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Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira

Print version ISSN 0100-204XOn-line version ISSN 1678-3921

Pesq. agropec. bras. vol.52 no.3 Brasília Mar. 2017

https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2017000300003 

PHYTOPHATOLOGY

Performance of banana genotypes with resistance to black leaf streak disease in Northeastern Brazil

Desempenho de genótipos de bananeira com resistência à sigatoka-negra no Nordeste brasileiro

Olmar Baller Weber(1) 

Deborah dos Santos Garruti(1) 

Normândia Pereira Norões(2) 

Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva(3) 

(1)Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, no 2.270, Planalto do Pici, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. E-mail: olmar.weber@embrapa.br, deborah.garruti@embrapa.br

(2)Frutacor, Distrito Irrigado de Jaguaribe-Apodi, Quadra 02, s/no, CEP 62930-000 Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil. E-mail: normandianoroes@hotmail.com

(3)Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Rua Embrapa, s/no, Caixa Postal 007, CEP 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil. E-mail: ssilva3000@gmail.com


Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the production of banana plants with resistance to black leaf streak disease (BLSD), in comparison with the performance of traditional cultivars susceptible to the disease. Twenty cultivars were planted at the Jaguaribe-Apodi plateau, in Northeastern Brazil: 15 with resistance to BLSD, namely Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Vitória, BRS Japira, BRS Preciosa, BRS Garantida, Thap Maeo, BRS Tropical, BRS Platina, BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, Caipira, and Buccaneer; and five susceptible to the disease, namely Williams, Grande Naine, Pacovan, Prata Anã, and Maçã. Banana growth and production of bunches was evaluated during three successive cycles. 'BRS Tropical' and 'Caipira' can replace 'Maçã', which is very susceptible to Fusarium wilt. The BRS Maravilha, BRS Platina, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, and Galil 18 cultivars show adequate height and high yield potential, being alternatives to the traditional Prata subgroup. The Buccaneer cultivar is an alternative to the susceptible cultivars of the Cavendish subgroup and can be explored in an irrigated agrosystem.

Index terms: Musa; Mycosphaerella fijiensis; banana cultivars; black leaf streak disease

Resumo:

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produção de bananeiras com resistência à sigatoka-negra, em comparação ao desempenho de cultivares tradicionais suscetíveis à doença. Vinte cultivares foram plantadas no planalto Jaguaribe-Apodi, no Nordeste do Brasil: 15 com resistência à sigatoka-negra, a saber, Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Vitória, BRS Japira, BRS Preciosa, BRS Garantida, Thap Maeo, BRS Tropical, BRS Platina, BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, Caipira e Buccaneer; e cinco suscetíveis à doença, a saber, Williams, Grande Naine, Pacovan, Prata Anã e Maçã. O crescimento e a produção de cachos das bananeiras foram avaliados durante três ciclos sucessivos. 'BRS Tropical' e 'Caipira' podem substituir 'Maçã', que é bastante suscetível à murcha de Fusarium. As cultivares BRS Maravilha, BRS Platina, FHIA 02, FHIA 18 e Galil 18 apresentam porte adequado e alto potencial de rendimento, sendo alternativas ao tradicional subgrupo Prata. Já a cultivar Buccaneer é alternativa às cultivares suscetíveis do subgrupo Cavendish e pode ser explorada em agrossistema irrigado.

Termos para indexação: Musa; Mycosphaerella fijiensis; cultivares de bananeira; sigatoka-negra

Introduction

Banana (Musa spp.) plants are widely cultivated in tropical regions, and developing countries account for over a third of global banana production (FAO, 2016), generating opportunities and income for producers and other agents in the fresh fruit value chain. In Brazil, the banana crop is spread throughout all regions, with an annual harvest of 7 million tons. The Northeast of the country represents nearly 40% of the planted area and 35% of the national production (IBGE, 2015). However, despite the high production levels in this particular region, fruit yield is still low (<13 Mg ha-1), which is associated with the productivity potential of traditional cultivars, such as Prata (Donato et al., 2009), compared with other types of banana.

The banana cultivars traditionally planted in Brazil are susceptible to Panama disease and Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Silva et al., 2015). In addition, inadequate cultivation practices are often adopted, in particular planting under rainfed conditions in semiarid regions. In irrigated areas, for example, the Prata cultivar can produce fruit yields of up to 40 Mg ha-1 (Donato et al., 2009), which can easily be exceeded by the cultivars of the Cavendish subgroup, mainly destined for the export market, such as Grande Naine. This cultivar produced 70 to 75 Mg ha-1 per year under irrigation and a dense spacing of 2,000 to 4,000 plants per hectare (Flori et al., 2004). It should be noted, however, that consumers in Northeastern Brazil show a preference for 'Prata', 'Maçã' (Matsuura et al., 2004), and 'Pacovan' (Garruti et al., 2012) bananas.

