SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.40 número1Índices paramétricos e não paramétricos aplicados na seleção de progênies de maracujazeiro-azedoCaracterização física, química, microbiológica e sensorial de geleias de Manipuçá para a merenda escolar municipal de Fortaleza-CE índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

Compartilhar


Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura

versão impressa ISSN 0100-2945versão On-line ISSN 1806-9967

Rev. Bras. Frutic. vol.40 no.1 Jaboticabal  2018  Epub 26-Fev-2018

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452017607 

Genética e Melhoramento

Resistance to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in in vitro germinated genotypes of Passiflora setacea

Resistência ao Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus em genótipos de Passiflora setacea germinadas in vitro

NAYARA NIELE SACOMAN2 

ALEXANDRE PIO VIANA3 

VIRGINIA SILVA CARVALHO4 

EILEEN AZEVEDO SANTOS5 

ROSANA RODRIGUES6 

2 Biologist, MS from the Graduate Program in Genetics and Plant Breeding – Laboratório de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. Financial support: CAPES. E-mail: nayaranisa@hotmail.com

3 Agronomist Engineer, D.Sc., Associate Professor, Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético Vegetal. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. E-mail: pirapora@uenf.br

4 Agronomist Engineer, D.Sc., Associate Professor, Laboratório de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. E-mail: virginia@uenf.br

5 Biologist, Post-Doctoral Student Program in Genetics and Plant Breeding – Laboratório de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. E-mail: eileenazevedo@yahoo.com.br

6 Agronomist Engineer, D.Sc., Associate Professor, Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético Vegetal, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. E-mail: rosana@uenf.br

ABSTRACT

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a fruit species of great relevance for Brazilian economy. However, it is highly susceptible to the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). The species P.setacea, on the other hand, is resistant to the disease. The present study aimed to identify CABMV-resistant P. setacea genotypes for the introgression of genes into sour passion fruit genetic breeding programs. The seeds of passion fruit genotypes were germinated in vitro in MS culture medium. The seedlings were acclimatized in a growth chamber at the temperature of 27 ± 2ºC, photoperiod of 16:8 hours and 80% of relative humidity. Thirty plants of each genotype were mechanically inoculated with extract prepared from leaves collected from passion fruit plants with symptoms of CABMV for the assessment of resistance to CABMV. The severity of leaf symptoms was evaluated by means of a grading scale of visual signs. After the visual evaluation and identification of the asymptomatic genotypes of P. setacea, the PTA-ELISA test was carried out for 30 selected genotypes. According to the visual evaluation, all P. setacea genotypes were highly resistant to CABMV, while the P. edulis genotypes were highly susceptible. Out of the 30 genotypes selected, only PsRJ 4 was considered susceptible by PTA-ELISA. The other genotypes of P. setacea were considered resistant and present great potential for use in passion fruit genetic breeding programs.

Index terms PTA-ELISA; fruit hardening virus; passion fruit; plant resistance

RESUMO

O maracujazeiro-azedo (Passiflora edulis) é uma espécie frutífera de grande importância econômica para o Brasil, porém altamente susceptível ao vírus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic vírus (CABMV). A espécie P. setacea, em contrapartida, apresenta resistência à doença. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar genótipos de P. setacea resistentes ao CABMV, visando à introgressão de genes em programas de melhoramento genético do maracujazeiro-azedo. As sementes dos genótipos de maracujazeiro foram germinadas in vitro em meio de cultura MS. A aclimatização das plântulas ocorreu em câmara de crescimento com temperatura de 27± 2 ºC, fotoperíodo de 16h8 e 80% de umidade relativa. Para avaliar a resistência ao CABMV, foram utilizadas 30 plantas de cada genótipo, inoculadas mecanicamente com extrato preparado a partir de folhas coletadas de plantas de maracujazeiro-azedo com sintomas de infecção pelo CABMV. A severidade dos sintomas foliares foi avaliada por meio de uma escala de notas visuais. Após a avaliação visual e a identificação dos genótipos assintomáticos de P. setacea, realizou-se o teste PTA-ELISA em 30 genótipos selecionados. Pela avaliação visual, todos os genótipos de P. setacea foram altamente resistentes ao CABMV, e os genótipos de P. edulis, altamente suscetíveis. Dos 30 genótipos selecionados, apenas o PsRJ 4 foi considerado suscetível pelo PTA-ELISA. Os demais genótipos de P. setacea foram considerados resistentes e apresentam grande potencial de serem utilizados em programas de melhoramento genético do maracujazeiro.

