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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia

On-line version ISSN 1806-9665

Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.51 no.4 São Paulo Oct./Dec. 2007 



The presence of Chane Nieto and Guajirolus Flowers (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) in Brazil with the description of a new species


Presença de Chane Nieto e Guajirolus Flowers (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) no Brasil com a descrição de uma nova espécie



Frederico Falcão Salles

Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Biológicas e Agrárias, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rua Humberto de Almeida Franklin, 257, 29.933-415, São Mateus-ES.




The related genera Chane and Guajirolus are reported for the first time from Brazil. Guajirolus rondoni, sp. n. is described based on nymphs from Rondônia State and can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the following combination of characteristics: 1) mandibles with minute spicules on outer margin; 2) maxillary palp three-segmented; 3) hypopharynx lingua with three rounded processes; 4) projection of second segment of labial palp with apex narrower than base; 5) abdominal color pattern; and 6) paraprocts with 13 to 15 organized spines. An updated key to the species of both genera is presented.

Keywords: Chane baure; distribution; Guajirolus rondoni; Neotropics; taxonomy.


Os gêneros relacionados Chane e Guajirolus são pela primeira vez registrados para o Brasil. Guajirolus rondoni, sp. n., é descrita com base em ninfas do Estado de Rondônia e podem ser diferenciadas das demais espécies do gênero pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: 1) mandíbulas com pequenas espículas na margem externa; 2) palpo maxilar tri-segmentado; 3) língua da hipofaringe com três processos arredondados; 4) projeção do segundo artículo do palpo labial relativamente mais estreito no ápice do que na base; 5) padrão de coloração abdominal; e 6) paraproctos com 13 a 15 espinhos organizados. Uma chave atualizada para as espécies de ambos os gêneros é apresentada.

Palavras-chave: Chane baure; distribuição; Guajirolus rondoni; Neotropical; taxonomia.



In the last ten years the number of works dealing with the small minnow mayfly fauna (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from South America improved considerably. Until 1995 only eight genera were recorded from the region, contrasting with the 28 reported nowadays. In the meantime, Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty (1999) gave evidences that two genera extensively recorded from South America, Baetis Leach, and Pseudocloeon Klapálek, are not represented in this area.

Among the South American countries, Brazil is the best documented, with the following genera reported until now: Adebrotus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1995, Americabaetis Kluge, 1992, Apobaetis Day, 1955, Aturbina Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1996, Baetodes Needham & Murphy, 1924, Callibaetis Eaton, 1881, Camelobaetidius Demoulin, 1966, Cloeodes Traver, 1938, Cryptonympha Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, Harpagobaetis Mol, 1986, Moribaetis Waltz & McCafferty, 1985, Paracloeodes Day, 1955, Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, Spiritiops Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, Tomedontus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1995, Tupiara Salles et al., 2003, Varipes Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, Waltzoyphius McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz, 1995, and Zelusia Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998 (Salles et al. 2004, Nieto & Salles 2006). Except for some genera probably endemic to the Andes and Patagonia (as Andesiops Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1999, Nanomis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1999, and Mayobaetis Waltz & McCafferty, 1985), the remaining genera reported from South America maybe represented in Brazil [e.g. Corinnella Thomas & Dominique, 2005, known exclusively from French Guyana (Dominique et al. 2005, Thomas & Dominique 2006)]. Their absence should be due the lack of surveys in several areas of the country, as was the case of Harpagobaetis and Varipes, recently found from West-Central Brazil (Salles & Lugo-Ortiz 2002, Salles & Batista 2004).

Herein, intending to contribute to the knowledge of the small minnow mayfly fauna from Brazil, two related genera of Baetidae are reported for the first time from the country, Chane Nieto, 2003, and Guajirolus Flowers, 1985. A new species of Guajirolus is also described from Rondônia State, and an updated key to the nymphs of the species of both genera is presented.



Material deposition is abbreviated as follows: Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil (INPA), Zoological Collection of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), and Instituto-Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina (IFML).

Line drawings presented in the key, except for C. baure and G. rondoni sp. n., are modified from the original papers (Flowers 1985, Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1995, Nieto 2003, Thomas et al. 2005).



Key to the nymphs of the species of Chane Nieto and Guajirolus Flowers.



Guajirolus rondoni sp. n.

(Figs. 1–13)





Mature nymph. Length of body: 3.3-4.0 mm; caudal filaments 1.7-1.8 mm.

Head. Whitish, compound eyes black. Antennae yellowish-white. Mouthparts: Labrum (Fig. 2) with numerous long, fine setae dorsally, a row of 12-13 spines on ventral surface at anterior and lateral margin, and upper surface depressed along midline with 4-6 stout setae anteriorly (Fig. 3). Mandibles (Figs. 4, 5) with minute spicules on outer margin, and tuft of setae between prostheca and mola. Maxillae (Fig. 6) with four large spine-like teeth, apex of galea-lacinia with two spine like setae and a row of long setae; galea-lacinia subequal to stipes; palp 3 segmented, first and second segments subequal, third 0.5 longer than the others combined. Hypopharynx (Fig. 7) lingua with rounded medial process. Labium (Fig. 8) with ventral surface of paraglossae with long and fine setae and glossae with short and fine setae; dorsal surface of glossae with large spine-like setae; projection of second segment of labial palp with apex narrower than base.