Several different diseases infect banana plants, but, of all fungal infections, black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black Sigatoka, is considered to be the worst, due to its widespread occurrence in many countries, its severe negative impact on banana production (Robert et al., 2012), and its effects on cultivars belonging to different genomic groups (Churchill, 2011). In Brazil, BLSD causes significant losses in the humid areas of the Amazon (Gasparotto et al., 2006), affecting bananas of the 'Prata' and 'Cavendish' subgroups (Silva et al., 2014). The disease spreads through the spores of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Silva et al., 2014), which could happen during the transport of banana plant material that could contain the pathogen propagules, causing concern in the banana agribusiness. As a result, strategies for the genetic improvement and the development of cultivars resistant to BLSD are being sought in Brazil (Silva et al., 2013).

No occurrences of BLSD have been reported in Northeastern Brazil to date. However, this can be a matter of time, since, during certain times of the year, the climatic conditions of some banana-producing areas are favorable to the development of the disease, with air temperatures of approximately 27ºC and high relative humidity of around 80% (Ghini et al., 2007; Jesus Júnior et al., 2008). Because of this, some researches on genotypes resistant to BLSD (Silva et al., 2015) and on cultivars tested in semiarid conditions (Lédo et al., 2008; Azevedo et al., 2010) are already being carried out. However, the plant size and the productive capacity of cultivars resistant to BLSD may not be suitable for growing in open coastal areas.

The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the production of banana plants with resistance to BLSD, in comparison with the performance of traditional cultivars susceptible to the disease.

Materials and Methods

A total of 20 banana cultivars were evaluated: 15 considered resistant to BLSD, namely, Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Vitória, BRS Japira, BRS Preciosa, BRS Garantida, Thap Maeo, BRS Tropical, BRS Platina, BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, Caipira, and Buccaneer; and five susceptible to the disease, namely, Williams, Grande Naine, Pacovan, Prata Anã, and Maçã. The experiment was set up at the Frutacor farm, located in the irrigation district of Jaguaribe-Apodi, in the Jaguaribe-Apodi plateau, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil (05°20'S, 38°05'W, at 80 m above sea level). The climate of the area is hot and semiarid, BSw’h’ according to Köppen-Geiger (DNOCS, 2016). During the experimental period, the average temperature at the farm was 26.4±1.2°C, the relative humidity was 73.4±8.8%, and the average wind speed was 5.8±0.6 m s-1. The soil of the experimental area was classified as an Inceptisol, and the 0-20 cm-depth, according to the analytical methods of Silva (2009), showed: pH (H2O) 7.1 (ratio of 1:2.5); 18.8 mg kg-1 P, 20.4 mmolckg-1 K, 1.3 mmolckg-1 Na, 4.9 mg kg-1Cu, 10.6 mg kg-1Fe, 55.8 mg kg-1Mn, and 2.0 mg kg-1 Zn extracted with Mehlich-1; and 79.7 mmolckg-1Ca and 1.3 mmolckg-1Mg extracted with 1 mol L-1KCl.

The preparation of the area consisted of soil plowing, harrowing, and furrowing (0.4-m depth and 2 or 4 m apart). Bovine manure (12 L per plant) was placed in the furrows, along with 300 g per plant of monoammonium phosphate, 200 kg ha-1 P2O5, and 100 kg ha-1 N. These fertilizer dosages are commonly used for planting banana seedlings in the irrigation district of Jaguaribe-Apodi. After the furrows were closed and the soil incubated for a month, hose pipes and Gyronet micro-sprinklers (Netafim Brasil, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil) were installed, with a flow rate of 40 L per hour and a wetting diameter of 4 m. On sunny days, up to 53 L of water per plant per day were used throughout the experimental period.

Micropropagated seedlings were planted (Table 1), which were initially acclimatized in 1-L capacity plastic bags, containing a mixture of vermicompost, soil, and washed sand (in a 1:6:3 ratio by volume), under a black shade cloth to reduce luminosity from sunlight in 25%. The substrate, according to the analytical methods of Silva (2009), showed: pH (H2O) 7.3 (ratio of 1:2.5); 43.8 mg kg-1 P, 7.5 mmolckg-1 K, 2.1 mmolckg-1 Na, 0.4 mmolckg-1 Cu, 29.7 mg kg-1 Fe, 43.1 mg kg-1 Mn, and 2.1 mg kg-1 Zn extracted with Mehlich-1; and 49.6 mmolckg-1 Ca and 18.9 mmolckg-1 Mg extracted with 1 mol L-1 KCl. In April 2008, when planting was performed in the field, the seedlings with root clods had more than 30 cm of shoot height. For the distribution of the seedlings of the 20 evaluated cultivars, a randomized complete block design was used, with three replicates with 20 plants. The spacing between planting rows was 2 and 4 m, and between plants in the row was 2.5 m. Seedlings of the Prata Catarina cultivar were planted in the external borders.