Termos para indexação PTA-ELISA; virose do endurecimento dos frutos; maracujazeiro; resistência de plantas

Introduction

Passion fruit belongs to the genus Passiflora, with approximately 400 species identified. Out of these, 143 species are native to Brazil, which is considered the center of genetic diversity of Passiflora spp. (Passiflora in ..., 2017). The cultivation of sour passion fruit (P. edulis) is very important for the agricultural sector because the fruit is widely used and accepted in the world market (Meletti, 2011). Brazil produced 700 thousand tons of passion fruit in 2015 (IBGE, 2015)and is the world’s largest producer of the fruit.

Reduced productivity and longevity have been recorded for this crop due to diseases. These are considered limiting factors for the maintenance and expansion of the culture, since they affect from the sowing to the adult stages of the plants and are harmful to roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruits (Cerqueira-Silva et al., 2014). Passion fruit plants infected by CABMV have symptoms such as common mosaic, sometimes accompanied by wrinkling, deformations and blisters on the leaf blade. As a result of the disease, productivity is reduced quantitatively and qualitatively, since the fruits become smaller, deformed and hardened, and may even show cracks, depending on the strain of the virus (Nascimento et al., 2006; Cerqueira- Silva et al. Oliveira et al.2008; Oliveira et al., 2013).

Fruit hardening virus, caused by the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is a species of the genus Potyvirus (Cerqueira-Silva et al., 2014; Rodrigues et al., 2015). It is transmitted by aphids, grafting and mechanically by means of buffered leaf extract and occurs in the main producing areas of Brazil (SILVA et al., 2012; GARCÊZ et al., 2015).

Wild passion fruit species have significant potential for use in breeding programs due to some of their desirable traits, such as resistance to viroses. Promising and fertile hybrids were obtained from directed crosses. Among these species, Passiflora setacea genotypes are resistant to CABMV and have been used in interspecific crosses with sour passion fruit (SANTOS et al., 2015).

Interspecific crosses involving P. edulis and P. Setacea were successfully performed aiming at the introgression of resistance genes. Several hybrids resistant to CABMV were identified (SANTOS et al., 2015) and backcrossed with P. edulis, thus generating a segregating population with resistant individuals and agronomic traits more similar to those of the commercial species (P. edulis) (FREITAS et al., 2015). Therefore, the identification of sources of resistance to CABMV is fundamental to breeding programs aiming to reduce productivity losses in passion fruit crops.

The present study aimed to identify P. setacea genotypes resistant to CABMV to be used in passion fruit genetic breeding programs.

Material and Methods

The cultivar of P. edulis germplasm (UENF ‘Rio Dourado’) was obtained from the intrapopulation recurrent selection program of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The P. setacea germplasm was obtained from various sources (Table 1).

Aiming to obtain the seedlings, the seed coat was removed from the seeds, which were disinfested in alcohol 70% for 30 seconds, in 0.25% sodium hypochlorite for 15 minutes and rinsed four times in deionized and autoclaved water, in a laminar flow cabinet (ALEXANDRE et al., 2009). Then, ten seeds were inserted in each glass vial (65x125 mm) containing 40 mL of MS medium and White vitamins (MURASHIGE; SKOOG, 1962), 30 g L-1 sucrose and 100 mg L-1myo-inositol . The inoculated seeds were taken to the growth room at the temperature of 27 ± 2 ºC, photoperiod of 16:8 hours (light: dark) and 25 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity provided by daylight fluorescent lamps (OSRAM ®, São Paulo, Brazil), for 40 days.

