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Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura

versão impressa ISSN 0100-2945versão On-line ISSN 1806-9967

Rev. Bras. Frutic. vol.39 no.3 Jaboticabal jul./ago. 2017  Epub 27-Jul-2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452017987 

Defesa Fitossanitária

CORRELATION AMONG DAMAGES CAUSED BY YELLOW BEETLE, CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTION OF GUAVA ACCESSES GROWN IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE DANOS OCASIONADOS PELO BESOURO AMARELO, ELEMENTOS CLIMATOLÓGICOS E PRODUÇÃO DE ACESSOS DE GOIABEIRA CULTIVADOS EM SISTEMA ORGÂNICO

JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI2 

MARCOS DONISETI MICHELOTTO3 

IVAN HERMAN FISCHER4 

MARIA BEATRIZ BERNARDES SOARES5 

ANTÔNIO LUCIO MELLO MARTINS6 

2 Researcher at Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA), Regional Centre North Pole, P.O.Box 24, 15830-000,Pindorama - SP, Brazil; E-mail: julianagalli@apta.sp.gov.br (author for correspondence)

3 Researcher at APTA, Regional Centre North Pole; E-mail: michelotto@apta.sp.gov.br

4 Researcher at APTA, Midwest Regional Pole, Rodrigues Alves Avenue, 40-40, 17030-000, Bauru - SP, Brazil. E-mail: ihfische@apta.sp.gov.br

5 Researcher at APTA, Regional Centre North Pole. E-mail: beatriz@apta.sp.gov.br

6 Researcher at APTA, Regional Centre North Pole. E-mail: lmartins@apta.sp.gov.br

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time) in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.

Index terms Psidium guajava; Costalimaita ferruginea; temperature; precipitation; relative humidity

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os danos ocasionados pelo besouro amarelo em 85 acessos de goiabeira e as correlações dos mesmos com os elementos climatológicos e a produção, em um pomar de goiaba conduzido em sistema orgânico. Foram analisadas 10 folhas por acesso contendo a injúria do ataque do inseto. Cada folha foi medida com medidor de área foliar e, após a obtenção da área total, a folha foi coberta com fita adesiva, e medida novamente. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Os 15 acessos com maior média de danos tiveram os dados submetidos à correlação com a temperatura mínima e máxima, a precipitação e a umidade relativa. A produção foi obtida pelo número de frutos/planta. Os danos mostraram-se correlacionados negativamente com a média da umidade relativa das 7 h no período de 14 dias que antecedem as avaliações, afetando negativamente a produção de frutos. Os acessos Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 e L5P19 são promissores na agricultura orgânica, por apresentarem boa produção e menor dano ao ataque do inseto, quando comparados aos demais.

Termos para indexação Psidium guajava; Costalimaita ferruginea; temperatura; precipitação; umidade relativa

INTRODUCTION

The guava tree (Psidium guajava L.) (Myrtaceae), native from the American tropics is an important fruit in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (SINGH e PAL, 2008). In Brazil, is grown on a commercial scale in almost all regions (PEREIRA e RYOSUKE, 2011). The guava is one of many cultivated species that has high genetic diversity. However, there are few varieties used commercially both for industry and for natural consumption.

The differences between conventional and organic production systems presented strong influence on diversity of arthropod communities (ZEHNDER et al., 2007; MIÑARRO et al., 2009).

Thus, the yellow beetle Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabr., 1801) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) which is considered on important defoliation pest on Myrtacea, with eminence of the attacks on Eucalyptus (PINTO et al., 2004), also composes the insect fauna of guava trees whose adults feed on the leaves, leaving then with tracery aspect. Their larvae present in the soil feed the roots compromising mainly the installation of new orchards (SOUZA FILHO e COSTA, 2009).

Adults of C. ferruginea have approximately elliptical shape measuring between five and 6.5 mm length and with yellowish-cream color. The beetle attacks preferentially young leaves of guava, punching them due to his masticate habit. The insect also attacks the buds and when the attack occurs in flowers the fruit can be deformed (OLIVEIRA et al., 2012).

Is technical and scientific knowledge that the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs depends highly of basic studies of population dynamics and estimation of the relative importance of factors that regulate the population growth. Thus, it becomes necessary to develop research to meet what are the factors and how they affect the intensity of pest attack for the guava crop.

