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Iheringia. Série Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0073-4721On-line version ISSN 1678-4766

Iheringia, Sér. Zool. vol.108  Porto Alegre  2018  Epub Apr 05, 2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4766e2018005 

Articles

Four decades after Belton: a review of records and evidences on the avifauna of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil *

Quatro décadas após Belton: uma revisão de registros e evidências sobre a avifauna do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. (ismaelfranz@gmail.com)

2Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos - CBRO.

3Centro de Ensino Superior Riograndense - Cesurg, Rod. Leonel de Moura Brizola (BR 386), km 138, 99560-000 Sarandi, RS, Brazil. (caduornito@yahoo.com.br)

4Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Dr. Salvador França 1427, 90690-000 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. (gabencke@fzb.rs.gov.br)

5Laboratório de Aves Aquáticas e Tartarugas Marinhas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Caixa Postal 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. (lbugoni@yahoo.com.br)

6Laboratório de Ecologia de Mamíferos e Aves, DEZG, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Pelotas, RS, Brazil. (rafael.dias@ufpel.edu.br)

ABSTRACT

We present a new update of the list of birds of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on a thorough review of new records and evidences accumulated from February 2011 to July 2017. This is the fifth update since the first compilation based on a reasonably complete geographic coverage of the state, published by William Belton in 1978, and the second produced by a regional (informal) committee. It is also the first to widely use citizen science contributions available on shared portals and digital databases on the internet. Forty-three taxa were added, resulting in a final list with 704 species, 6.5% more than in the previous assessment in 2010. Two species were replaced due to taxonomic changes. Documentation for inclusions based on unpublished records is indicated or published here. We also updated the documentation of another 20 species previously included in the list. Inclusions represent mainly migrants recorded in the state as vagrants or irregular visitors (22), but also cases of recent range expansion (especially from the north) and previously overlooked resident or migratory taxa. The average rate of additions (over six species per year) was 30% higher than in the previous period and is expected to accelerate. The percentage of accepted species without documented records in the state decreased from 1.8% in 2010 to 0.7% in the current list. We attribute these results to a better spatial and temporal coverage of the state in recent years, mainly due to the increasing contribution of amateurs, who accounted for 60% of the new occurrences. In contrast, the percentage of species documented by museum specimens has decreased steadily over time (currently at 84%). Investment in scientific research and collection of voucher specimens in the state should keep pace with the growing interest birds arouse in society, due to the importance and usefulness of museum specimens.

KEYWORDS: Avifauna; checklist; new occurrence; distribution; documentation

RESUMO

Apresentamos uma nova atualização da lista das aves do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a partir da revisão de novos registros e evidências acumuladas no período de fevereiro/2011 a julho/2017. Esta é a quinta atualização desde a primeira compilação baseada em uma cobertura geográfica razoavelmente completa do estado, publicada por William Belton em 1978, e a segunda produzida por um comitê regional (informal). Também é a primeira a usar amplamente contribuições da ciência cidadã disponíveis em portais de compartilhamento e bases de dados digitais na internet. Foram adicionados 43 táxons, resultando em uma lista final com 704 espécies, 6,5% a mais do que na versão anterior (de 2010). Duas espécies foram substituídas devido a alterações taxonômicas. A documentação para as inclusões baseadas em registros não publicados é indicada ou apresentada aqui. Também atualizamos a documentação de outras 20 espécies previamente incluídas na lista. As inclusões representam principalmente migrantes registrados no estado como vagantes ou visitantes irregulares (22), mas também casos de expansões recentes de distribuição (especialmente a partir do norte) e táxons residentes ou migratórios previamente subamostrados. A taxa média de incremento da lista (mais de seis espécies novas por ano no período da presente revisão) foi 30% maior do que no período anterior e deverá continuar crescendo a um ritmo acelerado. A porcentagem de espécies sem documentação no estado caiu de 1,8% em 2010 para 0,7% na lista atual. Atribuímos estes resultados a uma melhor cobertura espacial e temporal do território estadual na atualidade, principalmente pelo aumento da contribuição de observadores amadores, responsáveis por 60% dos novos registros. Em contraste, o percentual de espécies documentadas por espécimes de museu vem diminuindo de forma constante ao longo do tempo, estando atualmente em 84%. Alertamos para o fato de que o investimento em pesquisa científica e na coleta de exemplares-testemunho no estado deve acompanhar o crescente interesse que as aves despertam na sociedade, devido à importância e utilidade dos espécimes de museu.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Avifauna; checklist; novas ocorrências; distribuição; documentação

Unlike the scenario in most other Brazilian states, the avifauna of Rio Grande do Sul (hereafter RGS) can be considered reasonably well known (Bencke, 2001, 2010; Bencke et al., 2010). The assembly of the existing knowledge on the birds of RGS goes back to the end of the nineteenth century, but this relatively short history of investigation is marked by a few decades of fruitfulness interspersed with long periods of minimal or no progress in the ornithological knowledge. Between 1880 and 1892, the state was residence to the German naturalist Hermann von Ihering, who published the first annotated checklist of the birds of RGS (Ihering, 1899). Although pioneering, his list covered only a small part of the state’s territory. Three decades later, Rudolf Gliesch produced the second list of the birds of RGS based on information collected by himself and collaborators mostly on the outskirts of Porto Alegre and along the northern littoral (Gliesch, 1930), but once again the list did not provide a representative picture of the state’s avifauna (for a summary of the early history of ornithological investigation in RGS, see Belton, 1984). The next few decades witnessed only modest progress, with the work of Camargo (1962) standing out alone as the only significant contribution. This phase lasted until the first publications of the American ornithologist William Belton in the mid-1970s. Belton’s contributions were particularly central and in many ways pioneering because he used for the first time standardized survey methods and covered all ecosystems and physiographic regions of the state. His work resulted in the first compilation of the birds of RGS based on a reasonably complete geographical coverage of the state’s territory (Belton, 1978).

Since then, four updates of the RGS checklist were published: (1) Belton (1984; 1985) - the most important contribution to the ornithology of RGS, including distribution maps for all species listed, indication of museum specimens and original data on field marks, voice, seasonality, abundance, breeding, behavior, and ecology; (2) Belton (1994) - an updated Portuguese version of the previous work; (3) Bencke (2001) - the first review to adopt explicit criteria for the inclusion of species and to consider other types of documentation in addition to museum specimens; and (4) Bencke et al. (2010) - the first update produced by a regional, albeit informal, committee of ornithologists from some of the main research institutions in RGS. Therefore, in the last four decades the RGS checklist has been continuously revised and updated in a more or less standardized way, allowing comparisons between lists.

Since the first comprehensive assessment (i.e., Belton, 1978), almost 100 new species have been added to the state list (Bencke et al., 2010). Comparing their data with the results of previous reviews, Bencke et al. (2010) detected an accelerated increase in the number of species recorded in RGS (over four new species per year in 2001-2010). They also drew attention to the increased contribution of amateurs to the improvement of the list, either by contributing new occurrences or by providing better documentation. As in other regions, the proliferation of field-based observers in the state has catalyzed the emergence of important bird records and also enhanced the detection of rare species, including some previously unrecorded within the country or state boundaries. A large proportion of these records are accompanied by documentation in the form of sound recordings or, more frequently, digital photographs, which enable the confirmation of the identifications by experts. In addition to this greater involvement of amateurs, a significant increase in the number of professional ornithologists working in the state is also evident in the last three decades (I. Franz, unpubl. data).

The Brazilian ornithology has benefited from the contribution of bird watchers and photographers in recent years as well. Both birding and (especially) wildlife photography are fast-growing activities that have gained many enthusiasts in Brazil through the development of digital databases (e.g., WikiAves), specific events (e.g., Avistar and Festival Brasileiro de Aves Migratórias), and specialized magazines (e.g., Passarinhando and Uru). Besides being powerful tools for environmental education (Farias, 2007), these hobbies have great potential for generating large volumes of useful data (see Dickinson et al., 2010), for example, by nourishing national databases of bird records, which are key for spatial and temporal analysis, as well as for careful conservation planning (Giorgi et al., 2014; Lees & Martin, 2014; Pegas & Castley, 2014; Callaghan & Gawlik, 2015).

Continuing Belton’s legacy, and now making broad use of public-access databases nourished by both amateur and professional birders, we provide here the fifth update of the checklist of the birds of RGS. Recent records and new evidences are thoroughly revised and implemented. Furthermore, as recommended by Bencke et al. (2010), we tried to distinguish between range extension vs. expansion and between instances of vagrancy and pseudo-vagrancy when interpreting the new occurrences, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the composition and dynamics of the regional avifauna.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

As defined by Bencke et al. (2010), the geographic coverage of the checklist includes the continental territorial area of RGS (281,748.54 km2), as well as the corresponding territorial sea and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) up to the limit of 200 nautical miles, or 370 km, from the coastline.

The list revised and updated by Bencke et al. (2010) served as the basis for the present review, which covers the period from February 2011 through July 2017. We incorporated all new information and updated the taxonomy and classification according to the latest checklist of Brazilian birds published by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee - CBRO (Piacentini et al., 2015). The only exceptions were the separation of the willets (Scolopacidae) into two distinct species, Tringa semipalmata (Gmelin, 1789) and T. inornata, in which case we followed Oswald et al. (2016), and the treatment of Thalassarche steadi Falla, 1933 as a full species, following Abbott & Double (2003a,b), Chambers et al. (2009), ACAP (2011) and del Hoyo et al. (2017a).

Criteria for inclusion of species in the list were the same as in Bencke et al. (2010). Accepted species must have (i) occurrence in the state documented by verifiable physical evidence in the form of a study skin or complete specimen, skeleton, photograph, video or audio recording, published in bibliographic sources or available for examination in scientific collections or archives of public access, or (ii) at least one state record supported by non-material evidence allowing an unequivocal diagnosis of the taxon involved, such as a circumstantiated written report containing a detailed description of, or reference to, the diagnostic features observed.

We compiled new information from published and unpublished sources. For new occurrences and documentation updates compiled from the scientific literature (including ‘in press’ manuscripts), we provide only basic metadata for each record in summary tables. Additional information on these published records can be obtained by consulting the original sources. For unpublished records, the information is presented or discussed in more detail and, as a rule, the available evidence is fully referenced or published here. In a few cases, however, we intentionally chose not to publish the evidence in order to preserve its novelty, as the authors of some of the new state records expressed the intent to publish their findings in the near future. In any case, we made sure that supporting evidence for these records is available for examination in archives of public access.

In general, only the evidence of higher support is indicated for each species, according to the following order of importance: specimen (complete or partial, in the form of dry study skin, skeleton or specimen preserved in liquid [“spirit specimen”]) > photograph or video > audio recording > circumstantiated sight record (sensuBencke et al., 2010). More than one evidence is mentioned for species that present identification problems or when the main evidence is unsatisfactory, ambiguous or has uncertain availability.

We also updated the lists of species of probable and hypothetical occurrence in the state, following the criteria outlined in Bencke et al. (2010). In short, probable species are those for which the existing RGS records have distributional or biogeographic coherence but lack minimal ancillary information to allow a reliable taxonomic identification or an independent assessment of their validity; and hypothetical species are those known in RGS only from unsubstantiated records and whose occurrence in the state is not consistent with their distributional pattern.

Museum collections and digital libraries of photographs and/or sound recordings cited in the text are as follows: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Imbé, RGS, Brazil (MUCIN); Coleção de Aves da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande- FURG, Rio Grande, RGS, Brazil (CAFURG); Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RGS, Brazil (MCP); Museu de Ciências Naturais, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RGS, Brazil (MCNCS); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, São Leopoldo, RGS, Brazil (UNISINOS); Xeno-canto - digital database of bird sounds (XC; http://www.xeno-canto.org); Arquivo Sonoro Elias Coelho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (ASEC); Macaulay Library, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA (ML); WikiAves - digital database of photographs and sounds of Brazilian birds (WA; http://www.wikiaves.com.br); VIREO - Visual Resources for Ornithology, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA (VIREO; http://vireo.ansp.org). Ridgely & Tudor (2009) and the online encyclopedic databases Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (del Hoyo et al., 2017b) and The Birds of North America (Rodewald, 2015) served as the main sources of information on geographic distribution and winter range of the species discussed in the text.

