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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia

Print version ISSN 0085-5626

Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.58 no.2 São Paulo Apr./June 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262014000200010 

BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND DIVERSITY

 

Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

 

 

Alene Ramos Rodrigues*; Valéria Cid Maia; Márcia Souto Couri

Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristóvão, 20940–040 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil

 

 


ABSTRACT

Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes), 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes), represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.

Keywords: Cecidomyiidae; Diptera; Insecta; insect-plant interation; inventory.


 

 

Insect galls are pathological structures originated from new formations of vegetal tissues, resulting from mechanic and/or chemical stimuli of insects (Bronner 1992). The inductors are usually specific in relation to plant species, inducing galls only in one species or on a small group of host species (Carneiro et al. 2009). The gall insects are represented by the following orders: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Diptera, represented mainly by Cecidomyiidae, is the main group of galling insects (Mani 1964).

Many galling species of Cecidomyiidae may reach the level of pest. In Brazil, species are recorded attacking plants of cassava, guava and pitanga (Fernandes 1987; Maia 2001; Ângelo & Maia 1999). Predator and galling larvae of Cecidomyiidae have been used as biological control and fungivorous larvae serve as indicators of soil conditions (Gagné 1994; Mamaev 1968). The Brazilian ecosystems more investigated in relation to composition of Cecidomyiidae fauna and diversity of galling insects are the Cerrado and Atlantic Florest (more specifically, restingas), but these studies still represent a small fraction of the total area of these biomes. In the Rio de Janeiro State, insect galls inventories were carried out in restinga areas of Angra dos Reis (Ilha Grande), Rio de Janeiro (Grumari), Maricá, Carapebus, and Arraial do Cabo (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004). In these studies, the richness of insect galls was evidenced and Cecidomyiidae pointed as the most frequent galling taxonomic group. The number of galls induced by Cecidomyiidae was 36, 43, 76, 68, 99, and 93, respectively, with a total of 65 described new species (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004). For other localities of Rio de Janeiro State, little information is available.

The present study was conducted in Ilha da Marambaia (Mangaratiba municipality, in southern Rio de Janeiro State). The relevance of this work is based on the ecological importance of the galling insects, on the scarce knowledge of taxonomic, biological and geographical distribution of gallers throughout all Brazilian territory and on the fact that the vegetation of Ilha da Marambaia includes one of the last reserves of the Atlantic Florest in southeastern Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, among the published insect gall inventories in the State of Rio de Janeiro, only one surveyed its southern portion (Oliveira & Maia 2005).

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 by two researchers along the entire extension of seven beaches of Ilha da Marambaia (Mangaratiba, RJ), totaling 16 hours per month for all the beaches: Kutuca (23º4'4.85"S 43º59'39.41"W – 23º3'59.17"S 43º59'33.59"W, 285 meters), Grande (23º3'57.34"S 43º59'31.01"W – 23º3'27.08"S 43º59'28.63"W, 990 meters), Suja (23º3'21.81"S 43º58'51.35"W – 23º2'48.29"S 43º58'28.69"W, 1,350 meters), Caju (23º2'39.85"S 43º57'54.96"W – 23º2'33.64"S 43º57' 46.12"W, 370 meters), João Manoel (23º2'34.17"S 43º57' 44.18"W – 23º2'34.89"S 43º57'35.75"W, 260 meters), Sítio (23º2'34.83"S 43º57'30.80"W – 23º4'4.85"S 43º59'39.41"W, 400 meters), and Armação (23º2'27.43"S 43º57'15,53"W – 23º3'38.64"S 43º54'9.10"W, 3,960 meters) (Fig. 1). The beaches were chosen due to their conservation condition (few buildings and good vegetation cover).

At each beach, along its entire length, herbaceous, shrubby and arboreous plants (with up to two meters high, galled or not) were surveyed for insect galls, representing a vegetation sampling effort of 100%. Only aerial organs were investigated. All gall morphotypes were photographed in the field. Each morphotype was characterized by the plant organ of occurrence, shape, presence or absence of trichomes, complexity, color, number of internal chamber, and galling insect. The gall shape was based on Isaias et al. (2013), and the differentiation between complex gall (with formation of new plant tissues) and simple gall (without formation of other tissues) was based on Möhn (1962).