Thorax. Yellowish brown. Pro, meso and metathorax with a median yellowish irregular band (Fig. 1). Sterna yellowish. Legs yellowish-white, fore femur (Fig. 9) with two rows of short spines on dorsal edge, middle and hind femora with a single row of short spines. Claws (Fig. 10) with 7-9 denticles, the subapical larger than the preceding ones. Hind wing pads absent.

Abdomen. Yellowish brown (Fig. 1), terga of segments 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 with anteromedian yellowish mark, smaller on segments 8 and 9, often not reaching posterior margin. Posterior margin of tergum 9 and tergum 10 whitish. Tergal posterior margin with broad denticles (Fig. 11). Sterna yellowish, paler toward apex. Gills (Fig. 12) whitish translucent, on segments 2-7 only. Paraprocts with approximately 13-15 organized spines (Fig. 13). Caudal filaments yellowish white with distinct brownish medial and apical bands.

Adults. Unknown.

Etymolgy. The epithet of the new species is an allusion to the state where the material was collected, Rondônia. As the name of the state, the epithet of the new species is in honor of Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazilian explorer of the beginning of the 20th Century, known as a pacifist because of his conduct with Brazilian indigenous people.

Diagnoses. 1) mandibles (Figs. 4, 5) with minute spicules on outer margin; 2) maxillary palp three-segmented (Fig. 6); 3) hypopharynx (Fig. 7) lingua with rounded medial process; 4) projection of second segment of labial palp with apex narrower than base (Fig. 8); 5) abdominal color pattern (Fig. 1); 6) paraprocts with 13 to 15 organized spines (Fig. 13).

Remarks: Despite the fact that all species of Guajirolus present one or two brown bands on the femora of all legs, I was unable to find these marks on G. rondoni. However, as the specimens were light colored because of the preservation, especially the legs, I do not discard the possibility that they are present.

Material examined: Holotype: Brazil, Rondônia State, Rio Jaci, 25/iii/2004, N. Hamada, female nymph (INPA). Paratypes: same data as holotype, 6 nymphs (INPA). Rio Abunã, 19/xi/2003, N. Hamada, 1 nymph (INPA); Igarapé Jaci Paraná, tributary of Rio Madeira, km 88 of BR 364, 25/xi/2003, N. Hamada, 8 nymphs (4 in UFES, 4 in IFML); Rio Abunã, 07/vi/2004, N. Hamada, 8 nymphs (INPA).

Undetermined Guajirolus

(Fig. 14)



Material examined: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Rio Ivinhema, xi/2003, S.M. Melo, A. Takeda (one nymph) (INPA). Brazil, Amazonas State, Tabatinga, Palmares, igarapé, 02/ix/2003, N. Hamada, J.L. Nessimian, (one nymph) (INPA).

Chane baure Nieto, 2003

(Fig. 14)

Material examined: Brazil, Roraima State, Caracaraí, Rio Branco, Cachoeira Bem-Querer, 01º55'748''N, 61º00'143''W, 20 nymphs, 23/iii/2001, N. Hamada.



Chane and Guajirolus are two related genera possessing remarkable characteristics in the nymphal stage, as unusual mouthparts and tarsal claws. They can be easily differentiated from other known genera of the family by their labrum with a row of spines on the ventral surface (Figs. 2 and 3A), and by their tarsal claw with a subapical denticle larger than the preceding ones (Figs. 10 and 3I). Besides these characters, both genera have the second segment of the labial palp internally enlarged (Figs. 8 and 3G), though in Chane they are extremely so, giving the impression of a bifid labial palp (Fig. 3G) (from Nieto 2003).

The genus Chane, with only one species described, C. baure, was known until the present work exclusively from the type-locality in Bolivia (Nieto 2003). Guajirolus, on the other hand, is now represented by five nominal species: G. ektrapeloglossa Flowers, from Colombia and Panama; G. nanus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, from Costa Rica; G. queremba Nieto, from Argentina; G. flowersi Thomas & Dominique, from French Guyana; and G. rondoni, sp. n., from Brazil (Flowers 1985, Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1995, Nieto 2003, Thomas et al. 2005). Besides the two undetermined species recorded from Brazil in the present work, another unnamed species of Guajirolus, described as "Genus 3 nr. Pseudocloeon" by Roback (1966), is also reported from Peru.

Unfortunately, due to the poor condition of part of the material examined, I was unable to identify the nymphs of Guajirolus from Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas states studied in the present work. However, the records herein presented (Fig. 14) extend significantly the known distribution range of both genera, demonstrating that they may be found in several other areas of South America, especially in Brazil.

Acknowledgments. I would like to thank Dr. Neusa Hamada (INPA) for supplying most part of the material examined in the present work, and Dr. Alice Takeda and Dr. Sandra Melo (NUPELIA), for loaning the nymph from Mato Grosso do Sul. The help of Dr. Carolina Nieto (Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán) during an early stage of this manuscript is also acknowledged. This work was partially developed while the author was conducting his doctoral studies at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa with funds from CNPq.



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Received 03/05/2007; accepted 04/10/2007

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