The improvement of the knowledge of guava agroecosystem as a complex ecological unit enables the development of IPM programs which are important regionally (CALORE et al., 2013).

Seasonal changes in the weather have direct or indirect effects upon insects, by act directly on mortality and on the performance of pests through changes in oviposition, feeding, growth and migration (HOPKINS e MEMMOT, 2003).

Seasonal temperatures and rainfall patterns constitute the major factors that determine the distribution of agricultural pests in space (WALLNER, 1987).

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the damage caused by C. ferruginea in accesses of guava cultivated in organic system and study the possible correlations among the insect and the meteorological factors: temperature, precipitation and relative humidity, besides fruit yield.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experimental work was developed in APTA - Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Regional Centre North Pole, in Pindorama-SP, 21 13 ‘ South latitude and 48 55 ‘ longitude West, 527 m altitude, with yearly average temperature of 22.8° C, annual average rainfall of 1,390.3 mm and average annual relative humidity of 71.6%. According to the Köppen classification, the climate is Aw type, defined as tropical humid, with rainy season in summer and dry in winter.

Were used plants from Germplasm Bank of guava, containing 85 accessions, with 15 years old, with three plants/access, cultivated in the last ten years in organic system, 6 X 5 meter spacing. Through the analysis of soil, it was done an application on surface of 1.5 ton/ha of dolomitic limestone in total area and 20 L of filter cake, around the trunk, in each plant. The control of spontaneous plants was accomplished by cutter motor and manual weeding.

In July 2012, the plants have suffered a drastic pruning, and the main trunk presented a final height of 1.20 meters from the ground. Thus, plants were with new shoots in the evaluation period.

Supplemental irrigation was not used in the trial.

For the study with C. ferruginea, on each access were evaluated at random 10 leaves containing the yellow beetle attack symptom (perforated leaves, with tracery aspect). The leaves were collected manually, stored in paper bags duly identified and brought to the laboratory. Each one had your leaf area measurement with the aid of leaf area meter CID Bio-science, model CI-202. After obtaining the total area in cm2, the leaf was covered with duct tape to cover the holes left by the insect, and passed again by the appliance. The leaf area consumed by the insect, in cm2, was obtained by differences in the readings (GALLI et al., 2013). To standardize data, they were transformed into percentage of leaf area consumed.

The evaluations were conducted in 12/11/2012, 26/11/2012, 14/01/2013, 28/01/2013 and 18/02/2013.

The damage of each access in each assessment was compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. For statistics analysis the data were transformed in vx and in Table 2 was found the original values.

The average data relating to damage of C. ferruginea on 15 accesses more attacked by the insect have been recorded in each collection and submitted to correlation (Pearson), with the minimum temperature (OC), the maximum temperature (°C), relative humidity (obtained at 7:00 and 13:00 hours) and precipitation (mm), according to methodology used by various authors (DALBERTO et al., 2004; COLOMBI; GALLI, 2009; AUAD et al., DUARTE et al., 2012; CALORE et al., 2013). The data were obtained from the meteorological station of the Regional Center North Pole, located about 300 m from the experiment. In correlations, data of damages caused by insect were correlated with the meteorological elements recorded the day before, with the average registered in periods of seven and 14 days prior to the assessments, in order to determine which length of time that must be used in the correlations. For precipitation, was used the value of the day before, and the accumulated values at seven and 14 days prior to assessments.

For the yield evaluation, was computed the number of fruits per plant of each access (85 in total), accounting the fruits in the canopy and lying on the ground. The means were compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. For statistics analysis the data were transformed in vx and in Table 3 was found the original values.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The higher damages of C. ferruginea were observed in the evaluations carried out in November, with posterior drop in percentage of leaf area consumed by the insect, both to the overall average of all accesses and the average of the 15 accesses more attacked, according to Figure 1.

The increased severity of insect attack observed in the second evaluation (Figure 1) is due to the greater number of new shoots observed at that time, since the yellow beetle, during its food, starts the damage on the young leaves (GALLO et al., 2002). The fall in the percentage of leaf area consumed in the subsequent evaluations is due to the decrease of young leaves on area. Anjos and Majer (2003) reported, for eucalyptus, that yellow beetle prefers to attack the apical and tender parts, as pointers, young leaves, shoots and, in some cases, the bark of the branches. In young leaves, can cause continuous injuries and of large size, while in mature leaves only the main nervure are remaining after intense outbreaks of the pest.