RESULTS

Additions. Our compilation of published and unpublished new records resulted in the addition of 42 species to the main list of the birds of RGS. An additional species (Tringa inornata) was included as a result of taxonomic changes affecting the state list, totaling 43 new species compared to the previous list (Tab. I). Of these, 27 had records for RGS previously published in the scientific literature since the last update of the list, though in a few cases without accompanying diagnostic documentation. The remaining 16 species had only unconfirmed (taxa uplisted from the “probable” and “hypothetical” categories) or unpublished records for the state (Tab. I). Two taxa (Charadrius sp. and Catharus cf. swainsoni) could not be safely identified to species level from the available evidence, but undoubtedly belong to species not previously recorded for RGS.

Tab. I Species added to the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, recorded in the period February 2011-July 2017. 

Taxa Date Location Evidence Source/Author
Anatidae
Chloephaga picta (Gmelin, 1789) 21 January 2013 Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Tavares Published photograph Bencke & Souza (2013)
Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater, 1886) 30 October 2013 About 1 km south of Barra do Estreito, São José do Norte Published photograph Dias & Cardozo (2014)
Diomedeidae
Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster, 1785)# 14 May 2014 and 5 October 2016 Itapeva, Torres (29°23’S; 49°46’W) and Arroio do Sal (29°34’S; 49°54’W) Skeleton (MUCIN 591); published photograph (Fig. 1) This study (Maurício Tavares, MUCIN staff)
Procellariidae
Pterodroma deserta Mathews, 1934 2008 -2010 Within Exclusive Economic Zone of RGS Data-logger recovery Ramírez et al. (2013)
Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769) March 2013 Southern coast of RGS Specimen (CAFURG 626) Oliveira et al. (2017)
Hydrobatidae
Fregetta tropica (Gould, 1844) 27 May 2013 6.7 km north of Solidão lighthouse, Mostardas Published photograph Petry et al. (2016)
Accipitridae
Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825# 18 May 2014 Airfield of Palmeira das Missões Published photograph Wagener (2015)
Ictinia mississippiensis (Wilson, 1811) 6 November 2016 Hotel Fonte Ijuí (28°18’S; 53°55’W), Ijuí Published photograph (Fig. 2) This study (Carlos Eduardo Agne)
Buteo platypterus (Vieillot, 1823) 25 November 2010 Parque Estadual do Turvo, Derrubadas Published photograph Meller & Bencke (2012)
Heliornithidae
Heliornis fulica (Boddaert, 1783) 17 October 2015 Banks of the Rio Marau, Marau (28°28’S; 52°11’W) Published photograph (Fig. 3) This study (Cláudio Longo)
Charadriidae
Charadrius sp. December 2015 Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe (31°21’S; 51°02’W), Tavares Photographs (WA1943013, WA1944101, WA1963959, WA1963968) This study (André Luiz Briso, Flavio Ronaldo)
Scolopacidae
Tringa inornata (Brewster, 1887) 17 April 2014 Lagoa dos Patos estuary (32°08’44”S; 52°04’42”W), São José do Norte Published photograph (Fig. 4) This study (Cláudio D. Timm); cited for RGS (as T. semipalmata inornata) by Martínez-Curci et al. (2014)
Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus, 1758) 15 December 2015 Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe (31°21’S; 51°02’W), Tavares Photographs (WA1962248, WA2561401, WA2561475) This study (Paulo Buchabqui Rodrigues, Pedro Sessegolo)
Thinocoridae
Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz, 1829 5 August 2016 Trilha das Figueiras (31°19’49”S; 51°03’44”W), Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Tavares Published photograph (Fig. 5) This study (Flavio Ronaldo)
Stercorariidae
Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders, 1893# 7 November 2011 Atlantic Ocean off RGS Published photographs Daudt et al. (in press)
Laridae
Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758) 7 January 2016 Ocean beach at Cidreira (30°06’3”S; 50°10’26”W) Published photograph (Fig. 6) This study (Paulo Fenalti)
Sternidae
Sterna vittata Gmelin, 1789 3 September 2012 Continental slope off RGS (c. 34°07’S; 51°19’W) Published photograph Carlos et al. (2017)
Picidae
Picumnus cirratus Temminck, 1825# 11 June 2014 Parque Estadual do Espinilho (30°10’46”S; 57°29’44”W), Barra do Quaraí Specimen (MCP 4332) First reported for RGS by Santos et al. (2015)
Melanerpes cactorum (d’Orbigny, 1839) November/December 2012 Parque Estadual do Espinilho, Barra do Quaraí Published photograph Pereira et al. (2013)
Furnariidae
Tarphonomus certhioides (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) 21 July 2012 Parque Estadual do Espinilho, Barra do Quaraí Published photograph Repenning et al. (2012)
Phacellodomus sibilatrix Sclater, 1879 26 January 2012 Parque Estadual do Espinilho, Barra do Quaraí Published photographs Bellagamba & Oliveira (2012)
Pipridae
Pipra fasciicauda Hellmayr, 1906 23 March and 6 September 2015 Derrubadas Published photographs Meller et al. (2016)
Rhynchocyclidae
Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766) 7 November 2015 UFSM campus (27°55’S; 53°18’W), Palmeira das Missões Published photograph (Fig. 7) This study (Carlos Eduardo Agne)
Tyrannidae
Phaeomyias murina (Spix, 1825) 12 December 2013 Near Rio Ijuí, Dezesseis de Novembro Published photograph + audio recording (XC367617) Pereira (2017)
Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis (Sclater & Salvin, 1873) 9 December 2012 and 28 December 2015 Lagoa da Custódia (30°01’16”S; 50°10’17”W), Tramandaí, and Porto do Barquinho (31°2’52”S; 51°0’17”W), Mostardas (see text) Photographs (WA828480, WA1979557, WA1967150; Fig. 8) This study (Paulo Fenalti, Oscar A. Fenalti, Vilde E. Florencio); first cited for RGS by Bornschein et al. (2017)
Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) 30 September 2013 Riparian forest of the Arroio Pindaí, Uruguaiana Published photograph Vizentin-Bugoni et al. (2015)
Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus, 1758) 7 February 2017 Porto do Barquinho, Mostardas (31°03’03”S; 50°59’14”W) Photographs (WA2461678, WA2462327, WA2462326, WA2479784; Figs. 9, 10) This study (Gil Ribeiro Peres, Nina Wenoli, Flavio Ronaldo)
Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) 9 January 2017 Parque Estadual da Guarita (29°21’S; 49°44’W), Torres Photograph (WA2429646) This study (Joel Martinez)
Contopus virens (Linnaeus, 1766) 8 November 2016 Chácara Manduca Belém (31°23’12”S; 51°7’38”W), Tavares Published photographs (Figs. 11-14) This study (José Laércio Junqueira Ribeiro)
Knipolegus aterrimus Kaup, 1853 23 August 2013 Carumbé, Uruguaiana Published photograph Bellagamba et al. (2016)
Muscisaxicola maclovianus (Garnot, 1826) 8 May 2011 Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Tavares Published photographs Schwertner et al. (2011)
Muscisaxicola capistratus (Burmeister, 1860) 24 April 2015 Mostardas Published photograph Santos et al. (2017)
Xolmis velatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) 10 July 2015 Road to Lagoão (28°34’S; 53°31’W), Cruz Alta Published photograph; also WA1753269 Anonymous (2015); Charles Boufleur
Xolmis rubetra (Burmeister, 1860) 15 August 2012 Uruguaiana Published photograph Bellagamba-Oliveira et al. (2013)
Agriornis micropterus Gould, 1839 8 September 2012 Estância Tarumã, Uruguaiana Published photograph Bellagamba et al. (2014)
Troglodytidae
Campylorhynchus turdinus (Wied, 1831) * 26 April 2015 Urban area of Santa Maria Published photographs Vargas-Peixoto & Bosholn (2016)
Donacobiidae
Donacobius atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) 18 June 2015 Sewage treatment plant of São Borja (28°37’S; 56°00’W) Published photograph (Fig. 15) This study (Dirce Freitas)
Turdidae
Catharus cf. swainsoni (Tschudi, 1845) 15 February 2013 and 18 January 2016 Erechim (27°38’S; 52°16’W) and Marques de Souza (29°19’S; 52°06’W) Published photograph (Fig. 16); also poor quality audio recordings (see text) Meyer et al. (2014); this study (Maickel Sand)
Thraupidae
Tangara ornata (Sparrman, 1789) 30 January 2010 Morro Azul, Três Cachoeiras (29°24’S; 49°57’W) Published photograph (Fig.17) This study (Amarildo Cardoso)
Sporophila hypochroma Todd, 1915 1 February 2015 Touro Passo (29°37’23”S; 56°45’16”W), Uruguaiana Photograph (WA1647035) + audio recording (WA1645476) This study (Sergio Messias, Márcio Repenning)
Saltatricula multicolor (Burmeister, 1860) 7 May 2013 Uruguaiana Published photograph Bellagamba et al. (2013)
Thlypopsis sordida (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) 12 June 2012 Outskirts of Uruguaiana (29°45’12”S; 57°04’09”W) Published photographs (Figs. 18, 19) This study (Emilio Mandarino)
Sturnidae
Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 29 October 2014 Near Cordilheiras (30°35’S; 53°50’W), Lavras do Sul Published photograph (Fig. 20) This study (Valerio Souza)#

*Listed as hypothetical in Bencke et al. (2010); † listed as probable in Bencke et al. (2010).

# First reported for RGS and Brazil by Silva et al. (2017), but this source was issued to late to be included in the text.

We were able to find documentation for all but one of the newly incorporated taxa. Of these, 36 are documented with photographs, three with museum specimens and two with photographs complemented by voice recordings (Tab. I). One Nearctic migrant (Contopus virens) was added based on the re-identification of a photographic record that had been erroneously identified in the WikiAves online archive (see below). The inclusion of the only undocumented species (Pterodroma deserta) is based on information retrieved from data-loggers attached to living individuals tracked to oceanic waters within the EEZ of the state.

We herein publish or explicitly indicate supporting voucher documentation for the occurrence of 18 new species for which no published evidence was available in the bibliography (Tab. I; Figs 1 - 1 5, 17-20), including one species (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis) recently mentioned for the state without reference to any specific supporting documentation. With regard to T. inornata, although a specimen of its sister taxon T. semipalmata and photographs of both taxa had been previously mentioned for the state, no published photographs documenting its occurrence in RGS were available. We thus provide a photograph of an individual in nonbreeding (basic) plumage taken at the mouth of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary in 2014 (Fig. 4). We also indicate supplementary documentation for two other species that already had published records for RGS supported by material evidence (Picumnus cirratus and Catharus cf. swainsoni; Tab. I, Fig. 16).

Figs 1-6  Photographic documentation for six species added to the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 1, Phoebetria palpebrata, Arroio do Sal, 5 October 2016 (M. Tavares); 2, Ictinia mississippiensis, juvenile, Ijuí, 6 November 2016 (C. E. Agne); 3, Heliornis fulica, presumed male, Marau, 17 October 2015 (C. Longo); 4, Tringa inornata, adult nonbreeding, São José do Norte, 17 April 2014 (C. D. Timm); 5, Thinocorus rumicivorus, male (left) and female (right), Tavares, 5 August 2016 (F. Ronaldo); 6, Leucophaeus atricilla, adult nonbreeding, Cidreira, 7 January 2016 (P. Fenalti). 

Figs 7-10  Photographic documentation for three species added to the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 7, Todirostrum cinereum, Palmeira das Missões, 7 November 2015 (C. E. Agne); 8, Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Mostardas, 28 December 2015 (P. Fenalti); 9, 10, Tyrannus tyrannus, Mostardas, 7 February 2017 (G. R. Peres). 

Figs 11-14 Contopus virens, Tavares, 8 November 2016 (J. L. J. Ribeiro). Note the whitish throat, center breast and belly contrasting with the darker breast-sides (giving a “vested” appearance), relatively long, pointed wings, distinct wing bars, and rather heavy-looking bill, which exclude the sympatric C. cinereus. The combination of a pale overall coloration (especially underneath), extensively orange-yellow lower mandible and relatively long tail extension are consistent with C. virens and not C. sordidulus

Figs 15-20  Photographic documentation for five species added to the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 15, Donacobius atricapilla, São Borja, 18 June 2015 (D. Freitas); 16, Catharus cf. swainsoni, Marques de Souza, 18 January 2016 (M. Sand); 17, Tangara ornata, Três Cachoeiras, 30 January 2010 (A. Cardoso); 18, 19, Thlypopsis sordida, Uruguaiana, 12 June 2016 (E. Mandarino); 20, Sturnus vulgaris, male in breeding season, Lavras do Sul, 29 October 2014 (V. Souza). 