Branches (whenever possible with flowers and fruits) were removed from each host plant, and pressed in the field for preparation of exsiccates. They were examined by botanists of Museu Nacional (MNRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) for species identification. The botanical material was deposited in the herbarium of MNRJ. Galled branches were collected and transported to laboratory in closed and labeled plastic bags. To obtain the adults, samples of each gall morphotype were separately conditioned in closed transparent plastic pots, labeled and lined with wet paper. In the case of larvae that leave the galls, the rearing pots received a layer of approximately 10 cm of restinga soil. The pots were checked every day for newly emerged adults. When adults were found, the pots were placed in a refrigerator for some hours, to induced insect lethargy. The adults were transferred to tubes with 70% ethanol. To observe the internal chamber(s) and remove immatures, some galls were dissected, using a stylet. Samples of each gall morphotype were dried for preservation and incorporated in the gall collection of MNRJ. The gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) were mounted in microscopy slides following the methodology of Gagné (1994), except for using butyl acetate instead of clove oil, to be less toxic and to present satisfactory results. The excedent specimens remained in 70% ethanol. The Cecidomyiidae were identified to genus level using the keys of Gagné (1994) and to species based on original descriptions. All the specimens were deposited in the Diptera collection of the MNRJ. The other insects were identified by specialists and were deposited in the collection of their institutions.

The average number of gall morphotypes per host plant species was calculated using simple arithmetic mean. The plant species and genera were considered super-host when bearing a high richness of insect galls, according Espírito-Santo & Fernandes (2007). The richness of galling species of each beach was evaluated qualitatively, based on the number of gall morphotypes. According to temporal occurrence, the morphotypes were classified as constant (greater than or equal to 50%), accessory (between 25% and 50%) and accidental (less than or equal to 25%) as proposed by Silveira Neto et al. (1976). The formula used was C% = (p/n) * 100, where "p" is the number of months that the gall morphotype was collected and "n" is the total number of collecting months.

 

RESULTS

In the restinga areas of the Ilha da Marambaia, 147 gall morphotypes were found in 70 plant species, distributed in 33 families and at least 54 genera. The average number of gall morphotypes per host plant species was 2.1 (Table I). Fifty two insect gall morphotypes were first recorded from Brazilian restinga areas. Myrtaceae, Bignoniaceae, and Fabaceae presented the highest richness of galls (20, 13, and 11 morphotypes, respectively) and largest number of host plant species (9, 4, and 6 species, respectively), followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Nyctaginaceae (with 10, 10, 9, 9, and 8 morphotypes, respectively, Table II).

Eugenia L., Fridericia Mart., Guapira Aubl., and Mikania Willd. were the super-host genera, presenting, 12, 9, 8, and 7 morphotypes, respectively. Two plant genera were first recorded as insect gall hosts: Sida L. (Malvaceae) and Securidaca L. (Polygalaceae). Fifteen plant species were first recorded as insect gall hosts: Adenocalymma comosum (Cham.) DC. (Bignoniaceae); Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng. (Myrtaceae); Chaetocharpus echinocarpus (Baill.) Ducke (Euphorbiaceae); Coccoloba alnifolia Casar. (Polygonaceae); Davilla rugosa Poir. (Dilleniaceae); Eugenia punicifolia (Kunt) DC. (Myrtaceae); Fridericia rego (Vell.) L.G. Lohmann (Bignoniaceae); Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer (Meliaceae); Gymnanthes gaudichaudii Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae); Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg. (Myrtaceae); Myrcia splendens (SW.) DC. (Myrtaceae); Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae); Stigmaphyllon ciliatum (Lam.) A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae); Xylopia involucrata M. C. Dias & Kin.-Gouv. (Annonaceae); and Zolernia glabra (Spreng.) Yakovlev (Fabaceae). Twenty plants (28% of the total) could not be identified to species level, as the exsiccates comprised only non fertile material.

Galls were found in leaves (n = 78), stems (n = 38), flowers (inflorescences and flower buds) (n = 14), buds (n = 8), fruits (n = 8), adventitious root (n = 1), with predominance of 53% of leaf galls. The majority of the gall morphotypes occurred in a unique plant organ, with three exceptions: the fusiform galls on leaves of Fridericia conjugata (Vell.) L.G. Lohmann (Bignoniaceae), the conical galls on leaves of Struthanthus concinnus Mart. (Loranthaceae), and the fusiform galls on leaves of a non identified species of Malpighiaceae, which also occurred on stems in the three species and on tendrils of the first species as well.

