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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.26 no.2 Viçosa Apr./June 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832002000200003 

SEÇÃO I - FÍSICA DO SOLO

 

Incorporação da densidade no ajuste de dois modelos à curva de retenção de água no solo

 

Incorporation of the bulk density to two models adjusted to the soil water retention curve

 

 

C. A. TormenaI; A. P. SilvaII

IProfessor Adjunto do Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM. Av. Colombo 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá (PR). Bolsista do CNPq. E-mail:catormena@uem.br
IIProfessor do Departamento de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - ESALQ-USP. Av. Pádua Dias 11, CEP 13418-900 Piracicaba (SP). Bolsista do CNPq. E-mail: apisilva@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

 

 


RESUMO

A curva de retenção de água no solo é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de estudos relacionados com a dinâmica da água, com a modelagem de processos físicos do solo e crescimento das plantas. Normalmente, a curva de retenção é obtida por meio de medidas simultâneas do conteúdo de água (θ) e do potencial mátrico da água no solo (ψ) numa única amostra. Um procedimento alternativo consiste em utilizar várias amostras por ψ para descrever a curva de retenção. A utilização deste procedimento requer a incorporação dos fatores de variação existentes entre as amostras nos parâmetros das funções matemáticas utilizadas para descrever essa curva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a curva de retenção, utilizando esta última sistemática, e ajustar duas diferentes funções não-lineares aos dados de θ(ψ). Amostras indeformadas (0,05 m de diâmetro e 0,05 m de altura) foram obtidas num Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico cultivado com milho sob plantio direto e preparo convencional do solo. Foram retiradas 96 amostras por sistema de preparo, na profundidade de 0-0,10 m, na linha e na entrelinha da cultura. A curva de retenção foi obtida utilizando-se 12 ψ, sendo 16 amostras por ψ: oito por sistema de preparo e quatro por posição amostrada. Os modelos de Genuchten (1980) - VG e o de Hutson & Cass (1987) - HC foram ajustados aos dados. Funções relacionando os parâmetros dos modelos com as variáveis independentes preparo, posição de amostragem e densidade do solo (Ds) os substituíram no ajuste dos dados. Não houve influência estatisticamente significativa dos sistemas de preparo e posição de amostragem (p > 0,05) no ajuste das funções aos dados . Com a função de VG obtiveram-se efeitos significativos da Ds no parâmetro n, o qual foi descrito por uma função quadrática da Ds. Resultado similar foi obtido com o parâmetro "a" da função de HC. A curva de retenção foi sensível às variações da Ds e o procedimento utilizado apresenta vantagens de natureza metodológica, bem como a redução substancial de tempo e custo para obter a curva de retenção. A precisão dos modelos utilizados foi praticamente similar, mas o modelo de HC apresentou menor número de parâmetros empíricos que o modelo de VG.

Termos de indexação: propriedades físicas do solo, funções de pedotransferência, regressão não-linear, porosidade do solo.


SUMMARY

The soil water retention curve plays a fundamental role in the development of studies on the dynamics of soil water, modeling of physical soil processes and plant growth. The retention curve is usually obtained by simultaneously measuring water content (θ) and soil water potential (ψ) in a single sample. An alternative procedure is to use several samples per ψ to describe the retention curve. The use of this procedure requires that the variation factors which exist among the samples are incorporated into the parameters of the mathematical functions used to describe the retention curve. The objective of this study was to obtain the retention curve using the latter procedure and fitting the θ(ψ) data using two different nonlinear functions. Undisturbed soil samples (0.05 m in diameter and 0.05 m in height) were collected from a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Hapludox) cropped with corn by no-tillage and conventional tillage. Ninety-six samples per soil tillage were taken at a depth of 0-0.10 m, from two positions: along the crop row and between crop rows. The retention curve was obtained using 12 matric potentials, with 16 samples per ψ: eight per tillage system and four per sampled position. Data were adjusted using the Genuchten (1980) model, VG, and the function proposed by Hutson & Cass (1987), HC. Mathematical functions relating the model parameters with the independent variables (soil tillage, sampling position and soil bulk density - Bd) substituted the model parameters in the fitting of the data. The tillage systems and sampling position exerted no statistically significant influence (p > 0.05) on the fitting of the data. With the VG function, Bd produced significant effects on the n parameter, which was described by a quadratic function of Bd. A similar result was obtained with the "a" parameter of the HC function. The retention curve proved to be sensitive to variations of Bd. The adopted procedure offered methodological advantages, involving substantially less time and lower costs to obtain the retention curve. The precision of the models was practically the same, but the model of HC possesses smaller number of empiric parameters than the model of VG.

Index terms: soil water, physical soil properties, pedotransfer functions, non-linear regression, soil porosity.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Recebido para publicação em fevereiro de 2001
Aprovado em novembro de 2001

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