Nine species included in the main list were upgraded from the lists of species of probable and hypothetical occurrence owing to new documented records (Tab. I), including representatives of three taxonomic families not previously represented in the state list (Thinocoridae, Heliornithidae and Donacobiidae). In contrast, 13 of the newly incorporated taxa had not been previously reported from the state in the bibliography and constitute genuine additions, of which two are new for Brazil as well (Charadrius sp. and Sturnus vulgaris).

Taxonomic changes. Two species included in the previous list were substituted due to taxonomic splits. Thalassarche steadi Falla, 1933 is considered a species distinct from T. cauta (Gould, 1841) and replaces the latter in the list. In addition, the southern, yellow-billed form of gray seedeater previously considered a variant morph of Sporophila plumbea (Wied, 1830) has recently been described as a new species, endemic to the upland grasslands of southern Brazil, S. beltoni Repenning & Fontana, 2013, which substitutes the former on the main list.

Documentation updates. We updated the documentation of 20 species previously included in the main list by compiling or providing higher-quality evidence for their occurrence in the state (Tab. II). Of these, eleven were previously known in RGS only from sight records, two were documented with voice recordings and seven with photographs. The new documentation includes eight museum specimens (in one case complemented by a voice recording), ten photographs (in one case complemented by a voice recording) and two audio recordings. Five updates were based on evidences previously published in bibliographic sources. We publish or indicate herein the new documentation for the remaining species (Tab. II, Figs 21-29). In one case (Fluvicola albiventer), we supplement the previous photographic documentation (VIREO archive d01/34/078) with a new photographic record because the former was only weakly connected to RGS.

Tab. II Documentation updates for species previously included in the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, period February 2011-July 2017. 

Taxa Previous evidence* New evidence Remarks/Source
Sulidae
Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) Published photograph Skeleton (MUCIN 001, formerly UFRGS 001) Franz et al. (2011)
Ardeidae
Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) Published photograph Specimen (CAFURG 532) Lagoa dos Patos estuary (32°00’S; 52°09’W), unknown date
Cathartidae
Cathartes burrovianus Cassin, 1845 Published photograph Specimen (CAFURG 724) Caçapava do Sul (30°31’S; 53°29’W), 1 October 2016 (Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Juliana Cordeiro)
Accipitridae
Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822) Audio recording Published photograph (Claudio Furini) Tenente Portela (27°22’S; 53°45’W), 4 February 2017 (this work; Fig. 21)
Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck, 1824) Sight records Published photograph Bellagamba et al. (2015)
Pseudastur polionotus (Kaup, 1847) Sight records Published photograph (Élinton Rezende) Vacaria (28°30’S; 50°56’W), 3 May 2015 (this work; Fig. 22)
Rallidae
Neocrex erythrops (Sclater, 1867) Sight record Specimen (MCNCS DZ32c6.397c) Bertin et al. (2017)
Scolopacidae
Calidris pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758) Sight records Published photograph (Marcelo Alievi) Talha Mar road (31°15’S; 50°58’W), Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Tavares (this work; Figs 23, 24)
Laridae
Larus atlanticus Olrog, 1958 Published photograph Specimen (MZUSP 86160) Praia do Cassino (32°09’52”S, 52°07’00”W), Rio Grande, 18 August 2009 (Fabio Schunck, Bret Whitney, Fernando Jacobs)
Sternidae
Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) Sight record Published photographs (Paulo Fenalti, Raphael Kurz) Mostardas (31°09’S; 50°48’W), 8 January 2014 and Rio Grande (32°11’S; 52°09’W), 8 March 2016 (this work; Figs 25, 26)
Strigidae
Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901) Published photograph Specimen (UNISINOS 903) Garcia et al. (2015)
Caprimulgidae
Nannochordeiles pusillus (Gould, 1861) Sight records Published photograph (Dilson V. Peixoto) Itaqui (29°08’S; 56°33’W), 27 November 2011 (this work; Fig. 27)
Trochilidae
Polytmus guainumbi (Pallas, 1764) Sight records Photograph (WA942007) + audio recording (ML199133) 3 km south of Santa Bárbara do Sul (28°24’S; 53°16’W), 24 December 2012 (Márcio Repenning)
Picidae
Campephilus leucopogon (Valenciennes, 1826) Sight record Published photograph (Carlos E. Agne) Pai Passo (30°16’27”S; 57°25’44”W), Barra do Quaraí, 28 May 2015 (this work; Fig. 28)
Falconidae
Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 Sight records Published photograph Meller (2013)
Furnariidae
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Jardine & Selby, 1830) Sight records Audio recordings (XC393331, XC393332) North of Aratinga (29°18’32”S, 50°11’02”W), São Francisco de Paula, 16 May 2002 (Glayson A. Bencke); XC180881, from “Parque Nacional Aparados da Serra, Cambará do Sul, RS”, is clearly from southern Santa Catarina, based on altitude and coordinates
Tityridae
Xenopsaris albinucha (Burmeister, 1869) Published photographs (Prestes & Martinez 2011) Specimen (MCP 3793) Fazenda Pacífico (30°07’27”S, 57°09’15”W), Barra do Quaraí, 18 October 2013 (Márcio Repenning, Mauricio S. Pereira)
Tyrannidae
Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862 Sight records Audio recording (ASEC 16392) Maquiné (29°40’S; 50°12’W), 18 March 2010 (Grasiela Casas)
Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck, 2007 Audio recording Specimen (MZUSP 86172) + audio recording (ML 229921) Banhado do Capão Seco (31°51’20”S, 52°16’25”W), Rio Grande, 17 August 2009 (Fabio Schunck, Bret Whitney, Fernando Jacobs)
Fluvicola albiventer (Spix, 1825) Photograph Published photograph (Ricardo O. de Oliveira) Uruguaiana (29°46’S; 57°05’W), 23 October 2015 (this work; Fig. 29)

* According to Bencke et al. (2010) or otherwise specified.

Figuras 21-26  Documentation updates for four species previously included in the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 21, Chondrohierax uncinatus, adult female, Tenente Portela, 4 February 2017 (C. Furini); 22, Pseudastur polionotus, Vacaria, 3 May 2015 (E. Rezende); 23, 24, Calidris pugnax, presumed male, Tavares, 15 February 2015 (M. Alievi); 25, Chlidonias niger, molting nonbreeding adult, Mostardas, 8 January 2014 (P. Fenalti); 26, C. niger, adult in alternate plumage, Rio Grande, 8 March 2016 (R. Kurz). 

Figuras 27-29  Documentation updates for three species previously included in the main list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 27, Nannochordeiles pusillus, presumed female, Itaqui, 27 November 2011 (D. V. Peixoto); 28, Campephilus leucopogon, male (right) and female (left), Barra do Quaraí, 28 May 2015 (C. E. Agne); 29, Fluvicola albiventer, Uruguaiana, 23 October 2015 (R. O. de Oliveira). 

Probable and hypothetical species. One species (Sporophila iberaensis Di Giacomo & Kopuchian, 2016) was added as probable and another three - Progne cf. sinaloae Nelson, 1898; Sicalis citrina Pelzeln, 1870, and Cyanerpes cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766) - as hypothetical (Figs 30, 31), resulting in 21 species with unconfirmed records from RGS (Appendix 2 and 3).

Figs 30-31  . Photographic records of two species added as hypothetical to the list of birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 30, Progne cf. sinaloae, Coxilha, 24 September 2016 (C. E. Agne); 31, Cyanerpes cyaneus, female, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, 27 July 2015 (R. Kurz). 

DISCUSSION

Updated list of the birds of RGS. The changes implemented here increase the number of accepted species in the RGS checklist to 704 (Appendix 1), 6.5% more than in the previous assessment (i.e., Bencke et al., 2010). This increase was accompanied by a reduction in the number of species listed as probable and hypothetical in the state, from 10 and 16 to the current 7 and 14, respectively (Appendix 2 and 3), which signals an important gain in consistency towards the stability of the list.

Among the additions to the main list, nine (21%) are long-distance, non-pelagic boreal migrants that winter primarily in lower latitudes of the Neotropics or in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World and Australasia. Four of these (Buteo platypterus, Leucophaeus atricilla, Contopus virens and Catharus cf. swainsoni) are Nearctic breeders that have their normal wintering ranges well to the north of RGS and are thus overshooting vagrants from North America. Two other Nearctic species, Ictinia mississippiensis and Tyrannus tyrannus, winter in areas much closer to RGS in central South America and were already somewhat expected. Both occur as vagrants or irregular visitors to adjacent areas of Argentina, and the latter has also been recently found south of our study area in Uruguay (Rodríguez-Cajarville et al., 2017). Tringa inornata, like its congener T. semipalmata, seems to be a scarce non-breeding visitor rather than a Nearctic vagrant in southeastern South America, as recently pointed out by Martínez-Curci et al. (2014). Charadrius sp. (C. mongolus or C. leschenaultii) and Numenius phaeopus, in contrast, are casual or accidental vagrants to RGS and South America, since both records involved migrating birds that obviously strayed well off their normal routes. The occurrence of the latter is presumably linked to the transatlantic vagrancy of Palearctic migrants headed to Africa from northwestern Europe. Such birds may continue heading south after arriving in equatorial South America or the Caribbean and may eventually reach higher latitudes along the Brazilian coast. The only previous records of N. phaeopus in Brazil are from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, a well-known vagrant trap for Old World species (Silva e Silva & Olmos, 2006). Concerning Charadrius sp., a central Asian species, two distinct routes by which displaced or misoriented migrants can reach South America are perhaps equally likely: one crossing the Atlantic ocean from Africa and the other via the islands off western Alaska and the Pacific coast of North America.

Eight other additions (19%) are austral migrants that breed in the southern cone of South America and in some cases also northward along the Southern and Central Andes. At least the southern populations of these species are migratory and winter in lower latitudes of the continent, mostly in north-central Argentina, Paraguay and southern Bolivia, or along either coast of South America or the Andes, as far north as southern Peru and Uruguay. Among these, Chloephaga picta, Muscisaxicola capistratus and Agriornis micropterus appear to be overshooting vagrants to RGS, while Thinocorus rumicivorus, Knipolegus aterrimus, Muscisaxicola maclovianus and Xolmis rubetra have known wintering ranges extending almost to RGS and may be more regular than currently documented. Regarding Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis, Bornschein et al. (2017) suggested that birds recorded in RGS may be latitudinal migrants in transit between breeding grounds in the Pampas of Argentina and wintering areas in coastal marshes of southeastern Brazil. The existence of a restricted breeding population of P. acutipennis in the lowlands of southeastern South America has only recently been revealed (Roesler, 2009). Therefore, these records are most likely attributable to pseudo-vagrancy (sensuGilroy & Lees, 2003), i.e., extralimital records of seemingly vagrant individuals that are actually pioneering new migration routes or using previously unknown migratory flyways at low densities (see Dias et al., 2010).

Though not considered an austral migrant (sensuChesser, 1994 and Stotz et al., 1996), Phoenicoparrus jamesi moves from its breeding sites in the high Andean plateaus to lower elevation wetlands in the central plains of Argentina in the non-breeding season (Caziani et al., 2007). Dias & Cardozo (2014) attributed the only RGS record of this species to vagrancy and speculated that it might have reached the Atlantic coast of the state following the more abundant and widespread Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782, which breeds in north-central Argentina and regularly migrates to southern Brazil.