Table 1: Traits of the banana (Musa spp.) cultivars planted at the Frutacor farm, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. 

Cultivar Group Subgroup Genealogy (origin)(1) Sensibility to plant diseases
Pacovan Ken AAAB Prata Pacovan hybrid (AAB) x M 53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
PV42-68 AAAB Prata Pacovan hybrid (AAB) x M 53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
BRS Vitória AAAB Prata Pacovan hybrid (AAB) x M 53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
BRS Japira AAAB Prata Pacovan hybrid (AAB) x M 53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
BRS Preciosa AAAB Prata Pacovan hybrid (AAB) x M 53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
BRS Garantida AAAB Prata Prata São Tomé hybrid from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
Thap Maeo AAB Mysore Mysore-type cultivar from Thailand and Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt(2)
BRS Tropical AAAB Prata Yangambi hybrid 02 x M 53 from Embrapa, Brazil Moderately resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt
BRS Platina AAAB Prata Prata Anã hybrid (AAB) x M53 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt
BRS Maravilha AAAB Prata Prata Anã hybrid (AAB) x SH31-42 (AA) from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD and Fusarium wilt, and moderately resistant to YS(3)
FHIA 02(4) AAAB Prata FHIA hybrid from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt
FHIA 18 AAAB Prata FHIA hybrid from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, moderately resistant do YS, and susceptible to Fusarium wilt(2)
Galil 18 AAAB Prata FHIA hybrid from Multiplanta, Brazil Resistant to BLSD(5)
Buccaneer AAAA Gros Michel High Gate hybrid from Jamaica and Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt
Caipira AAA Ibota Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Resistant to BLSD, YS, and Fusarium wilt
Pacovan AAB Prata Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Susceptible to BLSD and YS, and moderately susceptible to Fusarium wilt(2) (Foc, race 1).
Prata Anã AAB Prata Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Susceptible to BLSD and YS, and moderately susceptible to Fusarium wilt(2) (Foc, race 1)
Maçã AAB Prata Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Susceptible to BLSD and Fusarium wilt(3), and moderately resistant to YS(5)
Williams AAA Cavendish Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Susceptible to BLSD and YS, and resistant to Fusarium wilt(3) (Foc, race 1)
Grande Naine AAA Cavendish Cultivar from Embrapa, Brazil Susceptible to BLSD and YS, and resistant to Fusarium wilt(3) (Foc, race 1)

(1)Embrapa, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Brazil); and Multiplanta, Multiplanta Tecnologia Vegetal Ltda. (2)According to Borges et al. (2009). (3)According to Cunha et al. (2015). (4)FHIA 02 belongs to the Prata subgroup (Jesus et al., 2013). (5)According to Costa et al. (2012). BLSD, black leaf streak disease; YS, yellow Sigatoka; and Foc, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense fungus.

Thirty days after planting, ferti-irrigation of the banana plants began. Every three days, on average, low doses of urea (45% N), potassium sulphate (18% S and 50% K2O), and potassium chloride (60% K2O) were provided, totaling almost 270 kg ha-1 N, 21 kg ha-1 S, and 233 kg ha-1 K2O in the first year. The management of the fertilizers and of the cultivation practices was carried out in alignment with the recommendations of Borges et al. (2009).

When bunches first appeared, the height and diameter of the pseudostem were measured at about 30 cm from the base, and the number of green leaves on 12 central plants per plot were counted. Data collection was programmed according to the appearance of bunches. For this, bunches were cut, the hands and fingers were separated, and their fresh weight was determined in order to calculate the production of bunches without stalks. In addition, in order to calculate the production cycles, the period of time between the planting of seedlings in the field and the harvest of bunches was noted.

Banana growth and production data were analyzed in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement. The plots were considered the banana cultivars, and the subplots, the production cycle. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance (Anova) using the Sisvar software, version 5.6 (Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil), and the means of treatments were grouped by the Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. The means of the variables for all three cycles were subjected to ascending hierarchical classification (AHC), using the Euclidean distance matrix as a measure of dissimilarity and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) for the formation of clusters (Sneath & Sokal, 1973). The variable “cycle” was considered as the number of days between planting and harvest of the first bunch, assuming that the later cycles would be affected by the thinning of banana plants. Moreover, to help define and select genotypes with the desired agronomic traits, the same data matrix was subjected to Pearson’s multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and to a correlation biplot with the automatic coefficients. AHC and PCA were performed by computing the data matrix (Abdi & Williams, 2010) with the XLSTAT software, version 2015.3.01 (Addinsoft, Inc., Brooklyn, NY, USA).