Duarte et al. (2012) verified the population dynamics of C. ferruginea and its correlation with population of their natural enemies in organic and conventional orchard of guava, respectively located in Fernando Prestes-SP and Vista Alegre do Alto-SP, and reported that the damages caused by the insect in organic orchard represented average with note 2 (damage between 26-50%), in November 2010, with the top population resulting in high perforating of the newly mature leaves. Then, in February 2011, the authors reported that the average damage was represented by note 1 (damage between 0 – 25%), mainly by the absence of branches with young leaves during this period. In the present work also was noted the greater damage caused by C. ferruginea on evaluation held in November, regular season of its normal population increase in the region.

The damage caused by C. ferruginea presented significant and negative correlation only with the relative humidity recorded the 7:00 hs when taken the average 14 days prior evaluations, showing that there is an increase in the damage caused by the insect with the decrease in relative humidity (Table 1 and Figure 2).

Contrary to these results, Colombi (2007) found that the damage, through measurement scale of notes of C. ferruginea showed significant positive correlation with relative humidity, in other words, there has been an increase in the damage with increasing relative humidity. The other meteorological elements, temperature (minimum, medium and maximum) and precipitation showed no significant correlation with the yellow beetle damage, also observed in the present study.

In this experiment, we evaluated damages to several accesses of guava tree, grown in organic system, which suffered a drastic pruning, and the damages assessments were made with leaf area meter, increasing the precision in obtaining data. Colombi(2007) assessed the insect damage in an area with one variety, Paluma, in conventional system, with an application of insecticide (parathion methyl), and the damage assessments were obtained from visual form, with a scale of notes. In addition, the author conducted the evaluations for a year, covering all the seasons. Already the work here presented covered from November to February, traditionally higher rainfall and relative humidity. Therefore, differences to the correlations between the insect damage and the relative humidity should be expected.

Despite the influence of climatic elements on the behavior of agricultural pests, other factors, such as varieties, geographic location, time of sampling, stage of development, etc. cannot be neglected and should be taken into account in the process of assessing the damages and/or insect pest populations.

Significant differences were observed in the percentage of leaf area consumed by C. ferruginea in all evaluations (Table 2). The average of the five evaluations allowed the separation of accesses in six groups, with 24.3 percentage points difference between the most and least attacked by the insect. It was noted that the accesses FAO EEFT C.A.B.A. and RS EEFT. C.A. B.A. were the most attacked, with average percentage of 27.34 and 24.93%, respectively. Among the least attacked, was observed a group of 50 accesses, which did not differ significantly among themselves, some grown commercially, as Rica, Supreme, Saito, Paluma, Ogawa1, Indiana, Webber Supreme, IAC 4 (of the materials obtained in Jaboticabal-SP and Monte Alto- SP), Kumagai branca and Patillo.

The average production of guava fruit, registered as fruits per plant, of 85 accesses of guava trees can be found in Table 3. The Scott Knott test allowed separate statistically the accesses in eight groups, where the cultivar Saito presented the biggest yield of the experiment (average of 373 fruits per plant), not differing from other twelve accesses. Five accesses did not producing fruits, including cultivar Paluma, with widespread commercial use. Generally speaking, the production of all accesses were lower than the obtained in literature for commercial orchards, which can be attributed to the fact that the plants belong to a germplasm bank and therefore had not received the appropriate cultural practices as in commercial crops.

The accesses Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19, respectively with average production of 373.0, 362.7, 357.7 and 340.7 fruits per plant (Table 3), showed percentages of leaf area consumed by beetle of 4.67, 5.47, 3.38 and 5.02, respectively (Table 2) being therefore best indicated to organic farming, when it is taken into account the attack of C. ferruginea. Gallo et al. (2002) considered significant the losses caused by C. ferruginea, which depredate the leaves, leaving them fully laced, and causing reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of the plant, reducing its production.

It is necessary to recognize that, in the last 50 years, all the research efforts have been directed towards developing high-yielding cultivars, heavily dependent on large financial inputs and technologies, mainly oriented to maximizing productivity, without concerns about the ecological aspects. Therefore, it is expected that a long way is to be taken, in order to develop productive cultivars suitable for organic farming (NEVES et al., 2000).