Six novel species (14%) are pelagic or coastal seabirds that disperse widely in southern oceans or throughout the Atlantic in non-breeding season. All but Phoebetria palpebrata are expected as regular (albeit scarce) transients or non-breeding visitors to waters off southern Brazil based on their known at-sea distribution and migration routes. Three are transequatorial migrants from the northern (P. deserta, Calonectris diomedea) or southern hemisphere (Stercorarius maccormickii). The latter is mostly pelagic in winter (Furness et al., 2017), while the coastal Sterna vittata may be overlooked because of identification problems and potential confusion with similar species present along the RGS coast at different times of the year (Bugoni & Vooren, 2005). Fregetta tropica has tentatively been regarded as rare off the coast of southern and southeastern Brazil, but nocturnal habits and difficulty of distinguishing it from F. grallaria (Vieillot, 1818) in pelagic censuses may be leading to an underestimation of its regional abundance (Petry et al., 2016). Records of P. deserta in particular point to the great potential of geolocation data to reveal the occurrence of rare or unexpected seabirds in pelagic waters within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the state, particularly species that are not usually attracted to fishing vessels, as is the case with most gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.). As demonstrated by such studies, Pterodroma arminjoniana (Giglioli & Salvadori, 1869) has a high probability of occurrence in RGS territorial waters during the breeding season (Krüger et al., 2016). This species has been recorded in both Uruguayan (Abreu et al., 2010) and Argentinean (Savigny et al., 2005) waters, and therefore is a strong candidate to have its occurrence in RGS confirmed in the near future.

Four additions (9%) - Melanerpes cactorum, Tarphonomus certhioides, Phacellodomus sibilatrix and Saltatricula multicolor - are non-migratory species primarily or entirely restricted to the Chaco region (Stotz et al., 1996), of which the Espinal Province (sensuCabrera & Willink, 1973) can be considered an extension. The Espinal reaches RGS as the Vachellia-Prosopis espinilho parkland, typical of the westernmost tip of the state, where several Chaco species occur (Belton, 1984). Bird species above have range boundaries nearly abutting the western border of RGS in adjacent Argentina and Uruguay. Because range boundaries are dynamic and abundances tend to be lower near the edges of a species distribution (Brown et al., 1996), the presence of extralimital Chaco specialists in this part of the state, either as “transgressive” individuals or temporary colonizers, may simply reflect the spatial variation that is expected to occur over time at the periphery of their geographic distributions. The same may apply to records of P. cirratus, which presumably refer to the Chaco subspecies pilcomayensis, although in this case a recent range expansion may also be involved (Santos et al., 2015). Saltatricula multicolor is considered largely sedentary (Jaramillo, 2017), but data presented by Delhey & Scorolli (2002) indicate that it is apparently migratory at the southern end of its range in La Pampa and southwestern Buenos Aires provinces. Therefore, birds recorded in RGS in May (Bellagamba et al., 2013) could alternatively be thought of as being austral migrants originating in this region, as suspected by Di Giacomo (2005) for birds recorded mostly in fall and winter at El Bagual Reserve in the province of Formosa, Argentina.

At least nine species added (21%) are, or are likely to be, recent invaders from the north. These include both open-zone (Gampsonyx swainsoni, Todirostrum cinereum, Phaeomyias murina, Fluvicola nengeta, Xolmis velatus, Casiornis rufus, Campylorhynchus turdinus) and forest-based species (Pipra fasciicauda, Tangara ornata). Explicit evidences of recent range expansion in southeastern South America exist for T. cinereum, F. nengeta, C. turdinus and X. velatus (Piacentini et al., 2004; Straube et al., 2007; Bodrati et al., 2012; Meyer, 2013, 2016), and elsewhere for G. swainsoni and F. nengeta (Aguiar, 2010; Dort et al., 2010). With the exception of C. rufus, none of these species has so far been reported from Uruguay. Melanerpes cactorum is believed to be expanding its range in northeastern Buenos Aires province (Guerrero & Agnolin, 2016) and should perhaps be included among the newly colonizing species. Records of C. rufus in northwestern Uruguay are recent and suggest a range expansion directly from the Paraná‒Paraguay river corridor or from the south, since the species is apparently absent along the Uruguay river in eastern Corrientes, but occasionally reach the gallery forests of the La Plata river (Montaldo & Roitman, 1999). A double invasion of the state by F. nengeta and X. velatus can be inferred from the WikiAves records. Both species appear to have entered RGS simultaneously from the north/northwest and via the southern littoral of Santa Catarina, thereby circumventing the highlands of the Planalto. Birds of open and semi open zones undoubtedly benefited from large-scale land-use changes in originally forested regions of southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina (Misiones) and southeastern Paraguay, which created favorable conditions and enabled the southward dispersion of these species. Significant positive trends in surface air temperature recorded in southern Brazil and elsewhere in southeastern South America over the last few decades may also be driving shifts in regional species ranges (Bencke, 2010; Guerrero & Agnolin, 2016).

Thlypopsis sordida and Donacobius atricapilla may be recent invaders from the north as well. The former is suspected to be expanding in southern Brazil (Arzua et al., 2001; Ghizoni-Jr & Silva, 2006), while the latter is known from unconfirmed records in RGS (Bencke, 2001). However, both have been recorded in southern Misiones and eastern Corrientes close to the RGS border (Chebez, 1996; Capllonch et al., 2005; Nores et al., 2005), either historically or in recent times, and may simply have gone unnoticed until recently.

The record of Heliornis fulica does not clearly fit into any of the previous cases. Instances of short-distance vagrancy involving this species have been recorded elsewhere (Trinidad, Bonaire and New Mexico, USA; Bertram & Kirwan, 2017). Nearby RGS, it is known from several localities in the provinces of Misiones and Corrientes (south to at least 30°S) and from an old record in northeastern Santa Catarina (Carbonell, 1987; Parera, 1987; Rosário, 1996). It may be regularly present in RGS in small numbers and should be looked for along the Ibicuí and other well preserved rivers of the north and west of the state.

Finally, the exotic S. vulgaris has not been listed among the non-native bird species introduced to Brazil (Fontoura et al., 2013). It is presumably spreading northwards from Uruguay and Argentina, perhaps via jump dispersal, since it is not known to occur in these countries close to the RGS border. However, its establishment in the state as a wild bird has yet to be confirmed.

Documentation. Following the documentation updates, the percentage of accepted species without documented occurrence in the state decreased from 1.8% in 2010 to 0.7% in the present review. Currently, only five RGS species still lack documentation. These are known exclusively from sight records - Notharchus swainsoni (Gray, 1846), Anodorhynchus glaucus (Vieillot, 1816) and Chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) - and band/data-logger recoveries - P. deserta and Anas discors Linnaeus, 1766. Of the 699 species for which physical evidence is available, 590 are documented primarily by museum specimens (in one case complemented by an audio recording), three by osteological material, 95 by photographs (in three cases complemented by voice recordings), and 11 by audio recordings.

Identification and documentation accounts. The documentation indicated or provided in Tables I, II and in Figures 1-29 allows accurate identification of most species included in the main list based on unpublished information. Below we detail records and discuss diagnostic characteristics of some of the added or newly documented species whose identification is not straightforward.

Phoebetria palpebrata. One specimen found on the beach at Itapeva, Torres, was photographed and collected by the MUCIN staff on 14 May 2014, and its skeleton was preserved, together with tissue samples (MUCIN 591). A second specimen (field number AM 881) was found on the beach at Arroio do Sal on 5 October 2016; it was photographed (Fig. 1) and both the skeleton and tissue samples will be included in the same collection (M. Tavares, pers. comm.). Both specimens are clearly assignable to P. palpebrata rather than to the similar Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg, 1822) due to their light upper dorsum and neck.

Thalassarche steadi. This species was included in the main list based on an immature female collected in 2011 on the northern littoral of the state and identified using discriminant functions and molecular techniques (Pereira et al., 2016). The specimen (also immature) that served as the basis for the inclusion of Thalassarche cauta in previous lists, reported by Petry et al. (1991), has not been examined with the same methods and cannot be presently assigned to either species because immatures of T. cauta and T. steadi are indistinguishable on external characters (Pereira et al., 2016). Following this reasoning, we excluded the former from the list.

Pterodroma deserta. Ramírez et al. (2013) provided tracking data based on global location sensors (GLSs), or geolocators, deployed on breeding birds at Bugio Island, North Atlantic Ocean. At least five birds made intense use of waters within the EEZ of southeastern and southern Brazil. Some daily locations plotted on map of Fig. 1 in Ramírez et al. (2013:273) are within EEZ waters of RGS. Because some of these locations are clearly within 140 km of the coast of RGS and geolocators have a maximum error of 200 km (Phillips et al., 2004), even adding the maximum possible error of devices, locations are still within the 200 nautical miles (c. 370 km) of the EEZ.

Charadrius mongolus/leschenaultii. There are four photographs of an unidentified Charadrius plover taken at the Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe in the WikiAves website. Photographs WA1943013 and WA1944101 were taken by A. Briso on 5 December 2015, whereas WA1963959 and WA1963968 were obtained by F. Ronaldo on 29 December 2015. All photographs are presumably of the same individual, as inferred from the overall aspect of the birds and commentaries made by F. Ronaldo (who guided A. Briso and saw the bird on both occasions). In all photographs, the depicted individual is in basic plumage. The upperparts are dull gray-brown, with wing feathers displaying lighter margins. The forehead is white and the whitish supercilium broadens behind the eye. The underparts are white except for the large grayish-brown patches on the sides of the breast. The bill is black and relatively long, with mandibles gently tapering to a point at the tip. The maxillary unguis in A. Briso’s photographs is approximately half of the total bill length. Legs are long (including the tibia), dark olive-gray in A. Briso’s photographs and light gray in F. Ronaldo’s. Differences in color reflect the influence of substrate (wet mud in A. Briso’s photographs and dry soil in F. Ronaldo’s). Toe joints appear to be the same color as the rest of the legs (visible in WA1963968). The tarsus-to-bill-length ratio ranged from 1.86-2.0 in WA1943013 and 1.94-2.04 in WA1944101 (variation of four different measurements of both tarsus and bill). The species is a mid-sized Charadrius, judging by comparisons with a Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) and two Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 that appear in the background of WA1944101 and WA1963959, respectively.

A combination of characteristics, namely lack of a complete white neck collar, single incomplete breast-band, long, relatively large bill and long, dusky legs point to either the Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii Lesson, 1826 or the Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus Pallas, 1776 (Hayman et al., 2011; O’Brien et al., 2006). Both species breed in Asia and spend the non-breeding season in more southern latitudes of the Old World (Hirschfeld et al., 2000; Wiersma et al., 2017a,b). Vagrancy is common, with both species being recorded in North America and C. mongolus also in South America (Abbott et al., 2001; Le Nevé & Manzione, 2011; Wiersma et al., 2017a,b). Clear separation of these species based on photographs of birds in basic plumage is complex because of the overlap in some diagnostic characteristics between the smaller, slender-billed C. l. columbinus Wagler, 1829 and the “atrifrons” subspecies group of C. mongolus, which have slender and more pointed bills than the subspecies of the “mongolus” group (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). Identification of the RGS bird is further complicated because important diagnostic field marks of the wing and tail are not visible in the photographs (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). Leg color and tibia exposition point to C. leschenaultii (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). However, some C. mongolus may have greenish-grey legs and C. leschenaultii may have grayer legs (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). Judging the length of tibia exposition from photographs is further complicated because of distortions caused by the bird compressing or fluffing belly feathers in response to air temperature (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). The RGS bird not only has compressed body feathers but also has a concave abdomen, which may pass the impression that the tibia is more exposed than it really is. The concolor toe joints in relation to the rest of the legs points to C. mongolus, since C. leschenaultii often (but not always) has darker toe joints (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). The relatively large, pointed bill, which is clearly not blunt-ended, is reminiscent of C. leschenaultii(Hirschfeld et al., 2000). The maxillary unguis in A. Briso’s photographs is approximately half the total bill length, which is within the range of C. l. columbinus (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). On the other hand, the tarsus-to-bill-length ratio proposed by Millington (1988) to separate these species puts the RGS bird within the range of C. mongolus. Although this formula seems to be accurate, the ratio is difficult to determine because the angle from which the photograph is taken must be considered (Hirschfeld et al., 2000). Nonetheless, all ratios we calculated were of birds in lateral views and they were far above the range of C. leschenaultii, which is 1.43-1.78 (Millington, 1988). Differences in body molt schedules between both species, summarized in Hirschfeld et al. (2000), are not applicable because in December both species are not molting and should be in full basic plumage. However, upperparts are relatively paler and sandier - characteristic of C. leschenaultii - than in C. mongolus (Abbott et al., 2001). Although we are inclined to consider the bird as C. leschenaultii for presenting a larger set of characters within the range of this taxon, it shows a considerable overlap in some characters with C. mongolus. We thus consider the available evidence insufficient for an accurate identification and include the taxon in the RGS list as Charadrius sp.

