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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.26 no.1 Viçosa Jan./Mar. 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832002000100012 

SEÇÃO III - BIOLOGIA DO SOLO

 

Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solos de área poluída com metais pesados(1)

 

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in soils polluted with heavy metals

 

 

O. Klauberg-FilhoI; J. O. SiqueiraII; F. M. S. MoreiraII

IProfessor do Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina - UDESC-CAV. Caixa Postal 281, CEP 88520-000 Lages (SC). E-mail: a2okf@cav.udesc.br
IIProfessor do Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA. Caixa Postal37, CEP 37200-000 Lavras (MG). Bolsista do CNPq

 

 


RESUMO

Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) ocorrem de forma generalizada e formam importante simbiose com a maioria das plantas, mesmo em solos poluídos com metais pesados. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a ocorrência e a diversidade dos FMAs em quatro locais com gramíneas em uma área de solo contaminado com metais pesados pela extração e industrialização do Zn. Verificou-se a ocorrência generalizada dos FMAs nos locais estudados, sendo esta influenciada pelas concentrações de metais no solo. Encontrou-se um total de 21 espécies, sendo: sete pertencentes ao gênero Acaulospora, seis de Scutellospora, cinco de Glomus, duas de Gigaspora e uma de Entrophospora,Glomus occultum, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora mellea, Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum e Scutellospora pellucida foram as de maior ocorrência. A densidade de esporos, a riqueza de espécies e o aumento da dominância relacionaram-se inversamente com as concentrações de metais no solo. Acaulospora mellea, Glomus clarum e Glomus occultum dominaram as populações de esporos no solo. Concluiu-se que os metais pesados exerceram efeito diferenciado sobre os FMAs, dependendo do grau de poluição.

Termos de indexação: poluição do solo, ecologia microbiana, diversidade de fungos micorrízicos.


SUMMARY

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous establishing symbiosis with a large number of plants in spite of soil contamination with heavy metals.This study aimed to evaluate AMF occurrence and diversity in soils of four locations cultivated with grass species and contaminated with heavy metals as a result of Zn extraction and industrialization. AMFs were found in all locations, with species predominance being affected by heavy metal concentration in soil. Twenty one species were identified, belonging to the following genus: Acaulospora (seven species), Scutellospora (six species), Glomus (five species), Gigaspora (two species), Entrophospora (one species).The most frequent species identified were: Glomus occultum, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora mellea, Glomus intraradiaces, Glomus clarum, and Scutellospora pellucida. Spore density, species richness and increase in species dominance were all inversely related to heavy metal concentration.The AMF populations were dominated by Acaulospora mellea, Glomus clarum, and Glomus occultum.It was concluded that heavy metals exert differential effects on AMF populations, which are affected by the level of heavy metal pollution.

Index terms: soil pollution, microbial ecology, heavy metals, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizal fungi diversity.


 

 

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Recebido para publicação em junho de 2000
Aprovado em agosto de 2001

 

 

(1) Parte da Tese de Doutorado do primeiro autor, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA. Financiado pelo convênio FAEPE/CMM e FAPEMIG.

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