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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.24 no.3 Viçosa July/Sept. 2000

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832000000300011 

SEÇÃO V - GÊNESE, MORFOLOGIA E CLASSIFICAÇÃO DO SOLO

 

Evaluation of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of Ferralsols and related soils(1)

 

Avaliação de atributos morfológicos, físicos e químicos de Ferralsolos e solos relacionados

 

 

E. KlamtI; L. P. van ReeuwijkII

IProfessor, retired from the Soil Science Department, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Caixa Postal 776, presently Visiting Researcher of FAPERGS at the Soil Science Department of University of Santa Maria - UFSM, CEP 97105-900 Santa Maria (RS)
IIResearcher of ISRIC, P.O. Box 353, Wageningen, The Netherlands

 

 


SUMMARY

Morphological, physical and chemical data of 58 soil profiles of Ferralsols and low activity clay Cambisols, Lixisols, Acrisols and Nitisols and of Alisols of the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) collection, described and sampled in eighteen different countries of tropical and subtropical regions, were selected to analyse their consistency and, or, variability and to search for properties to better describe and differentiate them. The soil profile descriptions were based on the guidelines of FAO and the FAO endorsed analytical methods of ISRIC. Frequence diagrams of the data show an asymmetric positively skewed and leptokurtic distribution for sand and silt fractions, specific surface, exchangeable bases and cation exchange capacity. Clustering soil colour hues, values and chromas rendered four distinct clusters, respectively of Rhodic, Rhodic/Xanthic (Haplic), Xanthic and Humic properties. The same technique applied to particle size distribution also originated four clusters, respectively of fine loamy, fine silty, clayey and fine clayey soils. Most of the soils analysed are acid, with low base saturation, except for Rhodic Nitisols and Rhodic Ferralsols, which present low exchangeable aluminium. Higher and variable values of this property are found in the other soil classes studied. Cation exchange capacity is also low and related to the kaolinitic and oxihydroxydic composition of the clay material. Regression analysis applied to cation exchange capacity resulted in low correlations with clay and silt content and higher with organic carbon and specific surface and clay content.

Index terms: tropical soils, low activity clay soils, acid soils, low exchangeable bases.


RESUMO

A morfologia e os dados de análises físicas e químicas de 58 perfis de Ferralsolos e de Cambissolos, Lixissolos, Acrissolos e Nitissolos de argila de atividade baixa e de Alissolos, da coleção do International Soil Reference and Information Centre - ISRIC, descritos e amostrados em dezoito países tropicais e subtropicais, foram utilizados não só para analisar a consistência e, ou, variabilidade destes dados, mas também para pesquisar características que possam melhor descrevê-los ou diferenciá-los. A descrição dos perfis de solos seguiu as normas da FAO e os métodos analíticos do ISRIC, endossados pela FAO. Em diagramas de freqüência, os dados mostram uma distribuição assimétrica com inclinação positiva e leptocúrtica para teor de areia e silte, superfície específica, bases trocáveis e capacidade de troca de cátions. Análise de conglomerados aplicados à matiz, valor e chroma da cor dos solos, originou quatro agrupamentos distintos, respectivamente, de solos vermelhos, vermelho-amarelos (háplicos), amarelos e húmicos. A mesma técnica aplicada à distribuição do tamanho de partículas também originou quatro agrupamentos, respectivamente, de solos franco-argilosos, siltosos, argilosos e muito argilosos. Os solos estudados são ácidos, de baixa saturação por bases, com exceção dos Nitissolos ródicos e Ferralsolos ródicos, que apresentam baixa saturação por alumínio; contudo, valores mais elevados e variáveis para este atributo são encontrados nas demais classes de solo estudados. A capacidade de troca de cátions é baixa e relacionada com a composição caulinítica e oxiidroxídica da fração argila. Análise de regressão aplicada à capacidade de troca de cátions resultou em baixas correlações com teor de argila e silte, mas maiores com carbono orgânico e entre superfície específica e teor de argila.

Termos de indexação: solos tropicais, solos com argila de atividade baixa, solos ácidos, solos com bases trocáveis baixas.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the many colleagues of the various countries in which soil profiles were described and soil monoliths and samples collected for their advice in selecting sites, their collaboration in the field work and background information and to the staff members of the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) for the preparation and analysis of samples, statistical analyses of the data as well as valuable comments on the text.

The first author is indebted to the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, for the one year study leave, to the Brazilian Council of Research - CNPq, for the scholarship received; and to the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Ensino Superior - CAPES, and FAPERGS, for travelling expenses.

 

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Received for publication in april 1999
Aproved in october 1999

 

 

(1) Part of the research performed during the post-doctoral leave of the first author at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre - ISRIC, Wageningen, The Netherlands in 1985 and subsequent visits in the period of 1987-1998.

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