Numenius hudsonicus Latham, 1790 and N. phaeopus. Sangster et al. (2015) recommended that the New World form hudsonicus (American Whimbrel) be treated as a species distinct from the Eurasian Whimbrel N. phaeopus based on previously published evidences and a new molecular phylogenetic analysis using available mtDNA datasets. The separation of these two taxa had already been proposed independently by Livezey (2010) based on a cladistic analysis of phenotypic characters. This treatment has recently been adopted by the CBRO (Piacentini et al., 2015). Bencke et al. (2010) provided photographic evidence for the occurrence of hudsonicus in RGS and attributed all documented records of whimbrels hitherto known from the state to this form (as N. phaeopus hudsonicus). Following the split of hudsonicus, this species should replace N. phaeopus in the RGS list. However, one individual of the Eurasian Whimbrel was recently photographed on the coast of RGS by a group of birdwatchers (Tab. I), thus justifying the maintenance of this species on the state list. The extensively white rump and uppertail-coverts of the bird rule out the commoner American Whimbrel (O’Brien et al., 2006).

Tringa inornata. The separation of T. inornata and T. semipalmata in basic plumage is based mostly on structural features (O’Brien, 2006; O’Brien et al., 2006). Tringa inornata is larger and more elegant, with a more elongated body, longer legs and neck, and longer, slimmer, finer-tipped bill. The angle from the bill to the forehead is steeper, and the crown is sometimes distinctively tall or puffy (O’Brien, 2006; O’Brien et al., 2006). The bird photographed at São José do Norte (Fig. 4) is readily identified as T. inornata based on bill and head features, and is more diagnosable than other individuals mentioned in Martínez-Curci et al. (2014).

Calidris pugnax. C. B. Andretti photographed a single bird along the Talha Mar road, Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Tavares, on 18 January 2017 (WA2466615). G. R. Peres later photographed what appears to be the same individual on the same locality on 6 February 2017 (WA2462329, WA2477328, WA2477334). The bird is noticeably larger than C. fuscicollis and about the same size as or slightly smaller than Pluvialis dominica (Statius Muller, 1776), which appear with it in WA2477334. It has a small head, a rounded body with a prominent belly and a humped back. The upperparts look scaled due to distinctive pale fringing on the grayish brown scapulars, wing coverts and tertials, most of which are centered or barred black. Most of the head, hindneck and mantle has a slight sandy-buff wash. The belly, flanks and undertail coverts are white, and the throat and the area around the base of the bill are whitish. The bill is dark and droops slightly toward the tip. The legs are long and yellow-orange. Based on comparisons with C. fuscicollis and P. dominica, the bird measured approximately 190-230 mm, which is within the range of females or rare faeder males, which measure 200-250 mm (regular males measure 260-320 mm) (Karlionova et al., 2007; Hayman et al., 2011). This bird is also in definitive plumage, as inferred from the lack of a buff wash on the underparts and of buff fringes on scapulars, wing coverts and tertials (Hayman et al., 2011). In addition, juveniles have dull yellowish-brown or greenish legs, never yellow-orange as the RGS bird (Hayman et al., 2011). M. Alievi photographed a second individual along the same road on 15 February 2017 (WA2513429; Figs 23, 24). This bird is similar to the first one but its bill is marked orange-yellow and the upper breast has vitiligo-like white blotches, thus suggesting a male. Structural and morphological characteristics visible in photographs separate the birds from any other shorebird occurring in RGS and the somewhat similar Tringa totanus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Calidris acuminata Horsfield, 1821 from the Old World (Hayman et al., 2011).

Nannochordeiles pusillus. The combination of rufous-tinged upperparts, white throat, barred underparts, white bar on primaries, and wings about the same length as the tail when resting are distinctive (Cleere, 1998; Ridgely et al., 2015). The Itaqui bird (Fig. 27) appears to be a female, as indicated by the small white marks on the primaries, duller and buffier tips to secondaries, and lack of white tips on the rectrices (Cleere, 1998). The somewhat similar Chordeiles minor (Forster, 1771) is larger, less rufous, has wing tips projecting beyond the tail when resting and the white band on the primaries is larger and closer to the base of the wing (Cleere, 1998). The very similar Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann, 1783), which has not been found in RGS, is also larger, with no rufous above, and has the white band on the primaries closer to the base of the wing (Cleere, 1998). As noted by Cleere et al. (2017), the race of the birds recently found in northeastern Argentina and RGS has yet to be determined.

Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis. Although Bornschein et al. (2017) mention three records of P. acutipennis for RGS, there are actually only two. One individual was photographed by P. Fenalti in a wetland on the margin of Lagoa da Custódia, Tramandaí, on 9 December 2012 (WA828480) and another was photographed by P. Fenalti (Fig. 8; WA1972873), V. E. Florencio (WA1979557) and O. A. Fenalti (WA1967150) on the eastern edge of Lagoa dos Patos at Porto do Barquinho, Mostardas, on 28 December 2015 (P. Fenalti, pers. comm.). Records for “Mostardas” and “Lagoa do Peixe” on Table 1 of Bornschein et al. (2017) thus refer to the same bird and are mislocated. Diagnostic features visible in the photographs include the yellowish-olive hue to the upperparts, the dusky lores and cheeks, the olive crown concolor with the back, and the bright yellow underparts (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). The similar Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) is duller, has brownish upperparts and a rufescent crown (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana Lillo, 1905, which has not been found in the state (Bencke et al., 2010), has a rufescent tone on crown, lores and cheeks (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009).

Tyrannus tyrannus. Photographs taken at Mostardas (Figs 9, 10) show a molting bird with faded and worn flight feathers (except outermost tertials, which are new). It has slaty upperparts and white underparts, with a sharp contrast between the dark head and the white throat. The bill and tail are black, the latter with an evident white tip. Characteristics visible in photographs, especially the white tip to the square tail, separate it from Tyrannus savana Daudin, 1802 and T. dominicensis (Gmelin, 1788), the latter not found in RGS (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009; Bencke et al., 2010). The similar T. caudifasciatus D’Orbigny, 1839 is resident in the West Indies and has a larger head, a stronger bill and a grayer back.

Contopus virens. We reidentified a photograph originally assigned to the Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus (Spix, 1825) in the WikiAves website (WA2362350) as being of this species and obtained new photographs of the same individual that confirm the identification (Figs 11-14). The bird was photographed in a small clearing inside coastal restinga woodland during a birdwatching tour to the Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe at Tavares (R. Fortes, pers. comm.). The Wood-Pewees (C. virens and C. sordidulus Sclater, 1859) can be distinguished from the local (nominate) subspecies of the Tropical Pewee by their longer primary extension, more distinct wing bars, heavier bill, and less uniform underparts (Figs 11-14). Tropical is also grayer and darker overall than either, especially on the crown and underparts (Schulenberg et al., 2007; Ridgely & Tudor, 2009; Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2017a,b; Farnsworth et al., 2017). In addition, this species is restricted to the dense forests of the extreme north in RGS, along the Pelotas and Uruguay rivers (Belton, 1994; Bencke et al., 2003). Therefore, its occurrence in the mostly open areas around Lagoa do Peixe is highly unlikely.

Separation of Eastern C. virens and Western C. sordidulus Wood-Pewees is far more problematic and they are often distinguished with certainty only by voice (McCarty, 1996; Bemis & Rising, 1999; Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). Differences in plumage, structure and bare part colors are subtle and much overlap exists (see review in Lee et al., 2008). Consequently, no identification can be regarded as conclusive unless based on a combination of characters. Western tends to be darker (less gray and more dusky-olive) overall, with a more extensive “vest” (broad chest band often not interrupted medially and typically extending down to flanks). Its upper wing bar is duller and fainter than the lower wing bar, showing less contrast with the dark wing, and its lower mandible is duskier, with the pale color usually restricted to the base and seldom extending nearly to the tip. Eastern in turn is generally paler throughout (typically olive-gray above and more extensively whitish below), shows two equally contrasting wing bars and has a proportionately longer tail (because tail extension, or the distance from wing tip to tail tip, is greater than primary extension in this species). The extent of light color on the lower mandible is also greater than in Western and adults often have the bill mostly or entirely orange-yellow underneath (Hilty & Brown, 1986; Stiles & Skutch, 1989; Fjeldså & Krabbe, 1990; McCarty, 1996; Bemis & Rising, 1999; Lee et al., 2008; Farnsworth & Lebbin, 2017a,b).

We assume the Tavares bird as being C. virens based on its relatively pale overall coloration, rather restricted “vest” (not extending down to flanks) and extensively orange-yellow lower mandible (Figs 11-14). Although the primary extension is not directly visible in any of the available photographs, the length of the tail extension also suggests this species instead of C. sordidulus. Evaluation of the relative contrast between the upper and lower wing bars in the Tavares bird is hampered by the high degree of wear of the median secondary coverts. However, although reduced, the upper wing bar appears to be as bright as the lower one, again suggesting C. virens. Finally, C. sordidulus is thought to winter primarily on the Andean slopes from 400 to 1700 m a.s.l., while C. virens is more widespread in the adjacent lowlands, especially in western Amazonia (Stotz et al., 1992; Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). Hence, the latter is the most likely species to be expected in eastern South America.

The RGS record of C. virens is apparently only the third for the country outside Amazonia. Previous known occurrences in eastern Brazil were at Chapada do Araripe, Ceará (Teixeira et al., 1993) and Ubatuba, northern littoral of São Paulo (Silveira & Uezu, 2011). Lagoa do Peixe also appears to be a new southernmost locality for the species within its wintering range, since outside the Brazilian territory there seem to be no published records south of Orán, Salta, in northwestern Argentina (Hoy, 1981; Ridgely & Tudor, 2009).

Catharus cf. swainsoni. Meyer et al. (2014) reported the first record of a migrant North American Catharus in RGS from Erechim, where one bird identified as C. swainsoni was sighted with the aid of playback on 15 February 2013. Two poor-quality audio recordings documenting this record were deposited in the WikiAves (WA888672, WA914300) and Xeno-Canto (XC127370, XC127519) websites (date in XC127519 mistakenly given as 15 March). Another RGS record of a Catharus, also identified as C. swainsoni, occurred on 18 January 2016 at Marques de Souza (Fig. 16; WA2261365, WA2261370). The photographs that document this record are of poor quality but allow the recognition of a Catharus thrush with distinct buffy eye-ring and loral stripe (“spectacles”), white underparts and densely spotted breast. The face, lower throat and upper breast are washed with buff (color saturation artificially enhanced by flash), the throat is bordered on each side with a dark stripe and the mandible is extensively pale. In neither case did the authors of records mention the diagnostic characteristics on which the field identification was based, nor did they refer the taxonomic source followed to treat C. swainsoni as a species separate from C. ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840), which presumably was the latest CBRO list available at the time of each record. These taxa are considered only subspecifically distinct in most recent sources (e.g., AOU, 1998 and supplements) and differ in subtle vocal and morphological features. They also have nearly completely segregated winter ranges, with russet-backed birds (ustulatus group) wintering in Mexico and Central America and olive-backed birds (swainsoni group) wintering primarily in Panama and western South America, south to northern Argentina (Collar & Christie, 2017). In Brazil, swainsoni has been treated as a full species by the CBRO since 2010 and is the only taxon with accepted occurrence (Piacentini et al., 2015). However, there are very few specimen records for the country (e.g., Pinto, 1944; Willis et al., 1993) and undoubtedly, most modern Brazilian records of a “spectacled” Catharus have been automatically assigned to swainsoni based solely on the assumption that this is the only likely taxon in Brazil. In our opinion, the available documentation for the RGS records does not contain sufficient information to allow a reliable identification based on diagnostic characters. Consequently, the identity of the birds as C. swainsoni can be assumed only on biogeographical grounds. The voice of the individual recorded at Erechim, although reminiscent of that of C. ustulatus/swainsoni, is barely audible on the recordings, which makes any comparison inconclusive. Likewise, the photographs taken at Marques de Souza do not show the upperparts of the bird, where lies the main difference between the two taxa (Mack & Yong, 2000; Collar & Christie, 2017). Therefore, we chose to cite these records as Catharus cf. swainsoni on the main list until better evidence is available.