After in vitro germination, the seedlings obtained were acclimatized, transferred to 200 ml disposable plastic cups containing Basaplant® Hortaliça substrate (Base Agro, São Paulo, Brazil) and carried to a growth chamber, at 26 ± 2°C, 80% humidity and photoperiod of 16: 8 hours (light: dark).

The experiment for the assessment of passion fruit resistance to the CABMV was arranged in a completely randomized design (DIC), with three replicates. Each replicate consisted of 30 plants of each origin (Table 1), one plant per container.

As the source of inoculum, it wasused a CABMV isolate obtained from passion fruit plants with mosaic symptoms, blisters and foliar deformations, collected from the experimental area of the Colégio Agrícola Antônio Sarlo (Antônio SarloAgricultural School), in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. This isolate was characterized by means of RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction), with primers to the cylindrical cytoplasmic inclusion (CI) protein sequence (HA et al. 2008)and Plate Trapped Antigen - Enzyme Linked ImmunosorbentAssay (PTA-ELISA) (SANTOS et al., 2015).

After four weeks of acclimatization, the plants were mechanically inoculated with extract from leaves of passion fruit plants with severe symptoms of CABMV infestation. The inoculum for mechanical transmission was prepared in a mortar, and the infected leaf material was macerated,at the ratio of 1 g of leaf tissue to 10 mL of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0).

Carborundum (600 mesh) was used as an abrasive. Fortyeight hours after the first inoculation, the plants were re-inoculated to avoid the incidence of leaks. One plant from each source treated with only buffer solution was used as control.

The results were evaluated for 30 days through daily observations of local and systemic symptoms, from the first day of inoculation. The severity of the leaf symptoms in passion fruit genotypes was visually assessed and rated according to a grading scale: 1 = no symptoms; 2 = light mosaic without leaf deformations; 3 = severe mosaic with leaf deformation; 4 = severe mosaic, blisters and leaf deformations .The data obtained from the grading scale were used to calculate the Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AACPD) (CAMPBELL; MADDEN, 1990) in each genotype evaluated, according to the expression.

QUOTE AACPD=i=1n-1Yi+Yi+12Ti+1- Ti

Yi = proportion of the disease in thei-th observation; Ti = time in days of thei-th observation; n = number of observations.

The values obtained with the AACPD calculation were submitted to analysis of variance, after the normality conditions of the residues was verified by the Lilliefors test, with the aid of the Genes software system (CRUZ, 2013). The analysis adopted the following statistical model: Yij = μ + Gi + eij μ = general constant Gi = effect of the genotype (NID, 0, s2 G ) eij = random error (NID, 0, s2)

The mean square expectation estimates were obtained from the analysis of variance of the AACPD.

The following parameters were estimated:

a) Environmental variance σ(s2 a):

σf 2 = σ2r + σg2

b)Phenotypic variance σ(s2 f):

σf 2 = σ2r + σg2

c) Genotypic variance σ(s2 G):

σg2 =QMG+QMEr

d)Coefficient of genotypic variance (CVg):

CVg =100.σg2X-

e) Heritability (h2):

h2= σg2σf2= σg2σg2+ σ2

f) Variation index (IV):

IV= CVgCVe

g)Coefficient of experimental variation (CVe):

CVe= 100.σe2X-

After the visual evaluation and identification of the asymptomatic genotypes of P. setacea, the PTAELISA test was performed with a polyclonal antiserum specificallyagainst CABM, so as to confirm resistance to the CABMV in 30 genotypes free from the symptoms of the disease. Due to the large number of asymptomatic plants, ten plants were selected from each origin, with sufficient number of leaves to perform the PTA-ELISA test. The PTA-ELISA serological test was performed at the Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios - Instituto Biológico, in the city of São Paulo - SP (Unidade Laboratorial de Referência em Fitossanidade– Reference Plant Health Laboratory Unit).

