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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.22 no.4 Viçosa Oct./Dec. 1998

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06831998000400008 

SEÇÃO III - BIOLOGIA DO SOLO

 

Metais pesados, densidade e atividade microbiana em solo contaminado por rejeitos de indústria de zinco(1)

 

Heavy metals, microbial density and activity in a soil contaminated by wastes from a zinc industry

 

 

H. E. Dias-JúniorI; F. M. S. MoreiraII; J. O. SiqueiraII; R. SilvaIII

IAluno de Pós-Graduação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo, UFLA, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200-000 Lavras (MG). Bolsista do CNPq
IIProfessor do Departamento de Ciência do Solo, UFLA. Bolsista do CNPq
IIIProfessor do Departamento de Biologia, UFLA

 

 


RESUMO

As atividades relacionadas com mineração e indústria metalúrgica são responsáveis pela poluição de extensas áreas de solo em todo o mundo, sendo seus efeitos ainda pouco conhecidos nas condições brasileiras. No presente trabalho, os teores totais e solúveis em água de metais pesados, a densidade e a atividade microbiana foram avaliados em 1996, em sete locais de uma área de deposição de rejeitos da industrialização de zinco, em elevado estádio de degradação, e num local fora da área contaminada, considerado como referência, no estado de Minas Gerais. Todos os locais contaminados apresentaram elevados teores de metais pesados totais e solúveis em água, atingindo, respectivamente, os seguintes valores máximos, em mg kg-1: 11.969 e 726 de Zn; 109 e 18 de Cd; 1.016 e 0 de Pb e 887 e 8 de Cu. Todas as características biológicas avaliadas foram afetadas pelos elevados teores de metais com exceção do número de amonificadores. O C-biomassa apresentou redução acima de 80% em quatro locais contaminados em relação ao local fora da área contaminada. A respiração basal do solo foi maior no local contaminado coberto com Andropogon sp. e menor nos sítios sem vegetação. O número de actinomicetos e de fungos cultiváveis foi menos afetado pela contaminação que o número total de bactérias. Azospirillum spp. foram detectados apenas no local de referência. Oxidantes de amônio foram verificados em somente dois locais que continham vegetação, enquanto os oxidantes de nitrito foram detectados na maioria dos locais amostrados. Verificou-se a tendência de maior densidade e atividade microbiana nos locais contaminados e com algum tipo de vegetação. A concentração total e solúvel de Zn, de Cd e de Cu correlacionou-se fracamente com as características biológicas, exceto para o qCO2, o qual se mostrou promissor como indicador da contaminação com esses metais. Os dados indicaram uma interação químico-biológica complexa em solos altamente contaminados por metais pesados.

Termos de indexação: poluição do solo, bactérias, fungos, actinomicetos, biomassa microbiana.


SUMMARY

Mining and metallurgical activities are responsible for pollution of extensive soil areas around the world, with their effects not being well known under Brazilian conditions. Total and water soluble contents of heavy metals and microbial density and activity were evaluated, in this 1996 study using samples from seven sites located in a dumping site of a zinc industry in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Additionally, a non-contaminated site was used as reference. All contaminated sites presented high total and soluble levels reaching, in mg kg-1, 11969 and 726 of Zn, 109 and 18 of Cd, 1016 and 0 of Pb and 887 and 8 of Cu, respectively. All biological characteristics assessed were affected by the excess of metals, except the number of ammonifiers. The C-biomass was reduced by more than 80 % in four contaminated sites as compared to the non-contaminated site. Soil basal respiration was maximum when Andropogon sp was the dominant plant cover and minimal in vegetation-free contaminated sites. Counts of culturable fungi and actinomycetes were less affected by contamination as compared to bacteria. Azospirillum spp. were only detected in the non-contaminated site. Ammonium oxidizers were found only in two sites with vegetation, whereas nitrite oxidizers were found in most sites. Microbial density and activity tended to be higher in contaminated sites covered with some type of vegetation than in those sites without vegetation. Total and water soluble contents of Zn, Cd and Cu were only slightly correlated with the biological characteristics, except for qCO2 which showed to be a good indicator of soil contamination with these metals. The available data indicate a complex chemical-biological interaction in soils highly contaminated with heavy metals.

Index terms: soil pollution, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microbial biomass.


 

 

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Recebido para publicação em março de 1997
Aprovado em setembro de 1998

 

 

(1) Trabalho da Tese de Mestrado do primeiro autor apresentada ao Departamento de Ciência do Solo - DCS, Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA. Parcialmente financiado pelo convênio FAEPE/CMM e FAPEMIG.

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