Studies of damages assessment of C. ferruginea in guava orchards have been carried out by visual scale of notes for each sampled leaf (COLOMBI, 2007; DUARTE et al., 2012). However, this is the first study to compare accesses of guava to the attack of the pest with accurate results, obtained by the use of leaf area meter. Obtaining results that allows us to distinguish materials least attacked by the insect is an important tool for future planting choices and/or materials for possible genetic improvement.

The use of resistant varieties is considered the ideal method for management being apply to large areas and have low environmental impact.

FIGURE 1 Average percentage of leaf area consumed by the yellow beetle C. ferruginea in 85 accesses of guava and in the 15 accesses more attacked. 

FIGURE 2 Average percentage of leaf area consumed by the yellow beetle C. ferruginea on 15 accesses more attacked by the insect and relative humidity recorded in the period. 

TABLE 1 Coefficient of correlation between damages caused by C. ferruginea and climatic elements minimum temperature (TMIN), maximum temperature (TMAX), precipitation (PREC) and relative humidity to the 7:00 and the 13:00 (RH) recorded on the eve of the assessments, the 7 and 14 days prior evaluations. 

Costalimaita ferruginea Correlation coefficient (Pearson)
TMIN (OC) TMAX (OC) PREC (mm) RH 7hs RH 13 hs
Damages --------------------------- Registered the day before -------------------
0.2969NS 0.3273NS - 0.1769NS - 0.4111NS - 0.5512 NS
-------------------------- Average 7 days prior --------------------
- 0.5420 NS 0.3552NS - 0.6365NS 0.1888 NS - 0.6662 NS
------------------------ Average 14 days prior --------------------
- 0.8525 NS 0.5682NS - 0.8213 NS - 0.8831 * 0.0587 NS

*Significantly, at 5% probability; NS Not Significantly.

TABLE 2 Percentage of foliar area of guava trees consumed by the yellow beetle (C. ferruginea) in 85 accesses and evaluation times. 

