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Planta Daninha

Print version ISSN 0100-8358

Planta daninha vol.17 no.3 Viçosa Sept./Dec. 1999

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83581999000300009 

Seletividade, eficiência de controle de plantas daninhas e persistência no solo de imazamox aplicado na cultura do feijoeiro

 

Selectivity, efficacy and soil persistence of imazamox applied to edible bean

 

 

Tarcísio CobucciI; Eduardo MachadoII

IEngº Agrº, Dr., Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. C.P. 179, CEP: 74001-970, Goiânia/GO
IIGraduando do Curso de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Av. Engenheiro Diniz, 1.178, CEP: 38401-136, Uberlândia/MG

 

 


RESUMO

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade, o controle de plantas daninhas e a persistência no solo de imazamox aplicado na cultura do feijoeiro, durante os anos de 1995 a 1997. Nos experimentos de seletividade foram testados: imazamox (20, 30 e 40 g i.a./ha), imazamox + bentazon (30+480 g i.a./ha), imazamox + fomesafen (30+125 g i.a./ha) e testemunha nas cultivares Pérola, Jalo Precoce, Novo Jalo e Xamego. Os experimentos foram mantidos livres de plantas daninhas e foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade visual e a produção de grãos. Nos experimentos de eficiência de controle de plantas daninhas foram testados: imazamox (20, 30 e 40 g i.a./ha), bentazon (480 g i.a./ha), fomesafen (125 e 250 g i.a./ha), imazamox + bentazon (30+480 g i.a./ha), imazamox + fomesafen (30 + 125 g i.a./ha), bentazon / imazamox (480/30 g i.a/ha, aplicação seqüencial), fomesafen/imazmox (125/30 g i.a./ha, aplicação seqüencial), fomesafen/fomesafen (100/100 g i.a./ha, aplicação seqüencial) e testemunha. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa. Para o estudo da persistência de imazamox no solo, foram conduzidos experimentos em dois locais: Goiânia, GO (argiloso) e Jussara, GO (arenoso). Imazamox (40 g i.a./ha) causou injúrias à cultura do feijoeiro que acarretaram redução de 15% na produtividade (média dos experimentos). A mistura de imazamox e bentazon causou menor grau de injúrias no feijoeiro, obtendo-se ganhos de produtividade de 8% (médias dos experimentos). Imazamox mostrou-se ineficiente para o controle de Bidens pilosa, enquanto para Euphorbia heterophylla observou-se controle eficiente a partir da dose de 40 g i.a./ha. Aplicações seqüenciais de fomesafen/imazamox (125/30 g i.a/ha) apresentaram controle eficiente de Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa. A persistência de imazamox no solo, para ambos os locais, foi maior em 1995 que 1996. Isto foi devido à maior umidade do solo em 1996. A sensibilidade das culturas sucedâneas aos resíduos de imazamox no solo foi, em ordem decrescente: sorgo, milho e arroz. O período entre a aplicação do herbicida e o plantio da cultura sucedânea (INP) variou de acordo com a sensibilidade das culturas aos resíduos de imazamox no solo e à sua persistência. Considerando ambos os locais e anos, o INP variou de 68 a 111 dias para milho, 78 a 139 dias para sorgo e 25 a 75 dias para o arroz.

Palavras chave: Phaseolus vulgaris, herbicidas, bioensaio, atividade residual.


ABSTRACT

The present work evaluated the selectivity, efficacy and soil persistence of imazamox applyied to edible bean. The experiments were carried out from 1995 to 1997. In the selectivity experiments we tested: imazamox (20, 30 e 40 g/ha), imazamox + bentazon (30+480 g/ha), imazamox + fomesafen (30+125 g/ha) and control with no herbicides with the varieties, Pérola, Jalo Precoce, Novo Jalo and Xamego. The selectivity experiments were maintained weed-free by hand, and the visual fitotoxicity and grain yield were evaluated. The efficacy experiments tested the effects of imazamox (20, 30 and 40 g/ha), bentazon (480 g/ha), fomesafen (125 and 250 g/ha) imazamox + bentazon (30+480 g/ha), imazamox + fomesafen (30+125 g/ha), bentazon/imazamox (480/30 g/ha, sequential application), fomesafen/imazamox (125/30 g/ha, sequential application), fomesafen/fomesafen (100/100 g/ha, sequential application), on the control of Euphorbia heterophylla and Bidens pilosa. To study the persistence of imazamox in soil we conducted experiments in Goiânia (clay) and Jussara (loamy sand). Imazamox (40 g/ha) caused injury on common bean which meant a 15% decrease in grain yield (average of experiments). The tank mix of imazamox and bentazon caused less injuries and improved grain yield by 8%. Imazamox (40 g/ha) was inefficient to control Bidens pilosa while it was able to control Euphorbia heterophyla. Sequential application of fomesafen/imazamox (125/30 g i.a./ha) was efficient to control Bidens pilosa and Euphorbia heterophyla. The persistence of imazamox in soil, at both locations, was longer in 1995 than 1996. This was due to higher soil moisture content in 1996 than 1995. The rotational crops most sensitive to imazamox residues were, in decreasing order: sorghum, corn and rice. The period between herbicide application and rotational crop planting (INP) varied according to the sensitivity of that crop to the presence and persistence of herbicide residues in the soil. The INP for Imazamox (40 g/ha) ranged from 68 to 111 days for corn, 78 to 139 days for sorghum, and 25 to 75 days for rice.

Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris, herbicide, bioassay, residual activity.


 

 

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Recebido para publicação em 24/06/98 e na forma revisada em 11/09/99.

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