Leaf samples (1 g) of healthy P. edulis were used as a negative control (-) and were ground in coating buffer (1.59 g of Na2CO3 and 2.93 g of NaHCO3for500 mL of H2O, 0.05M, pH 9.6) at the ratio of 1/5 (g / ml). Leaves of P. edulis with mosaic symptoms and leaf deformations (infected with CABMV), macerated in 1/5 (g / mL) cover buffer were used as a positive control (+). Foliar samples of P. setacea were ground in a solution (0.1126 g DIECA, 0.0372 g and 0.057 g sodium thioglycolate) 1/5 ratio (g / mL) and diluted in PBSTPo ( 1200 mL of PBS-T, 2% of polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) 1/1 ratio (mL / mL). The extracts from positive and negative controls and samples were applied to 96-well polystyrene plates incubated at 37 °C, for 2 hours. Then, the plates were washed three times with phosphate buffer with Tween (PBST) (0.05% Tween-20® in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4), blocked with 1% skimmed milk, diluted in PBSTPo and incubated at 37°C, for 2 hours. The plates were re-washed with PBST, followed by the specific antiserum against CABMV (AS-CABMV - Gentle supplied by Dr. JAM Rezende, ESALQ, USP), previously adsorbed, and diluted 1: 2000 in the presence of PBSTPo. The plates were incubated again at 37°C for 2 hours.The plates were washed (three times with PBST) and then it was added the alkaline phosphatase conjugatedanti-rabbit(Sigma) diluted in PBSTPo at the ratio of 1: 30000. Then, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 hours. After the last wash with PBST, the substrate (p-nitrophenylphosphate) was applied.

After approximately 30 minutes, the plates were read using the Microplate reader 3550-UV (Bio-Rad) device, at the wavelength of 405 nm. The results were analyzed by the ratio between the mean of three readings of the infected samples and the reading of healthy samples (I/S). The samples were considered positive when the average of the absorbance readings was three times higher than that obtained for the negative control (SILVA et al., 2012).

Results and Discussion

Significant difference was observed at 1% probability for AACPD, which indicates variability among the passion fruit genotypes investigated. The coefficient of variation was considered low (7.97%), which indicates good experimental accuracy during the conduction of the trial (Table 2).

The environmental variance was considered low, which reveals little effect of the environment on the expression of resistance to CABMV; this was already expected, since the plants were subjected to controlled temperature, humidity and photoperiod conditions.

The estimates for genotypic variation (s2 G = 777.08) and genotypic variation coefficient (CVg = 64.91) were considered high. This evidences the existence of wide genetic variability among genotypes, which can be exploited in passion fruit breeding programs (Table 3).

The heritability in the evaluated population was considered high (h2 = 99.94%),which indicates low environmental influence. This demonstrates that resistance to CABMV for this population is exclusively genetic.

High heritability values (99%) for resistance to CABMV were found in a segregating population resulting from the cross between P. edulis and P. setacea (SANTOS et al., 2015). Freitas et al., (2015) also found high values (94%) for resistance to CABMV in a population obtained from backcrossing between P. edulis and an interspecific hybrid (P. edulis x P. setacea). These results agree with those obtained in the present study. High heritability values may indicate that the trait under study is controlled by few genes. Studies indicate that resistance to CABMV is polygenic, but there may be gain in selection, provided that large populations and more complex methods are used, such as backcrossing and recurrent selection (FREITAS et al., 2015). There are no difficulties to obtain resistant cultivars when trait heritability is high (JUHÁSZ et al., 2008).This is true for both oligogenic and polygenic control of genetic resistance.

In this study, it was not possible to discriminate moderately resistant plants, since all genotypes of P. setacea were highly resistant, while those of P. edulis were highly susceptible. This can be easily observed by the high heritability value (Table 3), which corroborates that P. setacea resistance and P. edulis susceptibility were both highly inheritable traits for the population evaluated.

Throughout the visual evaluation period, wide symptom variation was observed in the different genotypes of passion fruit. The P. setacea genotypes did not show CABMV symptoms. Therefore, they were graded 1 at the end of the 30 days of evaluation. In contrast, all genotypes of P. edulis showed characteristic symptoms of CABMV infection, such as severe mosaic and leaf deformation, and were graded 4 at the end of the evaluation.