Thirteen gall shapes were detected, predominating the fusiform (n = 44), globoid (n = 40), lenticular (n = 18), and conical (n = 15 morphotypes). Only one morphotype presented shape variation: from conical to ovoid on Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), being the former the most common. Eighty-nine gall morphotypes were classified as simple and 55 morphotypes as complex. The morphotypes were green, brown, yellow, red, pink, orange, white or black, with predominance of green color (48%). Thirty-five morphotypes presented color variation associated with the ontogenetic process. The majority of galls was one-chambered (75%), often occupied by a unique galling larva, except for the leaf conical gall on Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) with two larvae in some samples. The gall characterization (shape, color, number of internal chamber, presence or absence of trichomes, vegetal organ of occurrence, complexity and inducers) is presented in Table III. The accidental gall morphotypes predominated with 61% (90 morphotypes), followed by constant and accessory (with 37 and 20 morphotypes, respectively). The fusiform gall on Fridericia conjugata was constant on stems, accessory on tendrils, and accidental in leaf veins. Thirteen morphotypes were founded in all months, and 62 were founded only in a single month.

The galling insects were distributed in five orders: Diptera (n = 82), Coleoptera (n = 4), Lepidoptera (n = 4), Hemiptera (n = 3), and Thysanoptera (n = 1), being Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) the main galling group (n = 80), with 85% of the total (Table IV). The inducers of 53 morphotypes (37% of the total) were not identified, due to high rates of parasitism and to the fact that some collected galls were already unoccupied. In addition to gallers, other arthropods were associated with the galls: parasitoids, represented exclusively by Hymenoptera (in 54 morphotypes); inquilines, represented by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Lepidoptera, Curculionidae (Coleoptera), Thysanoptera, Sciaridae, Tephritidae (Diptera), and Aphididae (Hemiptera) (in 6, 5, 3, 3, 1, 1, and 1 morphotypes, respectively); and predators, represented by Cecidomyiidae (in two morphotypes) and Pseudoscorpiones (Arachnida) (in only one morphotype). Fifty-one species of gall midges were identified, distributed in at least 20 genera. The best represented genera were Asphondylia Loew, 1850, Lopesia Rübsaamen, 1908 and Neolasioptera Felt, 1908 (with at least 10, 7, and 5 species, respectively). Thirty-four other cecidomyiids were identified only to suprageneric levels (4 to tribe, 3 to supertribe, and 27 to subfamily), due to the scarcity of material (absence of one of the sexes and/or of immature specimens). Among the gall midges, 49 species were gallers, 6 inquilines and two predators.

 

 

The Armação beach showed the greatest diversity of galls and host plants, with 75 different morphotypes in 38 host species, followed by the beaches Suja, Kutuca, Grande, Sítio, João Manoel, and Caju, with respectively 60, 48, 38, 36, 26 and 25 morphotypes, and 35, 33, 26, 21, 16 and 17 host plants (Table II). The majority of the galls occurred in a single beach (81 morphotypes); 29 in two beaches, 37 in three or more beaches, and only 5.4% occurred in all the investigated beaches.

Gall Characterization

Anacardiaceae
Schinus terebintifolius Raddi

Gall (Fig. 2): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Lepidoptera. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Cabo Frio, Bertioga and Grumari (Maia 2013; Maia et al. 2008; Oliveira & Maia 2005).

Annonaceae
Xylopia involucrata M. C. Dias & Kin.-Gouv.

Gall (Fig. 3): on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undetermined. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Apocynaceae
Aspidosperma pyricollum Müll. Arg.

Gall (Fig. 4): on leaf, lenticular, permanently open, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Psyllidae (Hemiptera). Locality: João Manoel Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, December 2010, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande and Maricá (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Gall (Fig. 5): on leaf, lenticular, yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undetermined. Locality: Sítio Beach. Occurrence period: November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 6): on leaf, marginal roll, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undetermined. Locality: João Manoel Beach. Occurrence period: November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Asteraceae
Mikania argyreiae DC.

Gall (Fig. 7): on stem, fusiform, green, hairy, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Gall (Fig. 8): on leaf vein, fusiform, green-brown, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undetermined. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 9): on leaf, globoid, green-brown, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Mikania biformis DC.

Gall (Fig. 10): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Liodiplosis cylindrica Gagné, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Suja, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Gall (Fig. 11): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Liodiplosis spherica Gagné, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Suja, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: May, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Mikania micrantha Kunt.

Gall (Fig. 12): on stem, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 13): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Porophyllum ruderale (Jack.) Cass.

Gall (Fig. 14): on inflorescence, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Asphondylia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Trypanea sp. (Diptera, Tephritidae) inquiline. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Vernonia rufogrisea St. Hill.

Gall (Fig. 15): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Tephritidae (Diptera). Locality: Grande Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 16): stem, globoid, yellow, glabrous, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Sciaridae (Diptera) and Resseliella sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) inquilines; and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Grande Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Bignoniaceae
Adenocalymma comosum (Cham.) DC.

Gall: on leaf vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall: on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multichambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Fridericia conjugata (Vell.) L.G. Lohmann
(= Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart.)