Results and Discussion

A vigorous aerial growth and a satisfactory production of bunches were observed for 19 of the evaluated cultivars (Tables 2 and 3). The exception was 'Maçã', for which only a few small bunches were obtained due to the incidence of Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. cubense (Foc). This result was expected in the areas that had been occupied five years before by banana plants of the Maçã cultivar. Although the BRS Platina, BRS Tropical, BRS Garantida, and Grande Naine cultivars were planted in neighbor plots to Maçã, no symptoms of the disease were detected, confirming the resistance of those plants to Foc, possibly race one. The cultivars Grande Naine and Williams from the Cavendish subgroup are susceptible to Foc, race TR4 (Ploetz, 2015), for which there are no known reports in the area, still considered under risk. Among the genotypes tested, 'BRS Tropical', 'Thap Maeo', and 'Caipira', also resistant to Fusarium wilt, produce small fruits and can be considered as a type of 'Maçã' banana (Carvalho et al., 2011).

Table 2: Plant height from the ground up to the point of emission of the bunch (BPH), diameter of the base of the pseudostem (PD), number of green leaves at the flowering stage (GLN), and number of hands (HN) and of fruits in the bunch (FN) of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars planted at the Frutacor farm, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil1

Banana cultivar BPH (m) PD (cm) GLN HN FN
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
Pacovan Ken 3.8bA 4.7dB 5.6dC 27.8aA 34.2bB 37.8cC 14.3bA 13.0bA 10.3aA 7.3aA 8.3bA 9.5aB 113.6aA 126.6aA 156.8aB
PV42-68 3.8bA 5.3dB 6.0dC 29.1aA 35.1bB 38.5cC 12.8bB 12.9bB 9.1aA 7.2aA 8.1bA 9.0aB 104.4aA 124.9aA 139.3aA
BRS Vitória 4.0bA 4.5cA 5.7dB 28.5aA 31.6aB 35.3cC 12.9bB 12.0bB 9.0aA 7.1aA 8.6bB 8.8aB 107.3aA 128.9aA 137.1aA
BRS Japira 4.0bA 4.9dB 6.0dC 27.9aA 32.4bB 38.6cC 14.4bA 14.0bA 8.9aA 7.5aA 8.4bA 8.8aA 110.9aA 126.8aA 130.0aA
BRS Preciosa 3.7bA 4.3cB 5.8dC 26.7aA 33.0bB 38.3cC 11.8aA 11.0aA 9.9aA 6.8aA 8.7bB 8.9aB 98.3aA 137.8aB 140.9aB
BRS Garantida 3.6bA 4.4cB 5.8dC 24.9aA 31.6aB 38.1cB 12.3bB 10.3aA 9.8aA 6.6aA 7.0aA 8.3aB 88.9aA 111.4aB 124.9aB
Thap Maeo 3.5bA 3.7bA 5.1cB 27.2aA 30.2aA 37.1cB 11.7aA 11.9bA 12.1aA 11.3cA 12.9dB 15.8dC 204.0cA 237.3cB 278.7dC
BRS Tropical 3.7bA 3.9bA 4.3bB 33.6bA 33.8bA 33.8cA 13.2bB 11.9bB 9.0aA 7.3aB 7.2aB 7.6aB 134.3bA 132.2aA 137.8aA
BRS Platina 2.9aA 3.7bB 4.1bB 26.9aA 33.3bB 37.0cC 11.8aA 11.2aA 10.2aA 8.2bA 9.1bA 10.8bB 120.3aA 140.3aA 178.5bB
BRS Maravilha 2.8aA 3.4bB 4.3bC 26.0aA 32.5bB 37.5cC 10.3aA 8.9aA 9.3aA 10.2cA 10.8cA 12.1cB 153.3bA 182.8bB 213.2cC
FHIA 02 2.6aA 3.6bB 4.2bC 25.9aA 33.2bB 36.0cB 10.2aA 10.3aA 8.8aA 10.3cA 11.2cB 12.1cB 155.6bA 179.3bA 217.8cB
FHIA 18 2.8bA 3.5bB 4.2bC 26.1aA 32.3bB 36.4cC 10.6aA 10.0aA 9.9aA 10.0cA 10.5cA 13.2cB 152.3bA 175.2bA 226.6cB
Galil 18 3.2aA 4.1cB 4.1bB 32.6bA 36.7bB 36.7cB 10.8aA 10.9aA 10.9aA 10.1cA 10.8cA 12.0cB 167.8bA 164.8bA 180.0bA
Buccaneer 2.8aA 3.7bB 4.2bC 28.1aA 35.3bB 36.2cC 10.3aA 11.9bA 9.8aA 8.0bA 11.0cB 12.4cC 138.1bA 210.3cB 210.8cB
Caipira 2.7aA 3.3aB 3.9bC 25.2aA 29.8aB 29.3bB 10.5aA 12.3bB 9.8aA 8.4bA 10.0cB 10.5bB 178.8cA 225.6cB 238.9cB
Pacovan 3.6bA 4.1cA 5.7dB 24.3aA 30.3aB 35.3cC 11.2aA 13.4bB 10.5aA 7.9bA 8.0bA 9.3aA 110.3aA 114.9aA 139.3aA
Prata Anã 2.6aA 3.6bB 3.2aB 26.8aA 32.3bB 29.9bB 11.7aB 14.0bC 7.8aA 9.3cA 10.1cA 9.6aA 148.8bA 170.3bA 149.4aA
Williams 2.5aA 3.0aA 3.1aA 25.8aA 29.4aB 26.6aA 9.8aA 10.0aA 11.1aA 8.0bA 11.0cB 10.4bB 148.8bA 205.6cB 183.6bB
Grande Naine 2.5aA 2.9aB 3.1aB 26.6aA 28.4aA 31.2bB 11.3aA 11.0aA 11.1aA 8.3bA 9.3bA 12.1cB 156.6bA 168.9bA 237.1cB

