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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.26 no.2 Viçosa Apr./June 2002

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832002000200006 

SEÇÃO II - QUÍMICA E MINERALOGIA DO SOLO

 

Structural features of humic acids isolated from soils amended with urban organic residues: an elemental composition, 13C NMR and Py-GC/MS analysis

 

Características estruturais de ácidos húmicos isolados de solos com adição de resíduos orgânicos de origem urbana: composição elementar, análise de RMN 13C e Pi-CG/EM

 

 

L. P. CanellasI; A. A. MoraesII; V. M. RumjanekII; M. R. GarciaIII; F. GuridiIV; G. A. SantosV; A. C. X. VellosoVI; R. Braz-FilhoVII

IResearcher, Agricultural Science and Technology Center (CCTA), Soil Laboratory (LSOL). Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense - UENF. Av. Alberto Lamego 2000. CEP 28015-620 Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). FAPERJ fellowship. E-mail: canellas@uenf.br
IIAdjunct Professor, Chemical Dept. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro - UFRRJ. Km 47 da antiga RJ-SP, CEP 23851-970. Seropédica (RJ)
IIIPost-graduated program in Organic Chemistry, Chemistry Dept., UFRRJ
IVAuxiliary Professor, Universidad Agrária de La Habana. Chemistry Dept. San Jose de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba
VTitular Professor, UFRRJ, Soil Dept. Solos. CNPq fellowship
VITitular Professor, UENF, CCTA, LSOL
VIITitular Professor, UENF, CCT, LCQUI- Chemistry of natural products laboratory

 

 


SUMMARY

The structural features of humic acids (HA) after addition of organic matter from urban residues were evaluated. The HAs were extracted from the surface (0-20 cm) of an ultisol (Seropédica, RJ) and oxisol (Piraí, RJ) which had been treated with the equivalent of 80 t ha-1 (dry material) of compost from urban waste and also sewage sludge. The incubation time in the laboratory was 24 weeks under room temperature and humidity at field capacity. Tha HAs were characterized by elemental analysis, 13C NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). NMR spectroscopy allowed the clear observation of alterations in the molecular composition of the HAs, mainly through the increase in the content of mono and dioxygenated carbon atoms (δ 50-100) and decrease in the content of CH2 and CH3 groups (δ 0-40). The increase in the amount of carbohydrates suggests the presence of more labile structures in the HAs with organic residues amendment. In addition, Py-GC/MS led to the observation of significant qualitative differences between the compounds which arose from the thermal fragmentation of HAs, mainly lipids and carbohydrate derivatives (such as furan), for soil samples treated with either organic residues. The coupling of 13C NMR spectroscopy and Py-GC/MS has proven useful in evaluating physical changes in HAs isolated from soils treated with urban organic residues.

Index terms: humic substances, soil quality, spectroscopic methods, urban compost, sewage sludge.


RESUMO

Foram avaliadas as alterações nas características estruturais de ácidos húmicos (AH) decorrentes da adição de matéria orgânica de resíduos urbanos. Os AH foram extraídos da camada superficial (0-20 cm) de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Seropédica, RJ) e de um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo (Piraí, RJ), ambos tratados com o equivalente a 80 t ha-1 (em base seca) de composto de lixo urbano e lodo de estação de tratamento de esgotos. O tempo de incubação em laboratório foi de 24 semanas à temperatura ambiente e umidade mantida na capacidade de campo. Para caracterizar os AH, foram utilizadas a análise elementar, a ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) de 13C e Pirólise acoplada à cromatografia gasosa e a espectrometria de massas (Pi-CG/EM). A análise de RMN 13C permitiu observar alterações na composição molecular dos AH de forma clara, principalmente, pelo aumento do teor de C mono e di oxigenados (δC 50-110) e pela diminuição dos teores de grupos CH2 e CH3 (δC 50-110). O aumento no teor de carboidratos evidencia a presença de estruturas mais lábeis nos AH com adição dos resíduos. Em adição, a técnica de Pi-CG/EM permitiu verificar diferenças qualitativas significativas nos compostos orgânicos, provenientes da fragmentação térmica dos AH com incorporação de novas estruturas, sobretudo da fração lipídica e de derivados de carboidratos (furanos), nas amostras de solos tratados com ambos os resíduos orgânicos. O uso em conjunto das técnicas analíticas de RMN 13C e de Pi-CG/EM foi eficiente para avaliar as mudanças na composição molecular de ácidos húmicos decorrentes da adição de resíduos orgânicos de origem urbana.

Termos de indexação: substâncias húmicas, qualidade do solo, métodos espectroscópicos, composto de lixo, lodo de esgoto.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Received for publication in January 2001
Approved in October 2001

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