Gall (Fig. 17): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Arrabidaeamyia serrata Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April and May 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Maricá, Arraial do Cabo, Carapebus, and Jurubatiba (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004)

Gall: on stem (Fig. 18), tendril and vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one or multi-chambered. Galler: Neolasioptera sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Lestodiplosis sp. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera) and Cecidomyiidae sp. inquilines of stem gall, and Hymenoptera parasitoid of stem and tendril galls. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, July, August, September, October, November, December 2010, January and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant on the stem, accessory on the tendril and accidental on the vein. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Maricá, Carapebus, and Jurubatiba (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Gall (Fig. 19): on fruit, brown, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera inquilines. Locatity: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Fridericia rego (Vell.) L.G. Lohmann

Gall (Fig. 20): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 21): on leaf vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 22): on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Alycauliini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Suja, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 23): on flower peduncle, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Bignoniaceae sp.

Gall (Fig. 24): on leaf vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 25): on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Boraginaceae
Tournefortia sp.

Gall (Fig. 26): on fruit, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande and Kutuca Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010, January February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Burseraceae
Protium brasiliensis (Spr.) Engl.

Gall (Fig. 27): on leaf, marginal roll, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Lopesia maricaensis Rodrigues & Maia, 2010 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá (Maia 2001; Rodrigues & Maia 2010).

Gall (Fig. 28): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiidi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010, January and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá (Maia 2001).

Protium icicariba (DC.) Marchand

Gall (Fig. 29): on leaf, marginal roll, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Lopesia simplex Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, October, December 2010, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Guarapari, Jurubatiba, and Carapebus (Bregonci et al. 2010; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 30): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Dactylodiplosis icicaribae Maia, 2002 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, October, December 2010, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Jurubatiba, and Carapebus (Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001)

Gall (Fig. 31): on leaf, lenticular, green-yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Psyllidae (Hemiptera). Localities: Grande, Kutuca and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, July, Agust, Setember, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Guarapari, and Jurubatiba (Bregonci et al. 2010; Monteiro et al. 2004).

Cactaceae
Selenicereus setaceus (SD) Berg

Gall (Fig. 32): on stem, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Neolasioptera cerei Rübsaamen, 1905 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Celastraceae
Maytenus obtusifolia Mart.

Gall (Fig. 33): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Mayteniella distincta Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Maricá, Carapebus, Arraial do Cabo, and Jurubatiba (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Gall (Fig. 34): on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Caju Beach. Occurrence period: February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 35): on bud, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae sp.

Gall (Fig. 36): on stem, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Alycaulini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Grande, Suja, Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Dilleniaceae
Davilla rugosa Poir.

Gall (Fig. 37): on bud, rosette, green-brown, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: June and October 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 38): on fruit, globoid, yellow-orange, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: June, August, Setember, October and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accessory.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Euphorbiaceae
Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll. Arg.

Gall (Fig. 39): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Chaetocharpus echinocarpus (Baill.) Ducke

Gall (Fig. 40): on leaf, lenticular, gree-yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 41): on bud, rosette, green-brown, glabrous, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: August, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

Gall (Fig. 42): on bud, rosette, green-red-brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Dactylodiplosis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: November 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Croton compressus Lam.

Gall (Fig. 43): on stem, fusiform, green, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Lepidoptera. Localities: Kutuca, Suja, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian resting areas: Cabo Frio (Maia 2013).

Gall (Fig. 44): on inflorescence, amorphic, yellow, hairy, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Curculionidae (Coleoptera) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Croton floribundus Spreng.

Gall (Fig. 45): on leaf, marginal roll, green-white, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 46): on leaf, globoid, green-white, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Clinodiplosis sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 47): on stem, fusiform, green, hairy, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gymnanthes gaudichaudii Müll.Arg.

Gall (Fig. 48): on fruit, globoid, orange, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Fabaceae
Andira fraxinifolia Benth.

Gall (Fig. 49): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Sítio Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Gall (Fig. 50): on leaf, lineal, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Lopesia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Cecidomyiinae sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga (Maia et al. 2008).

Clitoria sp.

Gall (Fig. 51): on leaf fold, green, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: Contarinia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: October, November 2010 and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 52): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Curculionidae (Coleoptera). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010 and March 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Dalbergia ecastaphyllum L. Taub.

Gall (Fig. 53): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Lopesia grandis Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Inga sp.

Gall (Fig. 54): on leaf, globoid, yellow, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Caju and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010 and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 55): on leaf vein, fusiform, green-brown, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Neolasioptera sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Suja, Caju and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall: on stem, fusiform, green-brown, hairy, simple, onechambered. Galler: Neolasioptera sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Lepidoptera inquiline. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Stylosanthes guianensis Sw.