(1)Values followed by equal letters, lowercase in the columns and uppercase in the lines for each parameter, do not differ significantly by the Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability.

Table 3: Period from planting to harvest, as well as fresh weight of hands (HW), of fruits (FW), and of bunches without stalks (BW) of the banana (Musa spp.) cultivars planted at the Frutacor farm, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil(1)

Banana cultivar Period until harvest HW (kg) FW (g) BW (kg)
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
Pacovan Ken 282.9bA 432.2bB 599.3bC 3.0cA 3.0cA 2.7bA 190.9bA 194.4bA 167.1cA 21.7cA 24.6cA 26.0cA
PV42-68 299.0bA 447.2bB 600.3bC 3.2cB 2.7cA 2.7bA 222.3cB 175.7bA 181.2cA 23.3cA 21.9bA 24.4bA
BRS Vitória 271.0aA 431.8bB 604.6bC 3.0cA 2.9cA 2.6bA 194.0bA 195.1bA 167.5cA 20.8cA 25.1cA 23.1bA
BRS Japira 299.0bA 431.3bB 619.6bC 3.5dB 3.0cA 2.9bA 239.1cB 195.2bA 194.7cA 26.5dA 24.8cA 25.3bA
BRS Preciosa 262.0aA 422.9bB 605.0bC 2.7bA 2.5bA 2.6bA 187.3bA 157.3bA 162.3cA 18.4bA 21.2bA 22.9bA
BRS Garantida 262.0aA 401.8aB 612.1bC 2.7bB 3.0cB 2.1aA 200.2bB 191.7bB 136.7bA 17.8bA 20.8bA 17.2aA
Thap Maeo 268.7aA 399.3aB 589.1aC 2.1aA 2.1aA 1.9aA 118.4aA 113.4aA 105.7aA 24.2cA 26.9cA 28.8cA
BRS Tropical 298.3bA 430.7bB 587.5aC 1.8aA 2.2aA 2.2aA 98.3aA 119.3aA 124.0aA 13.2aA 15.8aA 16.9aA
BRS Platina 294.9bA 411.3aB 604.3bC 3.6dB 2.8cA 2.8bA 247.5cB 181.7bA 170.2cA 30.0dA 25.5cA 30.4dA
BRS Maravilha 262.0aA 396.9aB 577.3aC 2.9cA 3.0cA 3.1bA 192.4bA 178.1bA 176.3cA 29.5dA 32.5dA 37.6eB
FHIA 02 262.0aA 390.8aB 589.5aC 3.0cA 3.4cA 2.8bA 199.2bB 212.2bB 157.5cA 31.0dA 37.7eA 34.3dA
FHIA 18 262.0aA 393.3aB 589.3aC 3.0cA 3.3cA 3.2bA 198.4bA 194.6bA 183.2cA 30.2dA 34.0eA 41.5eB
Galil 18 279.3bA 390.8aB 572.3aC 3.1cB 2.7cA 2.4aA 189.4bA 180.4bA 158.6cA 31.8dA 29.7dA 28.6cA
Buccaneer 262.0aA 433.6bB 623.3bC 3.8dB 2.9cA 3.0bA 223.0cB 154.3bA 184.7cA 30.8dA 32.5dA 37.1eB
Caipira 298.5bA 416.3bB 587.9aC 2.1aA 2.0aA 2.7bB 98.5aA 89.4aA 118.8aA 17.6bA 20.2bA 27.8cB
Pacovan 287.8bA 419.8bB 610.3bC 2.7bA 2.6bA 2.2aA 191.5bB 179.7bB 143.9bA 21.1cA 20.6bA 20.1aA
Prata Anã 271.2aA 421.8bB 589.0aC 2.1aA 2.2aA 1.8aA 130.5aA 128.7aA 114.6aA 19.4bA 21.9bA 17.2aA
Williams 262.0aA 427.4bB 600.1bC 4.0dC 3.1cB 2.6bA 216.2cB 166.1bA 146.7bA 32.2dB 34.2eB 27.0cA
Grande Naine 262.0aA 419.3bB 600.1bC 3.7dB 3.2cA 2.9bA 199.2bB 174.7bB 147.6bA 31.2dA 29.5dA 35.0dA