The presence of CABMV symptoms in P. edulis plants was observed nine days after the first inoculation.

From the 11th day of monitoring, it was verified that some plants already presented grade 4. For the genotypes of P. edulis, differences were observed between the genotypes for the severity of CABMV symptoms until the 28th day of evaluation. On day 30, all plants were graded 4 (data not shown).

AACPD values ranged from 59.5 to 90.5 for the P. edulis genotypes. The lowest value was obtained for the genotype Pe 19 and the highest values, for the genotypes Pe 9, 14, 15, 16 and 20. The genotypes of P. setacea obtained the lowest values for AACPD (29) in all genotypes (Table 4).

The results for the AACPD values obtained were previously observed for P. edulis and P.setacea by Santos et al (2015). The authors assessed the presence of CABMV symptoms in P. edulis and P. setacea plants, and fond susceptibility and resistance, respectively, in these species. On the other hand, Maciel et al. (2009) evaluated the reaction of 16 Passiflora species to the infection with four Brazilian isolates of the CABMV and observed that P. setacea was resistant only to the isolate CABMV-RJ. Oliveira et al. (2013) evaluated the reaction of four P. setacea genotypes to the CABMV, under natural occurrence in the field and verified that only one genotype (BGM237) was considered resistant, in the three types of evaluations for the virus. Therefore, variability was observed for the reaction to CABMV within the P. setacea species. Besides, the evaluations for reaction to CABMV should be performed at the intraspecific level, mainly if these genotypes are used as parents in breeding programs aimed at the introgression of resistance. After visual evaluation and identification of asymptomatic P. setacea genotypes, the PTA-ELISA test was performed to corroborate resistance to CABMV. For such, 30 genotypes of P. setacea were randomly selected, ten from each origin.

Out of the 30 samples analyzed, only the genotype PsRJ 4 reacted with the se of the specific antiserum against CABMV. The samples were considered positive when the mean of the absorbance readings (405nm) was three times higher than those obtained for the negative control. Thus, the results corroborated the resistance of the genotypes PsRJ 3, PsRJ 5, PsRJ 7, PsRJ 10, PsRJ 11, PsRJ 13, PsRJ 14, PsRJ 17, PsRJ 18, PsBA 6, PsBA 11, PsBA 12, PsBA 13, PsBA 14, PsBA 15, PsBA 16, PsBA 17, PsBA 21, PsBA 22, PsMG 2, PsMG 8, PsMG 9, PsMG 11, PsMG 12, PsMG 13, PsMG 14, PsMG 18, PsMG 19 and PsMG 24 to CABMV (Table 5).

Santos et al. (2015) used PTA-ELISA to corroborate the resistance to CABMV in interspecific hybrids of Passiflora. According to the authors, out of the 31 genotypes analyzed, three reacted to the antiserum specific against CABMV. The authors also considered positive samples, i.e. susceptible samples, when the mean of the absorbance readings (A 405 nm) was three times higher than those obtained for the negative control.

The genotype PsRJ 4, described as resistant by visual evaluation, was considered susceptible by hePTAELISA test, possibly because more time was necessary for the virus to express the symptoms in the plant. Evaluations should be longer and the serological test should be repeated. Santos et al. (2006) assessed the resistance to CABMV in interspecific hybrids of Passiflora (P.edulis x P. setacea) and observed that some hybrids that were considered resistant, that is, asymptomatic by visual analysis, were indicated as susceptible by the PTA-ELISA test, which is in agreement with thefindings of this study.

Thus, in view of some disagreements between the visual evaluation and the PTA-ELISA test, it is considered that both evaluations should be carried out to corroborate the resistance to the CABMV virus in asymptomatic P. setacea genotypes.

TABLE 1 Description of germplasm origin.UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, 2013. 

