Print version ISSN 0085-5626
Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.48 no.2 São Paulo June 2004
Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges in Brazil
Fabio de Oliveira RoqueI; Susana Trivinho-StrixinoI; Sheyla Regina Marques CouceiroII; Neusa HamadaII; Cecília Volkmer-RibeiroIII; Maria Conceição MessiasIV
IUniversidade Federal de São Carlos, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais, Laboratório de Entomologia Aquática, Departamento de Hidrobiologia. Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905 São Carlos-SP, Brazil
IIInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Pesquisas em Entomologia. Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil
IIIMuseu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul. Caixa Postal 1188, 90690-000 Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil
IVInstituto Oswaldo Cruz, Departamento de Entomologia. Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae) inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.
Keywords: Oukuriella; Chironomidae; Diptera; freshwater sponges; Porifera.
Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae) no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.
Palavras-chave: Chironomidae; Diptera; esponjas de água doce; Oukuriella; Porifera.
The present work is part of a study on Chironomidae living inside freshwater sponges in Brazilian aquatic systems that is carried on. Chironomidae found in freshwater sponges in the River Paraná, reservoirs in the State of São Paulo, and in Amazonian streams have many unusual larvae with strongly sclerotised structures, which make the identification very difficult. After rearing the larvae in laboratory to obtain pupae and adults, we identified them as belonging to Oukuriella Epler, 1986. The specimens are deposited in the collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia Aquática da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (SP) and Coleção Entomológica do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus (AM), Brazil. The freshwater sponges are deposited in the Museu de Ciências Naturais da Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil.
After the genus Oukuriella has been established (EPLER 1986) the taxonomic knowledge was increased by successive studies: EPLER (1996), MESSIAS & FITTKAU (1997), MESSIAS (1998), MESSIAS & OLIVEIRA (1999), MESSIAS et al. (2000). However, there are few ecological reports on the genus and of the 17 Oukuriella species described, the larval stage is known only for O. intermedia Messias, Fittkau & Oliveira, 2000.
The Oukuriella spp. larvae living inside six species of freshwater sponges were analyzed (Table I). All the species belong to the "third group" which, according to MESSIAS (1998), is characterized by marked wings and abdominal tergites with setal tufts.
All the sponges collected have been reported to South America freshwater systems by VOLKMER-RIBEIRO (1981), but there are few ecological studies about their association with macroinvertebrates (VOLKMER-RIBEIRO & ROSA-BARBOSA 1974; MELÃO & ROCHA 1996).
Chironomidae larvae in freshwater sponges have been studied by different authors (STEFFAN 1967; ROBACK 1968; TOKESHI 1993; TOKESHI 1995; MATTESON & JACOBI 1980; MELÃO & ROCHA 1996). Although many chironomid larvae have been found in sponges, only Demeijerea Kruseman, 1933 and Xenochironomus Kieffer, 1921 are recognized as associated with them. According to TOKESHI (1995) association between chironomid larvae and animal hosts, like sponges, is poorly studied and often lack sufficient analytical rigor to establish the association. However, in the case of Oukuriella several factors point out to an undeniable association with freshwater sponges: high occurrence of spicules in the gut contents of the larvae; occurrence of different species in different sponges from a wide area of Brazil (Table I); increase in the sclerotisation of larval structures during their development; restriction of Oukuriella larvae to sponges (in all the places where the sponges were collected, we have also searched for larvae in other habitats, such as macrophytes, stones and sediments, but no larvae were found).
Finally, we would like to emphasize that evolutionary approach to the study of the relationship between Oukuriella and sponges may contribute to the phylogenetic and biogeographic knowledge of both groups.
Acknowledgements. We would like to thanks Antonio Pacheco and Orlando Mateus for field assistance. This work was partially supported by the Fundação para o Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) within the BIOTA/FAPESP The biodiversity Virtual Institute Program (www.biotasp.org.br).
EPLER, J. H. 1986. Oukuriella, a new genus of Chironomidae (Diptera) from South America. Entomologica Scandinavica 17: 157-163. [ Links ]
EPLER, J. H. 1996. New species of the Oukuriella (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Costa Rica. Hydrobiologia 318: 3-11. [ Links ]
MATTESON, J. D. & G. Z. JACOBI. 1980. Benthic macroinvertebrates found on the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. The Great Lakes Entomologist 13 (3): 169-172. [ Links ]
MELÃO, M. G. G. & O. ROCHA. 1996. Macrofauna associada a Metania spinata (Carter, 1881), Porífera, Metaniidae. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 8: 59-64. [ Links ]
MESSIAS, M. C. 1998. Contribuição ao estudo do gênero Oukuriella Epler, 1986. (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae). Tese de Doutorado. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 157 p. [ Links ]
MESSIAS, M. C. & E. J. FITTKAU. 1997. Two new species of the Neotropical genus Oukuriella Epler, 1986. (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 20 (3): 255-260. [ Links ]
MESSIAS, M. C. & S. J. DE OLIVEIRA. 1999. On a new species of the genus Oukuriella Epler, 1986. (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 71(3): 260-262. [ Links ]
MESSIAS, M. C.; E. J. FITTKAU & S. J. DE OLIVEIRA. 2000. A new species of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae) with first descriptions of the immature stages for the genus, p. 183-188. In: O. HOFFRICHTER (Ed.). Late 20th Research on Chironomidae: an Anthology from the Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Chironomidae. Freibeurg, Aachen Shaker, 661 p. [ Links ]
ROBACK, S. S. 1968. Insects associated with the sponge Spongilla fragilis in the Savannah River. Notulae Naturae 412: 1-10. [ Links ]
STEFFAN, A. W. 1967. Ectosymbiosis in Aquatic Insects, p. 207-290. In: M. S. Henry (Edit.). Symbiosis. London and New York, Academic Press. [ Links ]
TOKESHI, M. 1993. On the evolution of commensalism in the Chironomidae. Freshwater Biology 29: 481-489. [ Links ]
TOKESHI, M. 1995. Species interactions and community structure. In: P. D. ARMITAGE; P. S. CRANSTON & L. C. V. PINDER (Eds.). The Chironomidae: Biology and ecology of non-biting midges. London, Chapman & Hall, 584 p. [ Links ]
VOLKMER-RIBEIRO, C. 1981. Porifera, p. 86-95. In: S. H. Hurlbert; G. Rodriguez & N. D. Santos (Eds.). Aquatic Biota of Tropical South América. California, San Diego State University Press. [ Links ]
VOLKMER-RIBEIRO,C. & R. ROSA-BARBOSA. 1974. A freshwater sponge-mollusk association in Amazonian waters. Amazoniana V(2): 285-291. [ Links ]
Received 05.VIII.2003; accepted 25.II.2004