the Fundect/CNPq fellowship linked to the BIOTA-MS Program. MNG was supported by FUNDECT/CNPq (DCR 32282/422/3208./3010/2014). GM and EF receive a CNPq Productivity fellowship (n. 308631/2011-0 and 311001/2012-2, respectively).

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Received: November 21, 2016; Accepted: February 06, 2017

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