Germplasm Origin
P. setacea - BA Germplasm Bank, genotype UESC 365- UESC
P. setacea - RJ Germplasm Bank- UENF
P. setacea- MG Nova Porteirinha (MG)
P. edulis - UENF Passion fruit intrapopulacionalrecurrent selection

TABLE 2 Summary of the analysis of variance for the variable AACPD in the genotypes tested for resistance to CABMV.UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, 2013. 

FV GL QM
Genotype 3 23324.40**
Error 116 11.72**
Mean 119 42.94
CV (%) 7.97

FV= source of variation,

GL = degree of freedom,

QM = average square.

** Significant at 1% (P<0.01) by the F test.

TABLE 3 Estimates of the genetic parameters obtained from the AACPD for Passiflora edulis and Passiflora setacea.UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, 2013. 

Genetic Parameters Values
Environmental variance ( ) 0.39
Phenotypicvariance ( ): 777.48
Genotypicvariance ( ) 777.08
Coefficient of genotypic variation (CVg) 64.91
Variation Index (IV) 8.14
Heritability (h2) 99.94

TABLE 4 AACPD values and classification of genotypes based on the visual evaluation of the symptoms caused by the CABMV virus.UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, 2013. 

Genotypes Value Classification1 Genotypes Value Classification1
PsMG 1 29 R PsRJ 1 29 R
PsMG 2 29 R PsRJ 2 29 R
PsMG 3 29 R PsRJ 3 29 R
PsMG 4 29 R PsRJ 4 29 R
PsMG 5 29 R PsRJ 5 29 R
PsMG 6 29 R PsRJ 6 29 R
PsMG 7 29 R PsRJ 7 29 R
PsMG 8 29 R PsRJ 8 29 R
PsMG 9 29 R PsRJ 9 29 R
PsMG 10 29 R PsRJ 10 29 R
PsMG 11 29 R PsRJ 11 29 R
PsMG 12 29 R PsRJ 12 29 R
PsMG 13 29 R PsRJ 13 29 R
PsMG 14 29 R PsRJ 14 29 R
PsMG 15 29 R PsRJ 15 29 R
PsMG 16 29 R PsRJ 16 29 R
PsMG 17 29 R PsRJ 17 29 R
PsMG 18 29 R PsRJ 18 29 R
PsMG 19 29 R PsRJ 19 29 R
PsMG 20 29 R PsRJ 20 29 R
PsMG 21 29 R PsRJ 21 29 R
PsMG 22 29 R PsRJ 22 29 R
PsMG 23 29 R PsRJ 23 29 R
PsMG 24 29 R PsRJ 24 29 R
PsMG 25 29 R PsRJ 25 29 R
PsMG 26 29 R PsRJ 26 29 R
PsMG 27 29 R PsRJ 27 29 R
PsMG 28 29 R PsRJ 28 29 R
PsMG 29 29 R PsRJ 29 29 R
PsMG 30 29 R PsRJ 30 29 R
PsBA 1 29 R Pe1 75.5 S
PsBA 2 29 R Pe2 75.5 S
PsBA 3 29 R Pe3 88.5 S
PsBA 4 29 R Pe4 87.5 S
PsBA 5 29 R Pe5 72.5 S
PsBA 6 29 R Pe6 86.5 S
PsBA 7 29 R Pe7 85.5 S
PsBA 8 29 R Pe8 84.5 S
PsBA 9 29 R Pe9 90.5 S
PsBA 10 29 R Pe10 84.5 S
PsBA 11 29 R Pe11 86.5 S
PsBA 12 29 R Pe12 86.5 S
PsBA 13 29 R Pe13 77.5 S
PsBA 14 29 R Pe14 90.5 S
PsBA 15 29 R Pe15 90.5 S
PsBA 16 29 R Pe16 90.5 S
PsBA 17 29 R Pe17 87.5 S
PsBA 18 29 R Pe18 88.5 S
PsBA 19 29 R Pe19 59.5 S
PsBA 20 29 R Pe20 90.5 S
PsBA 21 29 R Pe21 82.5 S
PsBA 22 29 R Pe22 88.5 S
PsBA 23 29 R Pe23 85.5 S
PsBA 24 29 R Pe24 78.5 S
PsBA 25 29 R Pe25 88.5 S
PsBA 26 29 R Pe26 88.5 S
PsBA 27 29 R Pe27 87.5 S
PsBA 28 29 R Pe28 87.5 S
PsBA 29 29 R Pe29 88.5 S
PsBA 30 29 R Pe30 88.5 S

1 R = resistant and

S = susceptible.