Sporophila hypochroma. This seedeater was listed as probable in Bencke et al. (2010) because of the possibility of confusion with phenotypically similar individuals of Sporophila hypoxantha Cabanis, 1851 and plumage variants of S. cinnamomea (Lafresnaye, 1839) when the identification cannot be confirmed by voice, which was the case of the records hitherto known from the state. An audio recording made by M. Repenning at Uruguaiana on 1 February 2015 (WA1645476; Tab. I) is referred to S. hypochroma and confirms the occurrence of this species in the west of RGS. A photograph of the same individual (as inferred from information issued by the authors and the date and time of the record) taken by S. Messias is available at the WikiAves website (WA1647035).

Sturnus vulgaris. This Eurasian species became established around Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1987 and has since been expanding its range in southeastern South America (Peris et al., 2005). The first Uruguayan records were in 2008 at Montevideo (Mazzulla, 2013). On 29 October 2014, and again on 23 September 2015, an adult male (Fig. 20) was photographed by V. Souza at his property in Lavras do Sul (Tab. I). These are the first records of this highly invasive species in Brazil.

Species of probable and hypothetical occurrence. A photograph of a Sporophila seedeater of the capuchino group made by E. Mandarino at Barra do Quaraí (30°12’S; 57°33’W) on 17 November 2013 (WA1155820) matches the color pattern of the recently described S. iberaensis from the Iberá marshes in northeastern Argentina and adjacent areas of Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. However, since there is considerable plumage variation among members of this group, and full diagnosis relies on voice characteristics, we consider it as probable in the state until further evidence is available.

Similarly, an atypical martin photographed north of Coxilha (28°07’S; 52°18’W) (Fig. 30), identified as a Grey-breasted Martin Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789), closely resembles the rare and poorly known Sinaloa Martin Progne sinaloae of northwestern Mexico. The bird is glossy steel-blue above, with a deeply forked tail. The flanks, sides of throat and most of the upper breast are also steel-blue, with the lower breast, abdomen and undertail-coverts contrastingly white. The center of the throat is grey and the dark band on the breast is mottled or coarsely scaled whitish to greyish. The Sinaloa Martin is an endemic migrant breeder to the pine-oak woodlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and Central Volcanic Belt in Mexico (Lethaby & King, 2010). Like the closely related and very similar Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis (Gmelin, 1789), it is suspected to winter primarily in South America, but its wintering range remains unknown (Turner & Sharpe, 2017). It starts departing breeding grounds in late July and is absent from Mexico between early September and mid-February (Lethaby & King, 2010). The RGS record is consistent with this migration schedule and an occurrence of P. sinaloae in the state, at least as a vagrant, seems plausible. On the other hand, the species would perhaps be expected to winter much closer to its breeding area and well to the north of southern Brazil. Moreover, both the extent of plumage variation in non-breeding Progne martins and the identification criteria used to distinguish the various species are still poorly known (Tobias et al., 2006). For these reasons, we regard the identification of the RGS bird as tentative and list the species as hypothetical in the state (Appendix 3).

As for C. cyaneus, the reddish legs (visible in Fig. 31) readily separate this species from Cyanerpes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758), which is not found in eastern and southeastern Brazil (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). Furthermore, females of the latter have a blue malar streak and distinctly streaked underparts (Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). However, C. cyaneus is not known to occur south of São Paulo (Ridgely et al., 2015) and we do not rule out the possibility that the bird photographed at Santo Antônio da Patrulha (29°50’S; 50°31’W) was an escapee or had been intentionally released into the wild. For this reason, we prefer to include it among the species of hypothetical occurrence (Appendix 3) until better evidence is available.

Sicalis citrina is likewise listed as hypothetical because the voice recording that documents the only RGS record (Meyer et al., 2014) is considered not diagnosable. Although the species is known to occur in the upland grasslands of southeastern Santa Catarina (Rosário, 1996; WikiAves archive) and is therefore likely to occur in adjacent areas of RGS, the fact that the bird was not seen (Meyer et al., 2014) prevents a circumstantiated evaluation of this record. Moreover, we maintain Laterallus exilis as hypothetical despite a new evidence (voice recording; WA2053723), which in our opinion also does not allow a precise identification.

Concluding remarks. The rate of new birds added to the RGS list shows no signs of slowing. The addition of 43 species since the last update corresponds to an average increase of over six species per year, which is nearly 30% higher than that recorded for the previous period (44 additions in 2001-2010; Bencke et al., 2010). Of the newly incorporated taxa, only 10 to 14 (~23-32%) are known or suspected to be undergoing a recent range expansion in southeastern South America and are thus confirmed or potential newcomers to RGS (nine northerly species plus S. vulgaris, and perhaps P. cirratus, M. cactorum, D. atricapilla and T. sordida). The remaining are mostly migratory birds recorded as vagrants or irregular visitors (22 species), along with previously overlooked migratory or resident taxa present at low densities or with marginal occurrence in the state (7-11 species). This points to a better coverage - both spatial and temporal - of the state by amateur and professional birders in recent years, leading to an increased detection of unusual species (“rarities”).

This greater observer coverage is due in large part to the increasing contribution of citizen science to knowledge on bird occurrence and distribution in RGS. Nearly 60% of the new occurrences reported here resulted from the activity of amateur bird watchers and photographers. This contribution is reflected in the way records are publicized, documented and geographically distributed. Of the 43 additions to the main list, 36 (84%) are based on records documented exclusively by photographs, of which no less than 28 first appeared in the WikiAves website. Common destinations of bird photographers, such as the Lagoa do Peixe and surroundings, account for a relatively high proportion of the new records for the state. In contrast, only three additions were substantiated by the collection of whole or partial specimens. Similarly, half of the documentation updates implemented here is based on photographic records. As a direct consequence of this trend, the proportion of accepted species documented by museum specimens in the state has decreased steadily over time, from 91% in 2001 to 88% in 2010 and 84% in the present review. This leads to a timely reflection: while citizen science is highly welcome and undoubtedly contribute a considerable amount of valuable data to science, it must be remembered that sound science is not only grounded on an adequate amount of information, but gathers strength and reliability from the thorough documentation of facts. Museum specimens allow direct, objective comparison of morphological traits and provide access to genetic resources for molecular studies and biological tissues for chemical analyses, among other things (Wiley et al., 2017). The recent record of C. diomedea for RGS (Oliveira et al., 2017) provides a good example of how important and effective specimens can be for accurate and reliable identification. Investment in scientific research and collection of voucher specimens should keep pace with the increasing interest birds arouse among people. We thus urge professional ornithologists, academic community and governmental organizations to document the biodiversity in RGS as rigorously as possible through responsible and carefully planned collections. In doing so we will be honoring and continuing Belton’s landmark work on the birds of RGS, without which the task of updating this list would be at a much earlier stage.

Acknowledgements

For providing photographs, audio recordings or information on specimens and records, we are very grateful to A. Cardoso, A. L. Briso, A. Whittaker, B. Whitney, C. B. Andretti, Cesar R. dos Santos, C. D. Timm, C. Furini, C. Longo, D. Freitas, Dimas Gianuca, Dante A. Meller, D. V. Peixoto, E. Mandarino, E. Rezende, F. Ronaldo, F. Jacobs, F. Schunck, G. Casas, G. R. Peres, J. Cordeiro, J. L. J. Ribeiro, J. Martinez, J. Vizentin-Bugoni, M. Alievi, M. S. Pereira, M. Reppening, M. Sand, M. Tavares, N. Wenoli, Nicholas W. Daudt, P. Fenalti, P. Kuester, R. Kurz, R. O. de Oliveira, S. L. Oliveira and V. Souza (abbreviated names are given in full in tables or text). We also thank the curators of the museum collections and digital databases consulted. I. F. has a PhD scholarship from CAPES. L. B. is a research fellow of the CNPq (Proc. No. 310550/2015-7).

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Appendix 1.

List of the birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, updated through July 2017, with indication of the highest-quality (i.e., most conclusive and reliable) evidence available for each species. More than one evidence is mentioned for species that present identification problems or when the main evidence is unsatisfactory, ambiguous or has uncertain availability (Spec = specimen, a bird skin and its associated parts, if preserved; Skel = skeleton, a complete or partial skeleton, including the skull; Photo = photograph, a diagnostic photograph; Audio = audio recording, a diagnostic voice recording; Spec+Audio = a skin complemented by a diagnostic voice recording of the same individual; Photo+Audio = a photograph complemented by a diagnostic voice recording of the same individual; Sight = sight record, at least one sighting accompanied by written documentation allowing positive identification; Band = band recovery, a banded bird recovered in RGS; Dlog = data-logger recovery, at least one bird deployed with data-logger device tracked to RGS). 