Inflorescence (Fig. 56) with free-life larvae of Lestodiplosis sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Lepidoptera. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Zollernia glabra (Spreng.) Yakovlev

Gall: on leaf vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: Curculionidae (Coleoptera). Locality: João Manoel Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, June and July 2010. Temporal constancy: accessory.

Closed flower (Fig. 57) with Curculionidae (Coleoptera). Localities: Caju and João Manoel Beaches. Occurrence period: July 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Lauraceae
Ocotea notota (Nees & Mart.) Mez

Gall (Fig. 58): on fruit, globoid, yellow, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Bruggmanniella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: October, November and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 59): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: October, November, December 2010 and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá, Jurubatiba (Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Loranthaceae
Struthanthus concinnus Mart.

Gall: on leaf (Fig. 60) and stem (Fig. 61), conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Camptoneuriini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) inquiline of leaf gall, Cecidomyiinae sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), Thysanoptera inquilines of stem gall, and Hymenoptera parasitoid of both. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja and Caju Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 62): on adventice root, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Grande, Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, August and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Malpighiaceae
Byrsonima sericea DC.

Gall (Fig. 63): on leaf, lenticular, brown, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Dasineura byrsonimae Maia, 2010 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, July, September, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Guarapari, Grumari, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Bregonci et al. 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 64): on inflorescence, globoid, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Bruggmanniella byrsonimae (Maia & Couri, 1992) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, July, September, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá, Carapebus, and Jurubatiba (Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Gall (Fig. 65): on inflorescence, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Lepidoptera. Locality: Grande and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: July 2010 to January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá, Arraial do Cabo, and Jurubatiba (Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Gall (Fig. 66): on floral peduncle, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 67): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Suja and Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, September, October, November, December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Guarapari, Grumari, Maricá, Carapebus, Arraial do Cabo, and Jurubatiba (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Bregonci et al. 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Heteropterys nitida Kunth

Closed flower (Fig. 68) with Curculionidae (Coleoptera). Localities: Kutuca, Caju and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: April, June and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá (Maia 2001).

Peixotoa sp.

Gall (Fig. 69): on leaf, lenticular, green-brown, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca and João Manoel Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, August and December 2010. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Stigmaphyllon ciliatum (Lam.) A. Juss.

Gall (Fig. 70): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Malpighiaceae sp.

Gall: on stem (Fig. 71) and leaf vein (Fig. 72), fusiform, brown-green-yellow, glabrous, simple, one and multi-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Grande, Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

Malvaceae
Luehea divaricata Mart.

Gall (Fig. 73): on leaf, globoid, brown, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: May, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall: on leaf, marginal roll, green, hairy, simple, onechambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 74): on stem, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Olcella sp. (Diptera, Chloropidae) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, July, October, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 75): on stem, globoid with apical spine, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, November, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Sida sp.

Gall (Fig. 76): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Kutuca, João Manoel and Sítio Beaches.

Occurrence period: December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant genus.

Melastomataceae
Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC.) Naudin

Gall (Fig. 77): on leaf, globoid, red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: August 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 78): on stem, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: August 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Meliaceae
Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer

Gall (Fig. 79): on leaf, globoid, yellow, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Suja, Caju, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, June, August, September, October, December 2010, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

Gall: on leaf vein, fusiform, green-brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: April and August 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall: on stem, fusiform, green-brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: April 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Moraceae
Ficus sp.

Gall (Fig. 80): on leaf fold, green-red, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Thysanoptera. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: April 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Myrtaceae
Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng.

Gall (Fig. 81): on bud, conical, green-brown, glabrous, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Eugenia adstringens Cambess.
(= Eugenia rotundifolia Casar and E. umbelliflora O. Berg)

Gall (Fig. 82): on leaf, marginal roll, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Dasineura marginalis Maia, 2005 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, July,August, September, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Jurubatiba, Carapebus, and Maricá (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 83): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Dasineura globosa Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May, July, August, September, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga, Grumari, Jurubatiba, Carapebus, and Maricá (Maia et al. 2008; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Eugenia copacabanensis Kiaersk.

Gall (Fig. 84): on leaf, spiral, red-green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Stephomyia espiralis Maia, 1993 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Jurubatiba, and Maricá (Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall: on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Eugenia punicifolia (Kunt) DC.

Gall (Fig. 85): on leaf, cylindrical, green-red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Stephomyia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

Gall (Fig. 86): on leaf, lenticular, green-red, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Caju Beach. Occurrence period: August 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 87): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

Gall (Fig. 88): on fruit, globoid, green-red-yellow, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Curculionidae (Coleoptera) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: September, October and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Eugenia uniflora L.