TABLE 5 Genotypes absorbance values for PTA / ELISA and final evaluation of 30 genotypes of Passiflora setacea evaluated for resistance to CABMV.UENF. Campos dos Goytacazes. RJ. 2013. 

Genotypes Absorbance ELISA1 Final Assessment2
PsMG2 0.19 - R
PsMG8 0.16 - R
PsMG9 0.21 - R
PsMG11 0.16 - R
PsMG12 0.19 - R
PsMG13 0.19 - R
PsMG14 0.33 - R
PsMG18 0.21 - R
PsMG19 0.20 - R
PsMG24 0.20 - R
PsBA6 0.17 - R
PsBA 11 0.16 - R
PsBA 12 0.15 - R
PsBA 13 0.14 - R
PsBA 14 0.14 - R
PsBA 15 0.16 - R
PsBA 16 0.19 - R
PsBA 17 0.18 - R
PsBA 21 0.17 - R
PsBA 22 0.19 - R
PsRJ 3 0.20 - R
PsRJ 4 0.80 + S
PsRJ 5 019 - R
PsRJ 7 0.22 - R
PsRJ 10 0.13 - R
PsRJ 11 0.18 - R
PsRJ 13 0.15 - R
PsRJ 14 0.17 - R
PsRJ 17 0.16 - R
PsRJ 18 0.17 - R
P. edulis (+) 1.54 + S
P. edulis (-) 0.23 - R
Negative Contro (buffer) 0.08 - -

1(+)= Positive reaction to the presence of the virus;

(-)= negative reaction to the presence of the virus.

2R = resistance;

Ssusceptibility.

Conclusions

Out of the 30 P. setacea genotypes inoculated with CABMV and submitted to the PTA-ELISA test, 29 were considered resistant. These genotypes can be eventuallyused in passion fruit genetic breeding programs.

REFERENCES

ALEXANDRE, R.S.; COUTO, F.A.A.; DIAS, J.M.M.; OTONI, W.C.; CECON, P.R.; GOMES, S.B.S. Factors affecting in vitro germination of passion fruit seeds. Plant Cell Culture e Micropropagation, Lavras, v.5, n.1, p. 27-35, 2009. [ Links ]

CAMPBELL, C.D.; MADDEN, L.V. Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. New York: John Willey, 1990. 532 p. [ Links ]

CERQUEIRA-SILVA, C. B. M.; CONCEIÇÃO, L. D. H. C. S.; SOUZA, A. P.; CORRÊA, R. X. A history of passion fruit woodiness disease with emphasis on the current situation in Brazil and prospects for Brazilian passion fruit cultivation. European Journal of Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.139, n.2, p.255-264, 2014. [ Links ]

CERQUEIRA-SILVA, C.B.M.; MOREIRA, C.N.; FIGUEIRA, A.R.; CORRÊA, R.X.; OLIVEIRA, A.C. Detection of a resistance gradient to Passion fruit woodiness virus and selection of ‘yellow’ passion fruit plants under field conditions. Genetics and Molecular Research, Ribeirão Preto, v.7, n.4, p.1209-1216, 2008. [ Links ]

CRUZ, C.D. GENES - a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, Maringá, v.35, n.3, p. 271-276, 2013. [ Links ]

FREITAS, J.C.O.; VIANA, A.P.; SANTOS, E.A.; PAINA, C.L.; SILVA, F.H.L. Genetic basis ofthe resistance of a passion fruit segregant population to Cowpea aphid-bornemosaic virus (CABMV). Tropical Plant Pathology, Brasília, DF, v.40, p.291–297, 2015. [ Links ]