Taxa Evidence
Rheiformes
Rheidae
Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Tinamiformes
Tinamidae
Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815) Spec
Crypturellus noctivagus (Wied, 1820) Spec
Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) Spec
Crypturellus tataupa (Temminck, 1815) Spec
Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) Spec
Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815) Spec
Anseriformes
Anhimidae
Chauna torquata (Oken, 1816) Spec
Anatidae
Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Dendrocygna viduata (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Cygnus melancoryphus (Molina, 1782) Spec
Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina, 1782) Spec
Chloephaga picta (Gmelin, 1789) Photo
Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Sarkidiornis sylvicola Ihering & Ihering, 1907 Spec
Callonetta leucophrys (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Anas sibilatrix Poeppig, 1829 Spec
Anas flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 Spec
Anas bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Anas versicolor Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Anas discors Linnaeus, 1766 Band
Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Anas platalea Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem, 1841) Spec
Nomonyx dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Oxyura vittata (Philippi, 1860) Spec
Galliformes
Cracidae
Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 Spec
Penelope obscura Temminck, 1815 Spec
Aburria jacutinga (Spix, 1825) Spec
Ortalis squamata (Lesson, 1829) Spec
Odontophoridae
Odontophorus capueira (Spix, 1825) Spec
Podicipediformes
Podicipedidae
Rollandia rolland (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Spec
Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Podicephorus major (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Phoenicopteriformes
Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 Spec
Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippi, 1854) Photo
Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater, 1886) Photo
Sphenisciformes
Spheniscidae
Aptenodytes patagonicus Miller, 1778 Spec
Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster, 1781) Spec
Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt, 1837) Spec
Eudyptes chrysocome (Forster, 1781) Spec
Procellariiformes
Diomedeidae
Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg, 1822) Spec
Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster, 1785) Skel, photo
Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Thalassarche melanophris (Temminck, 1828) Spec
Thalassarche steadi Falla, 1933 Spec
Diomedea epomophora Lesson, 1825 Spec, skel, band
Diomedea sanfordi Murphy, 1917 Spec
Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 Spec, band
Diomedea dabbenena Mathews, 1929 Spec
Procellariidae
Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Macronectes halli Mathews, 1912 Spec
Fulmarus glacialoides (Smith, 1840) Spec
Daption capense (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Lugensa brevirostris (Lesson, 1831) Spec
Pterodroma deserta Mathews, 1934 Dlog
Pterodroma mollis (Gould, 1844) Spec
Pterodroma incerta (Schlegel, 1863) Spec
Pterodroma macroptera (Smith, 1840) Spec
Halobaena caerulea (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Pachyptila vittata (Forster, 1777) Spec
Pachyptila desolata (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews, 1912) Spec
Procellaria cinerea Gmelin, 1789 Spec
Procellaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Procellaria conspicillata Gould, 1844 Spec
Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769) Spec
Calonectris borealis (Cory, 1881) Spec
Calonectris edwardsii (Oustalet, 1883) Spec
Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Puffinus gravis (O’Reilly, 1818) Spec
Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich, 1764) Spec
Hydrobatidae
Fregetta grallaria (Vieillot, 1818) Photo
Fregetta tropica (Gould, 1844) Photo
Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl, 1820) Spec
Pelecanoididae
Pelecanoides magellani (Mathews, 1912) Spec
Ciconiiformes
Ciconiidae
Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819) Photo
Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Suliformes
Fregatidae Degland & Gerbe, 1867
Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914 Spec
Sulidae
Morus capensis (Lichtenstein, 1823) Photo
Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831 Spec
Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) Skel
Phalacrocoracidae
Nannopterum brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Anhingidae
Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Pelecaniformes
Ardeidae
Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Botaurus pinnatus (Wagler, 1829) Spec
Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789) Audio, photo
Ixobrychus involucris (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766 Spec
Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) Spec
Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Threskiornithidae
Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789) Photo
Phimosus infuscatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Theristicus caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Cathartiformes
Cathartidae
Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Cathartes burrovianus Cassin, 1845 Spec
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) Spec
Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Accipitriformes
Pandionidae
Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Accipitridae
Leptodon cayanensis (Latham, 1790) Spec
Chondrohierax uncinatus (Temminck, 1822) Photo
Elanoides forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825 Photo
Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Harpagus diodon (Temminck, 1823) Spec
Circus cinereus Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Circus buffoni (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Accipiter poliogaster (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Accipiter striatus Vieillot, 1808 Spec
Accipiter bicolor (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Ictinia mississippiensis (Wilson, 1811) Photo
Ictinia plumbea (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Busarellus nigricollis (Latham, 1790) Spec
Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Geranospiza caerulescens (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Heterospizias meridionalis (Latham, 1790) Spec
Urubitinga urubitinga (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Urubitinga coronata (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck, 1824) Photo
Parabuteo leucorrhous (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Spec
Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Pseudastur polionotus (Kaup, 1847) Photo
Buteo platypterus (Vieillot, 1823) Photo
Buteo brachyurus Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Buteo swainsoni Bonaparte, 1838 Spec
Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800) Spec
Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820) Spec
Spizaetus melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin, 1800) Spec
Gruiformes
Aramidae
Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Rallidae
Coturnicops notatus (Gould, 1841) Spec
Aramides ypecaha (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Aramides cajaneus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Aramides saracura (Spix, 1825) Spec
Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Laterallus leucopyrrhus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Porzana flaviventer (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Porzana spiloptera Durnford, 1877 Photo
Mustelirallus albicollis (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Neocrex erythrops (Sclater, 1867) Spec
Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Pardirallus nigricans (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson, 1838) Spec
Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818) Spec
Porphyriops melanops (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Porphyrio martinicus (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Porphyrio flavirostris (Gmelin, 1789) Photo
Fulica armillata Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Fulica rufifrons Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 Spec
Fulica leucoptera Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Heliornithidae
Heliornis fulica (Boddaert, 1783) Photo
Charadriiformes
Charadriidae
Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782) Spec
Pluvialis dominica (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825 Spec
Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Charadrius falklandicus Latham, 1790 Spec
Charadriussp. Photo
Charadrius modestus Lichtenstein, 1823 Spec
Oreopholus ruficollis (Wagler, 1829) Spec
Haematopodidae
Haematopus palliatus Temminck, 1820 Spec
Recurvirostridae
Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Chionidae
Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Scolopacidae
Gallinago paraguaiae (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Gallinago undulata (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin, 1789) Photo
Limosa haemastica (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Numenius hudsonicus Latham, 1790 Photo
Numenius phaeopus (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein, 1812) Spec
Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Tringa solitaria Wilson, 1813 Spec
Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Tringa semipalmata (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Tringa inornata (Brewster, 1887) Photo
Tringa flavipes (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764) Spec
Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Calidris minutilla (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Calidris bairdii (Coues, 1861) Spec
Calidris melanotos (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Calidris himantopus (Bonaparte, 1826) Spec
Calidris subruficollis (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Calidris pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Phalaropus tricolor (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Thinocoridae
Thinocorus rumicivorus Eschscholtz, 1829 Photo
Jacanidae
Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Rostratulidae
Nycticryphes semicollaris (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Stercorariidae
Stercorarius chilensis Bonaparte, 1857 Spec
Stercorarius maccormicki Saunders, 1893 Photo
Stercorarius antarcticus (Lesson, 1831) Spec
Stercorarius pomarinus (Temminck, 1815) Skel, photo
Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot, 1819 Spec
Laridae
Xema sabini (Sabine, 1819) Photo
Chroicocephalus maculipennis (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831) Photo
Larus atlanticus Olrog, 1958 Photo
Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 Spec
Sternidae
Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Sternula antillarum Lesson, 1847 Photo
Sternula superciliaris (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Chlidonias leucopterus (Temminck, 1815) Photo
Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763 Spec
Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 Spec
Sterna vittata Gmelin, 1789 Photo
Sterna trudeaui Audubon, 1838 Spec
Thalasseus acuflavidus (Cabot, 1847) Spec
Thalasseus maximus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Rynchopidae
Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Columbiformes
Columbidae
Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1810) Spec
Columbina squammata (Lesson, 1831) Audio
Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813) Spec
Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Perez, 1886) Photo
Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 Spec
Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813) Spec
Patagioenas maculosa (Temminck, 1813) Spec
Patagioenas cayennensis (Bonnaterre, 1792) Spec
Patagioenas plumbea (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) Spec
Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855 Spec
Leptotila rufaxilla (Richard & Bernard, 1792) Spec
Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Cuculiformes
Cuculidae
Micrococcyx cinereus (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Coccyzus melacoryphus Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873 Photo
Crotophaga major Gmelin, 1788 Spec
Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Tapera naevia (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Dromococcyx phasianellus (Spix, 1824) Spec
Dromococcyx pavoninus Pelzeln, 1870 Audio
Strigiformes
Tytonidae
Tyto furcata (Temminck, 1827) Spec
Strigidae
Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Megascops sanctaecatarinae (Salvin, 1897) Spec
Pulsatrix perspicillata (Latham, 1790) Spec
Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901) Spec
Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Strix hylophila Temminck, 1825 Spec
Strix virgata (Cassin, 1849) Spec
Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) Spec
Aegolius harrisii (Cassin, 1849) Spec
Asio clamator (Vieillot, 1808) Spec
Asio stygius (Wagler, 1832) Spec
Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) Spec
Nyctibiiformes
Nyctibiidae
Nyctibius griseus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgidae
Antrostomus rufus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Antrostomus sericocaudatus Cassin, 1849 Audio
Lurocalis semitorquatus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Nyctidromus albicollis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Hydropsalis parvula (Gould, 1837) Spec
Hydropsalis anomala (Gould, 1838) Spec
Hydropsalis longirostris (Bonaparte, 1825) Spec
Hydropsalis torquata (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Hydropsalis forcipata (Nitzsch, 1840) Spec
Nannochordeiles pusillus (Gould, 1861) Photo
Podager nacunda (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Chordeiles minor (Forster, 1771) Spec
Apodiformes
Apodidae
Cypseloides fumigatus (Streubel, 1848) Spec
Cypseloides senex (Temminck, 1826) Spec
Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw, 1796) Spec
Streptoprocne biscutata (Sclater, 1866) Spec
Chaetura cinereiventris Sclater, 1862 Audio
Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907 Spec
Trochilidae
Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) Photo
Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) Spec
Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788) Photo
Aphantochroa cirrochloris (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Colibri serrirostris (Vieillot, 1816) Photo
Anthracothorax nigricollis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Stephanoxis loddigesii (Gould, 1831) Spec
Lophornis magnificus (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812) Spec
Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw, 1812) Spec
Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Polytmus guainumbi (Pallas, 1764) Photo+audio
Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Heliodoxa rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Heliomaster furcifer (Shaw, 1812) Spec
Calliphlox amethystina (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Trogoniformes
Trogonidae
Trogon surrucura Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Trogon rufus Gmelin, 1788 Spec
Coraciiformes
Alcedinidae
Megaceryle torquata (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Chloroceryle amazona (Latham, 1790) Spec
Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Momotidae
Baryphthengus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Galbuliformes
Bucconidae
Notharchus swainsoni (Gray, 1846) Sight
Nystalus chacuru (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Nonnula rubecula (Spix, 1824) Photo
Piciformes
Ramphastidae
Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776 Spec
Ramphastos dicolorus Linnaeus, 1766 Spec
Selenidera maculirostris (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Pteroglossus bailloni (Vieillot, 1819) Photo
Pteroglossus castanotis Gould, 1834 Photo
Picidae
Picumnus cirratus Temminck, 1825 Spec
Picumnus temminckii Lafresnaye, 1845 Spec
Picumnus nebulosus Sundevall, 1866 Spec
Melanerpes candidus (Otto, 1796) Spec
Melanerpes flavifrons (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Melanerpes cactorum (d'Orbigny, 1839) Photo
Veniliornis spilogaster (Wagler, 1827) Spec
Veniliornis mixtus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Piculus aurulentus (Temminck, 1821) Spec
Colaptes melanochloros (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Colaptes campestris (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Celeus galeatus (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Celeus flavescens (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Campephilus robustus (Lichtenstein, 1818) Spec
Campephilus leucopogon (Valenciennes, 1826) Photo
Cariamiformes
Cariamidae
Cariama cristata (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Falconiformes
Falconidae
Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777) Spec
Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linnaeus, 1758) Audio
Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Micrastur semitorquatus (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Falco rufigularis Daudin, 1800 Photo
Falco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825 Spec
Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822 Spec
Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 Spec
Psittaciformes
Psittacidae
Anodorhynchus glaucus (Vieillot, 1816) Sight
Primolius maracana (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Psittacara leucophthalmus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Pyrrhura frontalis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788) Photo
Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818) Photo
Pionopsitta pileata (Scopoli, 1769) Spec
Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl, 1820) Spec
Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820) Spec
Amazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830) Spec
Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Triclaria malachitacea (Spix, 1824) Spec
Passeriformes
Thamnophilidae
Myrmotherula unicolor (Ménétriès, 1835) Spec
Formicivora acutirostris (Bornschein, Reinert & Teixeira, 1995) Spec
Rhopias gularis (Spix, 1825) Spec
Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1823) Spec
Thamnophilus ruficapillus Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Thamnophilus caerulescens Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Hypoedaleus guttatus (Vieillot, 1816) Audio