Gall (Fig. 89): on leaf, lenticular, green-black, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Neolasioptera eugeniae Maia, 1993 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Paraty, Cabo Frio, Ilha Grande, Grumari, Jurubatiba, Arraial do Cabo, and Maricá (Maia 2013; Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 90): on leaf, conical, green-red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. This gall presents variation in shape, being globoid in some samples; and with occurrence of one or two larvae in the internal chamber. Galler: Clinodiplosis profusa Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimerman, 1909) (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) inquilines and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: July 2010 to February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Cabo Frio, Grumari, Jurubatiba, Arraial do Cabo, and Maricá (Maia 2013; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 91): on leaf roll, green, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall: on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: August 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande (Maia & Oliveira 2010).

Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg.

Gall (Fig. 92): on stem, globoid, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: October and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Myrcia splendens (SW.) DC.

Gall (Fig. 93): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Kutuca and Caju Beaches. Occurrence period: May and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall: on leaf, conical, yellow-green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Caju Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 94): on leaf, marginal roll, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: February 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 95): on bud, globoid, green-brown, glabrous, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: June 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Psidium guajava L.

Gall (Fig. 96): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, September, November 2010 and February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Myrtaceae sp.

Gall (Fig. 97): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: June 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Nyctaginaceae
Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz.

Gall (Fig. 98): on leaf, lenticular, green-red, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Bruggmannia elongata Maia & Couri, 1993 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Bertioga, Jurubatiba, Arraial do Cabo, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Maia et al. 2008; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 99): on leaf, globoid, red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Bruggmannia robusta Maia & Couri, 1993 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Bertioga, Jurubatiba, Arraial do Cabo, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Maia et al. 2008; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 100): on leaf, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Bruggmannia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Aphididae (Hemiptera) inquiline, Pseudoscorpiones (Arachinida) predator and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 101): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, October, Nevember and December 2010. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Guarapari, and Bertioga (Bregonci et al. 2010; Maia et al. 2008).

Gall (Fig. 102): on leaf, conical, green-red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Bruggmannia acaudata Maia, 2004 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locaities: Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: May, July, September, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Maricá, Jurubatiba, and Carapebus (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 103): on stem, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, multi-chambered. Galler: Proasphondylia guapirae Maia & Couri, 1993. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: May, August, September, October, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Bertioga, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Maia et al. 2008; Maia & Oliveira 2010; Monteiro et al. 2005; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 104): on stem, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: October 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 105): on flower peduncle, globoid, greenbrown-red, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Pisphondylia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Lepidoptera inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: September, October and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Ochnaceae
Ouratea cuspidata (St. Hil.) Engl.

Gall (Fig. 106): on leaf, cylindrical with apical projection, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Contarinia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April, May and September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Ilha Grande, Guarapari, Grumari, Maricá, and Jurubatiba (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Bregonci et al. 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004).

Gall (Fig. 107): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyi-idae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Olacaceae
Ximenia americana L.

Gall (Fig. 108): on bud, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia communis Maia & Couri, 1993 (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá (Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Polygalaceae
Securidaca sp.

Closed flower (Fig. 109) with larvae of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Associated fauna: Muscomorpha (Diptera) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: October 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 110): on leaf, cylindrical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 111): on stem, cylindrical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is first record of insect galls in this plant genus.

Polygonaceae
Coccoloba alnifolia Casar

Gall (Fig. 112): on inflorescence, globoid, yellow-green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Lopesia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Lepidoptera inquiline. Localities: Grande and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May and June 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

This is the first record of insect galls in this plant species.

Rubiaceae
Borreria verticillata G. Mey.

Gall (Fig. 113): on inflorescence, drop-like, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia borreriae Rübsaamen, 1905 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December 2010 and February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Arraial do Cabo, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004; Maia 2001).

Salicaceae
Casearia sp.

Gall (Fig. 114): on leaf petiole, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Sapindaceae
Matayba guianensis Aubl.

Gall (Fig. 115): on fruit, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 116): on leaf, globoid, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 117): on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Serjania sp. 01

Gall (Fig. 118): on leaf central vein, fusiform, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Muscomorpha (Diptera). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: May, August, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory.

Gall (Fig. 119): on leaf, cylindrical, yellow, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Lestodiplosiini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) predator. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: July and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall: on stem, fusiform, brown, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Serjania sp. 02

Gall (Fig. 120): on leaf vein, fusiform, green-yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: João Manoel and Sítio Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010, January and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 121): on leaf, lenticular, green-yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Kutuca and João Manoel Beach. Occurrence period: April 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 122): on leaf petiole, fusiform, green-yellow, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: João Manoel Beach. Occurrence period: March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Sapotaceae
Pouteria caimito (R. & P.) Radlk.