GARCÊZ, R.M.; CHAVES, A.L.R.; EIRAS, M.; MELETTI, L.M.M.; AZEVEDO-FILHO, J.A.; SILVA, L.A.; COLARICCIO, A. Survey of aphid population in a yellow passion fruit crop and its relationship on the spread Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in a subtropical region of Brazil. Springer Plus, Switzerland, v.4, p.537, 2015. [ Links ]

HA, C.; COOMBS, S.; REVILL, P.A; HARDING, R.M.; VU, M.; DALE, J.L. Design and application of two novel degenerate primer pairs for the detection and complete genomic characterization of potyviruses. Archives of Virology, Wien, v.153, n.1, p.25-36, 2008. [ Links ]

IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Banco de dados agregados: lavoura permanente e temporária. 2013. Disponível em: http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=t;o=11;i=P;c=1181. Acesso em: 23 maio 2015. [ Links ]

JUHÁSZ, A.C.P., SILVA, D.J.H., ZERBINI JÚNIOR, F.M. Base genética da resistência de um acesso de tomate silvestre ao mosaico-amarelo do pimentão. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, DF, v.43, n.6, p.713-720, 2008. [ Links ]

MACIEL, S.C.; NAKANO, D.H.; REZENDE, J.A.M.; Vieira, M.L.C. Screening of passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species. Scientia Agricola, Piracicaba, v.66, n.3, p.414-418, 2009. [ Links ]

MELETTI, L.M.M. Avanços na cultura do maracujá no Brasil. Revista Brasileira Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.33, nesp, p. 83-91, 2011. [ Links ]

MURASHIGE, T., SKOOG F. A revised medium for a rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissues cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, Oxford, v.15, p.473-479, 1962. [ Links ]

NASCIMENTO, A.V., SANTANA, E.N., BRAZ, A.S., ALFENAS, P.F., PIO-RIBEIRO, G., ANDRADE, G.P., DE CARVALHO, M.G., ZERBINI, F.M. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) is widespread in passionfruit in Brazil and causes passionfruit woodiness disease. Archives of Virology, Wien, v.151, n.9. p.1797–809, 2006. [ Links ]

OLIVEIRA, E.J.; SOARES, T.L.; BARBOSA, C.J.; SANTOS-FILHOS, H.P.; JESUS, O.N. Severidade de doenças em maracujazeiro para identificação de fontes de resistência em condições de campo. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, v.35, n.2, p.485–492, 2013. [ Links ]

PASSIFLORA in flora do Brasil 2020 em construção. Rio de Janeiro: Jardim Botânico, 2017. Disponível em: http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/floradobrasil/FB12506. Acesso em: 13 jan. 2017. [ Links ]

RODRIGUES, L.K.; SILVA, L.A.; GARCÊZ, R.M.; CHAVES, A.L.R.; DUARTE, L.M.L.; GIAMPANI, J.S.; COLARICCIO, A.; HARAKAVA, R.; EIRAS, M. Phylogeny and recombination analysis of Brazilian yellow passion fruit isolates of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus: origin and relationship with hosts. Australasian Plant Pathology, Collingwood, v.44, p.31-41, 2015. [ Links ]

SANTOS, E.A.; VIANA, A.P.; FREITAS, J.C.O.; SILVA, F.H.L.; RODRIGUES, R.; EIRAS, M. Resistance to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in species and hybrids of Passiflora : advances for the control of the passion fruit woodiness disease in Brazil. European Journal Plant Pathology, Dordrecht, v.143, p.85–98, 2015. [ Links ]

SILVA, L.A., GARCÊZ, R.M., LEVI, A., CHAVES, R., COLARICCIO, A., EIRAS, M. Transmissão experimental revela novos potenciais reservatórios do Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Summa Phytopathologica, Botucatu, v.38, n.2, p.168–169, 2012. [ Links ]

Received: May 30, 2016; Accepted: January 23, 2017

Creative Commons License  This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.