Accesses Origin Evaluation times Averages of 5 evaluations
12/11/2012 26/11/2012 14/01/2013 28/01/2013 18/02/2013
---------------------------------------- % ---------------------------------------
FAO EEFT C.A. B.A. Jundiaí 27.471 a 35.08 a 21.52 b 27.28 a 25.36 a 27.34 a
R.S. EE.FT C.A. B.A. Jundiaí 27.97 a 27.29 b 32.29 a 17.56 c 19.52 b 24.93 a
IAC – 4 Jundiaí 20.25 b 23.16 c 22.59 b 23.78 b 21.78 a 22.31 b
Guanabara Jundiaí 17.59 c 20.12 c 18.50 c 18.56 c 22.18 a 19.39 c
Australiana Vermelha Jundiaí 22.05 b 21.48 c 16.96 c 13.79 d 19.09 b 18.67 c
Indiana Jundiaí 14.44 d 24.76 b 14.47 c 15.72 c 15.89 c 17.06 c
Webber Supreme Jundiaí 16.96 c 15.37 d 14.26 c 20.43 b 14.32 c 16.27 c
Rubi Supreme Jundiaí 15.68 c 17.39 d 12.00 c 16.78 c 18.19 b 16.01 c
Supreme BA. Jundiaí 22.10 b 18.13 d 14.31 c 14.93 c 8.08 d 15.51 d
Monte Alto Jundiaí 13.70 d 19.65 c 13.09 c 16.17 c 12.89 c 15.10 d
V. Redonda (Shimoda) Valinhos 17.73 c 22.43 c 12.52 c 13.02 d 9.45 d 15.03 d
Torrão de Ouro Jundiaí 7.29 e 25.89 b 13.14 c 11.41 d 11.90 c 13.93 d
L3P8 Campinas 20.23 b 17.70 d 12.71 c 7.23 e 10.69 d 13.71 d
V. Comprida (Shimoda) Valinhos 18.17 c 17.64 d 6.43 d 8.50 e 8.85 d 11.92 d
Campos Jundiaí 12.16 d 18.28 d 8.76 d 12.70 d 7.47 d 11.87 d
L7P28 Campinas 14.68 d 9.46 e 9.12 d 11.41 d 6.01 d 10.14 e
L6P24 Campinas 10.82 e 8.18 e 4.99 e 8.74 e 16.98 c 9.94 e
Red Selection Monte Alto 12.91 d 10.88 e 12.77 c 6.09 e 5.57 d 9.65 e
Tetraplóide Jundiaí 8.84 e 13.69 e 8.93 d 7.35 e 7.16 d 9.19 e
Mirtácea (Campinas) Campinas 9.08 e 9.31 e 8.65 d 7.57 e 6.63 d 8.25 e
Ogawa 3 M. das Cruzes 7.21 e 11.04 e 7.12 d 8.94 e 6.11 d 8.08 e
L2P6 Campinas 8.59 e 5.77 f 10.44 d 7.94 e 7.07 d 7.96 e
L8P31 Campinas 9.27 e 10.44 e 7.21 d 3.87 f 7.01 d 7.56 e
L6P22 Campinas 9.45 e 11.62 e 7.14 d 4.03 f 5.30 d 7.51 e
L1P2 Campinas 7.63 e 6.95 e 3.33 e 6.14 e 12.74 c 7.36 e
L5P21 Campinas 6.24 e 10.09 e 9.77 d 4.82 f 5.56 d 7.29 e
FAO – UNESP Jaboticabal 5.42 f 8.43 e 8.57 d 10.43 e 2.97 d 7.17 e
L6P25 Campinas 9.23 e 7.45 e 6.18 d 6.38 e 6.41 d 7.13 e
L3P7 Campinas 11.44 e 7.72 e 7.45 d 3.53 f 3.74 d 6.78 e
L8P30 Campinas 9.15 e 9.54 e 4.43 e 2.16 f 8.38 d 6.73 e
L2P5 Campinas 9.54 e 3.17 f 6.83 d 7.28 e 6.59 d 6.68 e
L5P18 Campinas 8.25 e 7.41 e 6.08 d 6.10 e 5.53 d 6.67 e
Vermelha perfumada Jundiaí 14.11 d 6.49 f 2.96 e 6.16 e 3.36 d 6.62 e
L6P23 Campinas 5.96 f 10.14 e 6.35 d 5.99 e 4.04 d 6.50 e
L3P11 Campinas 9.22 e 8.57 e 5.11 e 4.89 f 3.85 d 6.33 e
L1P3 Campinas 8.82 e 7.33 e 4.17 e 5.54 f 4.43 d 6.06 f
G. vermelha (Cingapura) Linhares-ES 4.79 f 7.97 e 4.79 e 6.64 e 5.46 d 5.93 f
Supreme Branca Jundiaí 5.64 f 5.99 f 7.54 d 6.73 e 3.46 d 5.87 f
propr. de Tadao Ogawa M. das Cruzes 4.53 f 5.15 f 6.46 d 7.29 e 5.82 d 5.85 f
L7P26 Campinas 8.18 e 3.93 f 7.52 d 4.82 f 4.03 d 5.70 f
EEFT 3 Monte Alto 5.98 f 3.92 f 4.78 e 9.46 e 3.85 d 5.60 f
L4P16 Campinas 3.40 f 3.28 f 14.46 c 2.54 f 3.68 d 5.47 f