Gall (Fig. 123): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Youngomyia pouteriae Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Maricá, and Arraial do Cabo (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Pouteria venosa (Mart.) Baehni

Gall: on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, onechambered. Galler: Lopesia singularis Maia, 2001 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Locality: Kutuca and Caju Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Bertioga, Maricá, and Arraial do Cabo (Maia et al. 2008; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T. D. Penn.
(= Bumelia obtusifolia Roem. & Schult.)

Gall (Fig. 124): on fruit, globoid, green, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undescribed species of Bruggmanniella (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Cecidomyiinae sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Caju Beach. Occurrence period: June, July,August, October and November 2010. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Smilacaceae
Smilax rufescens Griseb

Gall (Fig. 125): on leaf, lenticular, green-yellow-red, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Smilasioptera candelariae Möhn, 1975 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja, Caju, João Manoel, Sítio and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April 2010 to March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 126): on leaf, conical, green, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Hemiptera. Locality: Armação Beach. Occurrence period: April, May, July, August, September, October, November, December 2010, January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Guarapari, Ilha Grande, Maricá, and Arraial do Cabo (Bregonci et al. 2010; Maia & Oliveira 2010; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Gall (Fig. 127): on leaf vein, fusiform, green-red, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Cecidomyiinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, June July, August, October 2010, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Grumari, Jurubatiba, Maricá, and Carapebus (Oliveira & Maia 2005; Monteiro et al. 2004; Maia 2001).

Gall (Fig. 128): on stem, globoid, green-red, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande, Kutuca, Suja and Armação Beaches. Occurrence period: April, May, July, August, December 2010 and February 2011. Temporal constancy: constant. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Solanaceae
Solanum sp.

Gall (Fig. 129): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 130): on stem, fusiform, green, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: December 2010 and January 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Solanaceae sp.

Gall (Fig. 131): on leaf, lenticular, green, glabrous, simple, one-chambered. Galler: Lepidoptera. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: October and December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall (Fig. 132): on lateral bud, globoid, brown, glabrous, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Localities: Grande and Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: May 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Gall: stem, fusiform, green-brown, glabrous, simple, multi-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: June 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental.

Verbenaceae
Lantana camara L.

Gall: on leaf, globoid, green, hairy, complex, one-cham-bered. Galler: Schismatodiplosis lantanae Rübsaamen, 1907 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Localities: Kutuca and Suja Beaches. Occurrence period: June, August and September 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. Previous records from Brazilian restinga areas: Maricá (Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Gall (Fig. 133): on stem, fusiform, green-brown, hairy, simple, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Kutuca and Suja Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Lantana lilacina Desf.

Gall (Fig. 134): on leaf, globoid, green, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Asphondylia sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Suja Beach. Occurrence period: January, February and March 2011. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Gall (Fig. 135): on leaf, cylindrical, green, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: undeterminated. Associated fauna: Hymenoptera parasitoid. Locality: Kutuca Beach. Occurrence period: December 2010. Temporal constancy: accidental. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

Stachytarpheta sp.

Gall (Fig. 136): on inflorescence, globoid, green, hairy, complex, one-chambered. Galler: Schizomyia stachytarphetae Barnes, 1932 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Associated fauna: Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin, 1908) (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) inquiline and Hymenoptera parasitoid. Localities: Grande and Kutuca Beaches. Occurrence period: May, December 2010, January and February 2011. Temporal constancy: accessory. No previous records from Brazilian restinga areas.

 

DISCUSSION

Among the studied restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Ilha da Marambaia stands out for presenting the greatest richness of insect gall morphotypes and host plant species, followed of Jurubatiba and Arraial do Cabo (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004). Conde et al. (2005) cited Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Orchidaceae, Rubiaceae, and Sapindaceae as the most diversified families in number of species, and Eugenia, Ocotea, Ficus, Myrcia, and Psychotria as the best represented genera in Marambaia (Conde et al. 2005). Among them, in the present study, Myrtaceae and Fabaceae stood out for the greatest richness of gall morphotypes, and Eugenia as the super-host genus, while Ocotea, Ficus and Myrcia presented few morphotypes, and Psychotria none. Concerning Eugenia, the results agreed with the hypothesis that plant taxa with the highest species richness have equally a highest gall richness (Fleck & Fonseca 2007).

The most galled organs were the leaves, with predominance of 54% of occurrences. This same result was found in other surveys in Rio de Janeiro State (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004), and according with Felt (1940) this is a worldwide pattern. Maia (2001) argued that the leaves are the most frequently attacked vegetal organ in restingas as they represent a constant and abundant source.