(1)Values followed by equal letters, lowercase in the columns and uppercase in the lines for each parameter, do not differ significantly by the Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability.

In relation to yellow Sigatoka (YS), no control measures were adopted in the experimental area. Although the disease has been controlled in the surrounding banana plantations, this did not prevent the emergence of mild symptoms of YS on older leaves of the Pacovan, Prata Anã, William, and Grande Naine cultivars. The tested materials did not exhibit symptoms of BSLD, however. It should be pointed out that the local climatic conditions are favorable to the emergence of BLSD, according to Guini et al. (2007) and Jesus Júnior et al. (2008), with milder temperatures from 25 to 27°C during April and May (rainy season) and a high relative humidity of >75%. Besides, the Jaguaribe-Apodi plateau, where the experiment was carried out, is not very far (just over 1,000 km) from the productive areas of the Amazon region, where BLSD appears to be endemic.

Data on the growth and production of all studied cultivars, except Maçã, were subjected to Anova, and an interaction between cultivars and cycles was observed (p<0.05) (Tables 2 and 3). Cultivars with different genealogy (Table 1) are expected to show a different performance even when uniform-sized plantlets are planted in the field. The Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Victoria, BRS Japira, BRS Preciosa, and BRS Garantida cultivars grew to be tall, measuring 5.8 m from the base to the insertion of the bunch, especially in the third cycle, together with the traditional cultivar Pacovan (Table 2); therefore, they are not recommended for crops grown in plateaus without windbreak protection. The Thap Maeo cultivar was also considered unsuitable, showing average height ranging from 3.5 m, in first cycle, to 5.1 m, in the third cycle, besides a thin pseudostem in the early cycles of bunch production. This banana plant cultivar is also subject to pseudostem drop at the bunch insertion point. It should be highlighted that, during the experiment, winds reached 9.17 m s-1 in February 2009 and 9.26 m s-1 in January 2010. Winds rated as force 4 (5.5 to 7.9 m s-1) according to Beaufort’s scale can already cause minor damage to leaves, but, in the Jaguaribe-Apodi plateau, winds reaching force 6 (10.8 to 13.8 m s-1) occasionally occur.

Regarding the size of the banana plant, the following cultivars were selected: BRS Tropical, derived from Yangambi 02; BRS Platina and BRS Maravilha, both derived from Prata Anã; the FHIA cultivars, i.e., FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, or false FHIA 18; and Buccaneer and Caipira, whose pseudostems did not exceed 4.3 m in height (Table 2). A lower plant height was accompanied by a greater pseudostem diameter, except for the Caipira cultivar, during the second and third production cycles. The green leaves varied between banana cultivars and cycles, but overall they were satisfactory when bunches first appeared. In general, shorter cultivars have a wider pseudostem that better supports the bunches, which is desirable for banana plantations on irrigated plateau areas, together with a large number of leaves that enable a greater banana production (Nomura et al., 2013).