EEFT – CA - BA Jundiaí 7.98 e 8.35 e 4.48 e 3.47 f 2.97 d 5.45 f
EEFT 2 (C. das Almas) Monte Alto 4.76 f 5.26 f 9.07 d 5.13 f 3.01 d 5.45 f
L4P14 Campinas 7.43 e 7.32 e 3.79 e 4.31 f 4.29 d 5.43 f
L4P17 Campinas 8.31 e 6.17 f 4.46 e 3.60 f 3.84 d 5.27 f
L3P9 Campinas 7.04 e 4.62 f 4.47 e 5.62 f 4.29 d 5.21 f
Rica – J – 2 Jaboticabal 6.16 e 6.65 f 4.47 e 5.25 f 3.19 d 5.14 f
Supreme Monte Alto 6.55 e 6.60 f 4.96 e 2.23 f 5.15 d 5.10 f
Ruby Supreme 3 Monte Alto 2.95 f 6.27 f 6.94 d 4.26 f 5.03 d 5.09 f
L3P12 Campinas 8.25 e 4.90 f 4.64 e 3.71 f 3.69 d 5.04 f
L5P19 Campinas 7.11 e 7.18 e 4.06 e 4.67 f 2.07 d 5.02 f
EEFT 1 (C. das Almas) Monte Alto 6.41 e 4.94 f 5.94 d 4.74 f 2.77 d 4.96 f
EEF – 3 Jaboticabal 5.73 f 3.65 f 5.55 e 5.57 f 4.20 d 4.94 f
Australiana Branca Jundiaí 5.34 f 3.85 f 5.71 e 5.18 f 4.30 d 4.88 f
L5P20 Campinas 7.73 e 4.77 f 4.69 e 3.81 f 2.92 d 4.78 f
L2P4 Campinas 8.31 e 4.63 f 2.67 e 4.03 f 3.87 d 4.70 f
Saito Valinhos 3.27 f 5.02 f 4.00 e 6.42 e 4.65 d 4.67 f
L4P13 Campinas 7.68 e 4.78 f 3.54 e 4.31 f 2.80 d 4.62 f
Paluma Jaboticabal 3.14 f 8.01 e 3.97 e 5.15 f 2.82 d 4.62 f
Ogawa 1 M. das Cruzes 5.13 f 5.06 f 3.84 e 4.68 f 4.32 d 4.61 f
Kioshi 3 Monte Alto 3.51 f 4.27 f 6.82 d 4.23 f 3.85 d 4.54 f
L3P10 Campinas 7.23 e 5.06 f 4.03 e 3.21 f 3.05 d 4.52 f
Ruby Supreme 1 Monte Alto 3.87 f 3.25 f 7.19 d 4.27 f 3.69 d 4.45 f
Creme Arredondada Jaboticabal 4.06 f 4.50 f 5.57 e 3.61 f 4.50 d 4.45 f
Indiana - UNESP Jaboticabal 3.39 f 4.69 f 5.21 e 4.31 f 4.58 d 4.44 f
Webber – Supreme Jaboticabal 3.12 f 5.82 f 4.71 e 3.53 f 4.95 d 4.42 f
Ogawa x Kumagai Promissão 4.03 f 6.69 f 4.23 e 3.28 f 3.83 d 4.41 f
Ruby Supreme 2 Monte Alto 3.85 f 4.44 f 4.38 e 4.95 f 4.38 d 4.40 f
EEFT 4 Monte Alto 3.69 f 4.17 f 4.76 e 4.70 f 4.30 d 4.32 f
Kioshi 1 Monte Alto 2.73 f 5.72 f 6.15 d 3.08 f 3.35 d 4.21 f
IAC – 4 - UNESP Jaboticabal 3.70 f 4.94 f 3.18 e 4.50 f 4.55 d 4.17 f
Taquaritinga comum Monte Alto 4.06 f 5.47 f 3.03 e 5.17 f 3.05 d 4.16 f
Patillo – Ba. Jundiaí 3.26 f 3.64 f 5.60 e 4.03 f 3.39 d 3.98 f
IAC – 4 – Cica Monte Alto 3.42 f 5.51 f 4.33 e 2.43 f 4.19 d 3.98 f
Kumagai Branca Valinhos 3.94 f 3.62 f 2.75 e 4.40 f 5.00 d 3.94 f
Goiaba Branca Desconhecida 4.44 f 3.04 f 5.36 e 3.84 f 2.89 d 3.91 f
Patillo Jaboticabal 1.69 f 4.45 f 4.30 e 4.60 f 4.09 d 3.82 f
Monte Alto - Branca Valinhos 3.20 f 3.88 f 3.00 e 6.21 e 2.74 d 3.81 f
L8P32B Campinas 4.12 f 5.25 f 3.41 e 3.77 f 2.34 d 3.78 f
Goiaba polpa amarela Limeira 3.51 f 3.18 f 2.87 e 4.83 f 4.46 d 3.77 f
M. Alto – Comum 1 Monte Alto 2.30 f 4.60 f 2.32 e 3.63 f 4.06 d 3.38 f
L4P15 Campinas 5.31 f 2.20 f 3.78 e 2.83 f 2.22 d 3.27 f
Kioshi 2 Monte Alto 3.23 f 2.20 f 4.97 e 2.69 f 2.64 d 3.15 f
L8P32A Campinas 2.56 f 2.64 f 2.44 e 4.42 f 3.12 d 3.04 f
F (Blocos) 0.3546 NS 0.9873 NS 1.0738 NS 1.2463 NS 2.1530 * 14.2537 **
F (Tratamentos) 19.2476 ** 19.8593 ** 9.6526 ** 12.0371 ** 11.1480 ** 18.7615 **
CV (%) 24.44 25.53 32.24 29.84 33.20 15.47