Batara cinerea (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Mackenziaena leachii (Such, 1825) Spec
Mackenziaena severa (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Myrmoderus squamosus (Pelzeln, 1868) Spec
Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Drymophila rubricollis (Bertoni, 1901) Spec
Drymophila malura (Temminck, 1825) Spec
Conopophagidae
Conopophaga lineata (Wied, 1831) Spec
Grallariidae
Grallaria varia (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Hylopezus nattereri (Pinto, 1937) Spec
Rhinocryptidae
Eleoscytalopus indigoticus (Wied, 1831) Spec
Scytalopus speluncae (Ménétriès, 1835) Spec
Scytalopus pachecoi Maurício, 2005 Spec
Scytalopus iraiensis Bornschein, Reinert & Pichorim, 1998 Spec
Psilorhamphus guttatus (Ménétriès, 1835) Photo
Formicariidae
Formicarius colma Boddaert, 1783 Spec
Chamaeza campanisona (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Chamaeza ruficauda (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) Spec
Scleruridae
Sclerurus scansor (Ménétriès, 1835) Spec
Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Dendrocolaptidae
Dendrocincla turdina (Lichtenstein, 1820) Spec
Sittasomus griseicapillus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Xiphorhynchus fuscus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Campylorhamphus falcularius (Vieillot, 1822) Spec
Drymornis bridgesii (Eyton, 1850) Spec
Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Lepidocolaptes falcinellus (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) Spec
Dendrocolaptes platyrostris Spix, 1825 Spec
Xiphocolaptes albicollis (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Xenopidae
Xenops rutilans Temminck, 1821 Spec
Furnariidae
Tarphonomus certhioides (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Photo
Cinclodes pabsti Sick, 1969 Spec
Cinclodes fuscus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Limnornis curvirostris Gould, 1839 Spec
Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Lochmias nematura (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides (Pelzeln, 1859) Spec
Automolus leucophthalmus (Wied, 1821) Spec
Anabacerthia amaurotis (Temminck, 1823) Spec
Anabacerthia lichtensteini (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) Spec
Philydor atricapillus (Wied, 1821) Spec
Philydor rufum (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Heliobletus contaminatus Pelzeln, 1859 Spec
Syndactyla rufosuperciliata (Lafresnaye, 1832) Spec
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Jardine & Selby, 1830) Audio
Leptasthenura platensis Reichenbach, 1853 Spec
Leptasthenura striolata (Pelzeln, 1856) Spec
Leptasthenura setaria (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Spartonoica maluroides (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) Spec
Phacellodomus sibilatrix Sclater, 1879 Photo
Phacellodomus striaticollis (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) Spec
Phacellodomus ruber (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Phacellodomus ferrugineigula (Pelzeln, 1858) Spec
Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 Spec
Schoeniophylax phryganophilus (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Certhiaxis cinnamomeus (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 Spec
Synallaxis cinerascens Temminck, 1823 Spec
Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 Spec
Synallaxis albescens Temminck, 1823 Spec
Synallaxis spixi Sclater, 1856 Spec
Asthenes baeri (Berlepsch, 1906) Spec
Asthenes pyrrholeuca (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Asthenes hudsoni (Sclater, 1874) Spec
Limnoctites rectirostris (Gould, 1839) Spec
Cranioleuca sulphurifera (Burmeister, 1869) Spec
Cranioleuca pyrrhophia (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Cranioleuca obsoleta (Reichenbach, 1853) Spec
Pipridae
Pipra fasciicauda Hellmayr, 1906 Photo
Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Chiroxiphia caudata (Shaw & Nodder, 1793) Spec
Oxyruncidae
Oxyruncus cristatus Swainson, 1821 Photo
Tityridae
Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye, 1838) Spec
Tityra inquisitor (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Tityra cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Pachyramphus viridis (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Pachyramphus castaneus (Jardine & Selby, 1827) Spec
Pachyramphus polychopterus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Pachyramphus validus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Xenopsaris albinucha (Burmeister, 1869) Spec
Cotingidae
Carpornis cucullata (Swainson, 1821) Spec
Phytotoma rutila Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Phibalura flavirostris Vieillot, 1816 Spec
Pyroderus scutatus (Shaw, 1792) Spec
Procnias nudicollis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Pipritidae
Piprites chloris (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Piprites pileata (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Platyrinchidae
Platyrinchus mystaceus Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Platyrinchus leucoryphus Wied, 1831 Spec
Tachurisidae
Tachuris rubrigastra (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Rhynchocyclidae
Mionectes rufiventris Cabanis, 1846 Spec
Leptopogon amaurocephalus Tschudi, 1846 Spec
Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830) Spec
Phylloscartes eximius (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Phylloscartes ventralis (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Phylloscartes kronei Willis & Oniki, 1992 Audio
Phylloscartes difficilis (Ihering & Ihering, 1907) Spec
Tolmomyias sulphurescens (Spix, 1825) Spec
Todirostrum cinereum (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps (Lafresnaye, 1846) Spec
Myiornis auricularis (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Hemitriccus diops (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Hemitriccus obsoletus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1906) Spec
Hemitriccus orbitatus (Wied, 1831) Spec
Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Photo
Tyrannidae
Hirundinea ferruginea (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Euscarthmus meloryphus Wied, 1831 Spec
Tyranniscus burmeisteri (Cabanis & Heine, 1859) Spec
Camptostoma obsoletum (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822) Spec
Elaenia spectabilis Pelzeln, 1868 Spec
Elaenia chilensis Hellmayr, 1927 Spec
Elaenia parvirostris Pelzeln, 1868 Spec
Elaenia mesoleuca (Deppe, 1830) Spec
Elaenia obscura (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Suiriri suiriri (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Myiopagis caniceps (Swainson, 1835) Spec
Myiopagis viridicata (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Capsiempis flaveola (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Phaeomyias murina (Spix, 1825) Photo+audio
Phyllomyias virescens (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Phyllomyias fasciatus (Thunberg, 1822) Spec
Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862 Audio
Culicivora caudacuta (Vieillot, 1818) Photo
Polystictus pectoralis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Pseudocolopteryx sclateri (Oustalet, 1892) Spec
Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis (Sclater & Salvin, 1873) Photo
Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Serpophaga nigricans (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Serpophaga subcristata (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck, 2008 Spec+audio
Serpophaga munda Berlepsch, 1893 Spec
Attila phoenicurus Pelzeln, 1868 Spec
Attila rufus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Legatus leucophaius (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Myiarchus swainsoni Cabanis & Heine, 1859 Spec
Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Myiarchus tyrannulus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Sirystes sibilator (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) Photo
Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Machetornis rixosa (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Myiodynastes maculatus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Megarynchus pitangua (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825) Photo
Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 Spec
Tyrannus savana Daudin, 1802 Spec
Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Empidonomus varius (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Colonia colonus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Myiophobus fasciatus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Sublegatus modestus (Wied, 1831) Spec
Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Fluvicola albiventer (Spix, 1825) Photo
Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) Spec
Gubernetes yetapa (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Alectrurus tricolor (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Alectrurus risora (Vieillot, 1824) Spec
Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831) Spec
Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis, 1868) Spec
Contopus virens (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Contopus cinereus (Spix, 1825) Spec
Lessonia rufa (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Knipolegus cyanirostris (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Knipolegus aterrimus Kaup, 1853 Photo
Knipolegus lophotes Boie, 1828 Spec
Knipolegus nigerrimus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Hymenops perspicillatus (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Satrapa icterophrys (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Muscisaxicola maclovianus (Garnot, 1826) Photo
Muscisaxicola capistratus (Burmeister, 1860) Photo
Xolmis cinereus (Vieillot, 1816) Spec
Xolmis coronatus (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Xolmis velatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Photo
Xolmis irupero (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Xolmis rubetra (Burmeister, 1860) Photo
Xolmis dominicanus (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Agriornis micropterus Gould, 1839 Photo
Agriornis murinus (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Photo
Neoxolmis rufiventris (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Muscipipra vetula (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Vireonidae
Cyclarhis gujanensis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Hylophilus poicilotis Temminck, 1822 Spec
Vireo chivi (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Corvidae
Cyanocorax caeruleus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Hirundinidae
Pygochelidon cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Alopochelidon fucata (Temminck, 1822) Spec
Stelgidopteryx ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Progne tapera (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Tachycineta leucorrhoa (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Tachycineta leucopyga (Meyen, 1834) Spec
Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758 Spec
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Troglodytidae
Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 Spec
Cistothorus platensis (Latham, 1790) Spec
Campylorhynchus turdinus (Wied, 1831) Photo
Donacobiidae
Donacobius atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1766) Photo
Polioptilidae
Polioptila lactea Sharpe, 1885 Spec
Polioptila dumicola (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Turdidae
Catharus cf. swainsoni (Tschudi, 1845) Photo
Turdus flavipes Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Turdus rufiventris Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850 Spec
Turdus subalaris (Seebohm, 1887) Spec
Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Mimidae
Mimus saturninus (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Mimus triurus (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Sturnidae
Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 Photo
Motacillidae
Anthus lutescens Pucheran, 1855 Spec
Anthus furcatus d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 Spec
Anthus correndera Vieillot, 1818 Spec
Anthus nattereri Sclater, 1878 Spec
Anthus hellmayri Hartert, 1909 Spec
Passerellidae
Zonotrichia capensis (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Ammodramus humeralis (Bosc, 1792) Spec
Arremon semitorquatus Swainson, 1838 Spec
Parulidae
Setophaga pitiayumi (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Geothlypis aequinoctialis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Basileuterus culicivorus (Deppe, 1830) Spec
Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Icteridae
Procacicus solitarius (Vieillot, 1816) Photo
Cacicus chrysopterus (Vigors, 1825) Spec
Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Icterus pyrrhopterus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Gnorimopsar chopi (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Amblyramphus holosericeus (Scopoli, 1786) Spec
Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Agelasticus thilius (Molina, 1782) Spec
Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Pseudoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Agelaioides badius (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Molothrus rufoaxillaris Cassin, 1866 Spec
Molothrus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788) Photo
Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Sturnella superciliaris (Bonaparte, 1850) Spec
Sturnella defilippii (Bonaparte, 1850) Spec
Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Mitrospingidae
Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Thraupidae
Rhopospina fruticeti (Kittlitz, 1833) Spec, photo
Pipraeidea melanonota (Vieillot, 1819) Spec
Pipraeidea bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Gubernatrix cristata (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Hedyglossa diuca (Molina, 1782) Spec
Stephanophorus diadematus (Temminck, 1823) Spec
Cissopis leverianus (Gmelin, 1788) Spec
Paroaria coronata (Miller, 1776) Spec
Paroaria capitata (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Photo
Tangara seledon (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Tangara cyanocephala (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Tangara sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Tangara cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1821) Spec
Tangara ornata (Sparrman, 1789) Photo
Tangara peruviana (Desmarest, 1806) Photo
Tangara preciosa (Cabanis, 1850) Spec
Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Conirostrum speciosum (Temminck, 1824) Spec
Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Sicalis luteola (Sparrman, 1789) Spec
Haplospiza unicolor Cabanis, 1851 Spec
Hemithraupis guira (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Hemithraupis ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818) Photo
Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Trichothraupis melanops (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Coryphospingus cucullatus (Statius Muller, 1776) Spec
Tachyphonus coronatus (Vieillot, 1822) Spec
Tersina viridis (Illiger, 1811) Spec
Dacnis cayana (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758) Photo
Sporophila frontalis (Verreaux, 1869) Spec
Sporophila beltoni Repenning & Fontana, 2013 Spec
Sporophila collaris (Boddaert, 1783) Spec
Sporophila caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) Spec
Sporophila leucoptera (Vieillot, 1817) Photo
Sporophila pileata (Sclater, 1865) Spec
Sporophila hypoxantha Cabanis, 1851 Spec
Sporophila ruficollis Cabanis, 1851 Spec
Sporophila palustris (Barrows, 1883) Spec
Sporophila hypochroma Todd, 1915 Photo+audio
Sporophila cinnamomea (Lafresnaye, 1839) Photo
Sporophila melanogaster (Pelzeln, 1870) Spec
Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Embernagra platensis (Gmelin, 1789) Spec
Emberizoides herbicola (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Emberizoides ypiranganus Ihering & Ihering, 1907 Spec
Saltatricula multicolor (Burmeister, 1860) Photo
Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817 Photo
Saltator similis d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 Spec
Saltator maxillosus Cabanis, 1851 Spec
Saltator aurantiirostris Vieillot, 1817 Spec
Saltator fuliginosus (Daudin, 1800) Spec
Poospiza nigrorufa (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Poospiza thoracica (Nordmann, 1835) Spec
Microspingus cabanisi Bonaparte, 1850 Spec
Microspingus melanoleucus (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Thlypopsis sordida (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Photo
Pyrrhocoma ruficeps (Strickland, 1844) Spec
Donacospiza albifrons (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Cardinalidae
Piranga flava (Vieillot, 1822) Spec
Habia rubica (Vieillot, 1817) Spec
Amaurospiza moesta (Hartlaub, 1853) Spec
Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) Spec
Cyanoloxia brissonii (Lichtenstein, 1823) Spec
Fringillidae
Chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758) Sight
Carduelis carduelis (Linnaeus, 1758) Audio
Spinus magellanicus (Vieillot, 1805) Spec
Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) Spec
Euphonia violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Euphonia chalybea (Mikan, 1825) Spec
Euphonia cyanocephala (Vieillot, 1818) Spec
Euphonia pectoralis (Latham, 1801) Spec
Chlorophonia cyanea (Thunberg, 1822) Spec
Estrildidae
Estrilda astrild (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec
Passeridae
Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Spec

Appendix 2.

Bird species of probable occurrence in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (*, species added in this study). 

Species
Pterodroma lessonii (Garnot, 1826)
Laterallus exilis (Temminck, 1831)
Spiziapteryx circumcincta (Kaup, 1852)
Progne elegans Baird, 1865
Ramphocaenus melanurus Vieillot, 1819
Setophaga striata (Forster, 1772)
Sporophila iberaensis DiGiacomo & Kopuchian, 2016*

Appendix 3.

Bird species of hypothetical occurrence in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (*, species added in this study). 

Species
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster, 1785)
Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus, 1758
Cochlearius cochlearius (Linnaeus, 1766)
Buteo nitidus (Latham, 1790)
Chordeiles acutipennis (Hermann, 1783)
Ramphodon naevius (Dumont, 1818)
Glaucis hirsutus (Gmelin, 1788)
Ramphastos vitellinus Lichtenstein, 1823
Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824)
Tyrannus albogularis Burmeister, 1856
Progne cf. sinaloae Nelson, 1898*
Diuca speculifera (Lafresnaye & d’Orbingy, 1837)
Sicalis citrina Pelzeln, 1870*
Cyanerpes cyaneus (Linnaeus, 1766)*

Received: December 13, 2017; Accepted: January 18, 2018

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