The production of banana hands and fruits was affected by the interaction of cultivars and cycles (Table 2). 'BRS Garantida', 'BRS Tropical', and 'Caipira' produced fewer hands during the first cycle, similarly to 'Prata Anã'. In turn, the Thap Maeo cultivar showed the greatest potential to produce hands and fruits in the bunch during the second and third cycles, 13 and 19 months after the seedlings were planted, respectively. The last period covers the three production cycles, for which the BRS Tropical, BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, Caipira, and Prata Anã cultivars showed similar results. Unlike the second and third cycles, which were in part affected by thinning and scheduled harvest, the first cycle has been used as an indicator of precocity for banana production. The harvest time of the first banana bunches was quite short (>9 months) for the BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, and Buccaneer cultivars (Table 3). However, this precocity was also a notable feature in 'BRS Preciosa' and 'BRS Garantida', both tall, and in 'Thap Maeo'. Longer production cycles have been reported for banana cultivars under irrigation in other productive areas, such as in the municipality of Urandi, in the state of Bahia (Donato et al., 2009), and in the municipality of Goiânia, in the state of Goiás, both in Brazil (Mendonça et al., 2013). At the region of Vale do Ribeira, in the state of São Paulo, Nomura et al. (2013) reported production periods ranging from 9.1 months, for the cultivar BRS Japira, to 13.8 months, for Caipira.

The fresh weights of fruits, hands, and bunches were also affected by the interaction between cultivars and cycles (Table 3). For bananas, a smaller size and lower weight are desirable, which were observed for the Thap Maeo, BRS Tropical, and Caipira cultivars, especially in the first two cycles. The shape of the fruits of the resistant cultivars is similar to that of the Maçã and Prata Anã bananas, which are preferred in the domestic consumer market (Matsuura et al., 2004). During the first cycle, large and heavy bunches were obtained with the BRS Platina, BRS Maravilha, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, Galil 18, and Buccaneer cultivars, which also showed good yield potential in the other cycles, and with banana plants derived from Pacovan, which were not recommended because of their height.

The choice of the most adequate cultivar by farmers naturally depends on their production goals and targets. However, considering the planting density used of 1,333 plants per hectare, a high production of bananas may be expected, ranging from 39.3 Mg ha-1, for the BRS Maravilha cultivar (first crop cycle), to 50.2 Mg ha-1, for FHIA 02 (second cycle). Regarding high productive potential, the Buccaneer cultivar should also be considered, since it produced up to 41 Mg ha-1 in the first cycle and 47.5 Mg ha-1 in the third one, being an alternative to the Williams and Grande Naine cultivars, which are sensitive to BLSD and produce bananas with a similar shape (Lédo et al., 2008). Despite this, in the regional consumer market, there is still uncertainty on the intention of buying 'Buccanero' banana (Garruti et al., 2013), showing that it could be tested in new products and markets.

The cluster analysis according to the AHC enabled the formation of four major clusters with the assessed bananas (Figure 1). The first cluster consisted of only one cultivar, Thap Maeo, from the Mysore subgroup. The second cluster was formed by the Caipira and BRS Tropical cultivars from the Ibota and Prata subgroups, respectively, and by Prata Anã. The third cluster was the largest, with the following cultivars: Williams and Grande Naine, both from the Cavendish subgroup; Buccaneer, from the Gros Michel subgroup; FHIA 02, FHIA 18, and Galil 18; and BRS Maravilha and BRS Platina. The fourth cluster consisted of the Pacovan cultivar and of its hybrids BRS Preciosa, BRS Vitória, PV42-68, BRS Japira, Pacovan Ken, as well as of BRS Garantida, a hybrid derived from Prata São Tomé. The formation of clusters was not an exact match to the genomic groups of banana plants. The major groups were identified mainly with tetraploid materials, whereas the small groups were formed by triploid materials (Table 1). The latter genomic group possibly shows a greater divergence regarding plant growth and production of bunches that could be further explored in future works on breeding for new resistant hybrids with desirable traits for the banana crop.

Figure 1: Dendrogram constructed by the cluster analysis (UPGMA) of banana (Musa spp.) cultivars planted at the Frutacor farm, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Dissimilarity generated with the average values of the agronomic variables evaluated during the three production cycles. 

PCA was also performed using the same matrix of multivariate data (Figure 2), which consisted of the means of the three production cycles of each variable. The first two components explained 70.9% of the total variance observed among the data. In the graphical analysis, the variables are represented by vectors that show the increase in the variable’s intensity, while the samples are placed in the region of the graph next to the variables that characterize them. The length of vector decomposition in each component emphasizes its importance in the component, which helps to explain the differences between the samples that were observed in the present study. In the first component (F1) the cultivars were distinguished from each other according to growth, whereas, in the second one (F2), they were differentiated in terms of the size of the banana plants.