1Means followed by the same letter in the column do not differ. by Scott-Knott test. at 5% probability. Data transformed in Vx .

* Significantly. at 5% probability.

**Significantly. at 1% probability

NSNot Significantly

TABLE 3 Average production of guava fruit (fruits per plant) of 85 accesses of Psidium guajava

Acesses Production Acesses Production
Saito 373.0 a Kumagai Branca 82.0 e
L4P16 362.7 a FAO – UNESP 79.3 e
Monte Alto – Comum 1 357.7 a vermelha perfumada 72.7 e
L5P19 340.7 a L5P21 70.0 e
L3P10 300.7 a L3P8 67.3 e
propr. deTadaoOgawa 289.3 a Webber Supreme 64.3 e
L3P12 266.7 a Torrão de Ouro 58.0 e
L3P9 260.3 a Supreme 55.7 e
L4P14 249.7 a Creme Arredondada (UNESP) 53.0 e
L4P15 249.0 a L8P32B 51.7 e
Ogawa x Kumagai 239.7 a L8P31 51.0 e
L3P7 218.3 a L3P11 50.0 e
L8P32A 217.7 a Patillo 49.3 e
Campos 192.0 b Australiana Branca 48.3 e
Ogawa3 178.7 b RedSelection 45.7 e
Taquaritinga comum 173.7 b EEFT 3 45.7 e
L5P20 152.3 b L6P24 44.3 e
RubySupreme1 135.7 b EEFT 4 44.3 e
L6P23 135.3 c Webber – Supreme 41.3 e
L4P13 135.3 c IAC – 4 - UNESP 34.7 f
Kioshi1 135.3 c EEFT – CA - BA 33.7 f
L6P22 133.0 c L6P25 32.7 f
L2P6 127.3 c RubySupreme2 31.7 f
L1P2 126.7 c RubySupreme3 31.0 f
Supreme Branca 120.7 c Guanabara 30.0 f
L4P17 117.3 c Monte Alto 26.7 f
Kioshi3 116.7 c EEF – 3 26.0 f
L2P4 116.3 c IAC – 4 23.7 f
L1P3 114.3 c Australiana Vermelha 20.3 f
Goiaba polpa amarela 112.0 c Vermelha Redonda (Shimoda) 19.7 f
Monte Alto - Branca 107.7 c Tetraplóide 19.3 f
Indiana 105.0 d L8P30 18.0 f
Kioshi2 104.7 d Mirtácea (Campinas) 16.3 f
L5P18 103.3 d EEFT 1 (Cruz das Almas) 14.7 f
Rica – J – 2 102.3 d Supreme BA. 11.0 g
L7P26 97.3 d FAOEEFT C.A. B.A. 6.0 g
Patillo – Ba. 92.0 d Vermelha Comprida (Shimoda) 4.0 g
EEFT 2 (Cruz das Almas) 91.7 d R.S. E.E.F.T. C.A. B.A. 0.0 h
L2P5 88.7 d L7P28 0.0 h
Ogawa1 88.7 d Paluma 0.0 h
IAC – 4 – Cica 88.0 d Goiaba Branca 0.0 h
Rubi Supreme 84.3 e Goiaba vermelha (Cingapura) 0.0 h
Indiana - UNESP 82.0 e
F (Acesses) 35.7968 **
F (Blocks) 1.0092 NS
CV (%) 15.07

1Means followed by the same letter in the column do not differ. by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability.

**Significantly. at 1% probability

NSNot Significantly

CONCLUSIONS

The damage caused by Costalimaita ferruginea in leaves of guava were negatively correlated with the average relative humidity of 7:00 in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, adversely affected the production of fruits.

The accesses Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and suffer little damage to the yellow beetle attack, when compared to the other materials tested.

ACKNOWLEDGE

To Fapesp, by financial assistance in the conduct of this work (Process 2012/03807-0).

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Received: November 17, 2015; Accepted: June 20, 2016

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