Hemipteran and thysanopteran galls were found on leaves, as recorded in other studies in restingas of Rio de Janeiro State (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001, 2006; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004). Regarding lepidopteran galls, each morphotype developed on a different plant organ: stem, leaf and flower. Galls on these organs have already been recorded in other restingas of the State (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001, 2006; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004), occurring, however, preferentially on stems. In restingas, the coleopteran galls have been recorded on leaves and stems (Maia & Oliveira 2004; Maia 2001). In this work, coleopteran galls are recorded for the first time on flower bud. It is also provided the first record of coleopteran flower bud galls in Brazil (in South America, there is a single previous record for Argentina) (Maia & Oliveira 2004). Although hymenopteran galls have been recorded in Maricá and Carapebus (Maia 2001), none was found in the present study. In restingas, the number of Hymenoptera gall morphotypes is very low, varying from 0 to 2 (Maia 2013). In Jurubatiba, RJ (Monteiro et al. 2004); Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Maia & Oliveira 2010) and Guarapari, ES (Bregonci et al. 2010), hymenopteran galls were not founded, well as in the Ilha de Marambaia. Therefore, the result of this study fits in the context of low richness of galls, suggesting low adaptability of this insect order to the restinga environment.

Cecidomyiidae was the most diverse and abundant galling group, with 84% of the occurrence. The most represented genera, Asphondylia, Neolasioptera and Lopesia, were also pointed out in other restingas of the State (Maia & Oliveira 2010; Oliveira & Maia 2005; Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994, 2004), confirming their high representation in this ecosystem. Asphondylia and Neolasioptera are genera with many species, the first being cosmopolitan and the second recorded only for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Differing from them, Lopesia has few species, being distributed in the Nearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical and Australasia regions (Gagné 2010).

Other Cecidomyiidae were found as inquilines, predators and free living, besides Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, other Diptera and Pseudoscorpiones founded as inquilines, predators and parasitoids. The study in the restinga of Maricá also recorded Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and other Diptera as inquilines, and Pseudoscorpiones as predator (Maia 2001). Hymenoptera was the most represented insect order as parasitoid, this same pattern also recorded in Maricá and Arraial do Cabo (Maia 2001; Monteiro et al. 1994).

Most gall morphotypes were accidental. In other restinga surveys, the galls were not classified according to their frequency. This is the first inventory that provides this information. Therefore, we cannot make comparisons with other studied areas. The large number of accidental morphotypes explains the large proportion of undetermined inducers and identifications only to suprageneric categories.

Among the investigated beaches, Armação (with the largest extension) presented the greatest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, possibly due to the high number of plant species, as proposed by the hypothesis of plant richness (Fleck & Fonseca 2007).

 

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the present investigation and the results obtained we can conclude that Ilha da Marambaia presents the greatest number of insect gall morphotypes and of host plant species among the already studied restingas of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Among the plant families investigated, Myrtaceae proved to be the one with the highest gall richness and number of galled species. We also concluded that Eugenia, Fridericia, Guapira and Mikania are super-host genera in this restinga, and the leaf the most galled plant organ. Among the insects, Diptera was the most representative galler order, standing out the Cecidomyiidae, with Asphondylia, Lopesia and Neolasioptera showing the highest species richness. Concerning other insects, Hymenoptera was pointed as the unique order of parasitoids, while inquiline insects were represented by five orders and predators were represented by Cecidomyiidae and pseudoscorpions. Finally, Armação Beach presented the largest richness of gall morphotypes and host plant species.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to thank Dr. Roberto de Xerez (UFRRJ) and Centro de Avalição da Ilha da Marambaia (CADIM – Marinha do Brasil) for granting access to the study areas and for providing information and infrastructure; to the botanists Dr. Marcelo Souza (MNRJ), Dr. Débora Medeiros (MNRJ), Dr. Roberto Esteves (UERJ) and Dr. Luiz Pinto (UERJ) for host plant identification; to Dr. Sérgio Vanin (USP) and Dr. Adriano Cavalleri (UFRS) for Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Thysanoptera identification, respectively; to the biologists: Sharlene Ascendino, Francisco Rodrigues Junior, Viviane Rodrigues, Luciana Oliveira, Marcelo Boggi, Luciana Carolina, Hingrid Quintino, Guaraci Dias, Marianna Simões, Juan Pablo, Wallace Beiroz, Claydson, Cristiano, and Uellinton Oliveira, for helping during field work; and to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support (Programa de Capacitação em Taxonomia – PROTAX).

 

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Received 5 November 2013;
accepted 9 March 2014

 

 

* alenerodrigues@yahoo.com.br
Associate Editor: Maria Cristina Gaglianone

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