Figure 2: Principal component analysis with average values from the three production cycles for: banana (Musa spp.) plant height from the ground up to the point of emission of the bunch (BPH); diameter of the base of the pseudostem (PD); fresh weight of fruits (FW), of hands (HW), and of bunches without stalks (BW); number of hands (HN) and of fruits in the bunch (FN); number of days from planting to harvest of the first bunch (Cycle); and number of green leaves in the flowering phase (GLN). F1, first component; and F2, second component. 

The most important variables in F1, with a significant coefficient of correlation, were number of hands, number of fingers in the hand, fresh weight of the bunch, height or length of the pseudostem, number of green leaves, and cycle or period from planting in the field until harvest of the first bunch. In F2, the most important variables with high positive correlation were fresh fruit and hand weight (Table 4). In this way, it was possible to visualize four distinct groups, very similar to those obtained by the cluster analysis. The Pacovan, Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Vitória, BRS Japira, and BRS Preciosa cultivars were grouped on the negative side of F1, predominantly in the upper quadrant (Figure 2), and were characterized as being tall, having a larger pseudostem diameter, and presenting a low production potential compared with the other cultivars. The BRS Garantida cultivar showed growth and production that were very close to those observed for BRS Preciosa and Pacovan. However, both the BRS Garantida and BRS Preciosa cultivars had a shorter first cycle, in comparison with Pacovan.

Table 4: Correlation matrix among the studied variables of banana (Mus a spp.) cultivars planted at the Frutacor farm, in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, in the state of Ceará, Brazil(1)

Variables PD BPH GLN HN FN BW FW HW Cycle
PD - 0.58 0.22 -0.12 -0.35 -0.06 0.30 0.03 0.22
BPH - 0.62 -0.54 -0.69 -0.51 0.27 -0.15 0.38
GLN - -0.39 -0.37 -0.54 -0.09 -0.28 0.58
HN - 0.89 0.71 -0.15 0.08 -0.43
FN - 0.57 -0.41 -0.02 -0.30
BW - 0.49 0.75 -0.48
FW - 0.86 -0.16
HW - -0.27
Cycle -

(1)Values underlined represent significant correlations by the least significant difference t-test, at 5% probability. PD, pseudostem diameter; BPH, banana plant height; GLN, number of green leaves at the flowering stage; HN, number of hands in the bunch; FN, number of fruits in the bunch; BW, fresh weight of bunches; FW, fresh weight of fruits; HW, fresh weight of hands; and Cycle, number of days from planting to harvest.

The BRS Platina and BRS Maravilha cultivars, both derived from Prata Anã, resembled the FHIA genotypes and the cultivars of the Cavendish subgroup, all with low height and high productivity. The Buccaneer cultivar showed a profile that was quite similar to that of small-sized clusters. 'BRS Tropical', 'Prata Anã', 'Thap Maeo', and 'Caipira' were allocated at the bottom part of the graph (Figure 2) on the opposite side of the vectors of fresh hand and finger weight, since the produced bananas were small and similar to those of the Maçã cultivar.

The combined use of AHC, Pearson’s correlation, and PCA provided an adequate explanation for the nature of the growth and the production of the banana genotypes and should be used as a basis for the selection of more appropriate cultivars to be cultivated in semiarid regions, according to the desirable agro-morphological traits. Based on the obtained results, it became clear that cultivars derived from Pacovan keep the agronomic traits of this female genitor. However, banana cultivars from crossbreeding with Prata Anã may differ in growth and in production of bunches, when compared with their progenitor plant. The latter genotypes maintain phenotypic traits that are similar to those of the FHIA hybrids from the Cavendish subgroup and of the Buccaneer cultivar.

Conclusions

  1. The 'Maçã' banana (Musa spp.) cultivar is unsuitable for planting in irrigated soil due to its susceptibility to Fusarium wilt and it can be replaced by Caipira and BRS Tropical, which are resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and black leaf streak disease (BLSD) and also present high potential productivity.

  2. The Pacovan Ken, PV42-68, BRS Vitoria, BRS Japira, BRS Preciosa, BRS Garantida, and Thap Maeo cultivars are too tall to be planted on plateaus unprotected from winds.

  3. The BRS Maravilha, BRS Platina, FHIA 02, FHIA 18, and Galil 18 cultivars are alternatives to Pacovan, Prata Anã, and Maçã, which are susceptible to BLSD.

  4. The Buccaneer cultivar is short and has good productive potential, which means it could be an alternative to the susceptible cultivars belonging to the Cavendish subgroup.

Acknowledgments

To Banco do Nordeste do Brasil (BNB) and to Frutacor farm, for financial support; and to Dr. Fernando Antonio de Souza Aragão, for assisting in the statistical analysis

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Received: June 17, 2016; Accepted: November 10, 2016

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