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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Print version ISSN 0074-0276On-line version ISSN 1678-8060

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz vol.45 no.3 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 1947 

Doenças intestinais em cidades brasileiras: associação com elementos climáticos

João de Barros Barreto


Enteric fevers and dysenteries showed, during the period 1940-44, a summer prevalence in brazilian cities of the temperate zone. The distribu¬tion of the diseases by four-months periods, selected in acordance with the highest of lowest values of rainfall, mean temperature and absolute humidity induced to suppose that, in those cities, and also in tropical ones, both enteric fevers and dysenteries were closely associated with such climatic factors: enteric fevers mainly with absolute humidity and temperature, and dysenteries with humidity and rainfall. Correlation coefficients, statistically significant, have been obtained comparing monthly waves of climatic factors and corresponding waves of prevalence of the diseases. For enteric fevers, clear associations have been disclosed: with temperature variations in all temperate cities (coefficients ranging from + 0.42 to + 0.75, higher with mean temperature in the previous month) and in two of the four tropical cities (from + 0.26 to ± 0.30); with absolute humidity variations in cities of the first group (from + 0.51 to 0.71) and in the tropical city of Rio ( + 0.26 ± 0.12 and + 0.28 ± 0.12); and also with rainfall variations but only in two temperate cities (from + 0.28 to + 0.64). For dysenteric diseases, in cities of temperate zone similar associations have been found with absolute humidity (values of r, ranging from + 0.32 to + 0.45), with temperature (from + 0.26 to + 0.44); and with rainfall only in Curitiba ( + 0.25 ± 0.12). Recife (tropical city) yielded two significant values : r = - 0.27 ± 0.12 (correlation with mean temperature in the same month) and r = + 0.40 ± 0.11 and -h 0.37 ± 0.11 (between monthly morbidity rates and rainfall, respectively in the same month and in the previous one). Deaths by diarrhea and enteritis, in the cities of the temperate zone, prevailed in spring-summer seasons, also in four-months periods of highest temperature and humidity, for those cities and for the tropical ones, with the exception of Belem in which percentages were identical to those of opposite periods. Still with the exception of Belem, in all cities studied positive correla¬tion coefficients, statistically significant, have been obtained with temperature variations (ranging from + 0.25 to + 0.65 in tropical cities, and from + 0.47 to + 0.76 in temperate zone) and with humidity variations (from + 0.34 to + 0.44 in the first group, and from + 0.43 and + 0.74 in the second) . With rainfall, only Rio (in the tropical region) showed a significant value for r ( + 0.26 ±0:12); similarly in S. Paulo and Curitiba, the values ranged from + 0.46 to + 0.56, while in Porto Alegre there were found - 0.26 ± 0.12 and - 0.32 ± 012, for rainfall variations in the same and previous months.


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