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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

On-line version ISSN 1414-431X

Braz J Med Biol Res vol.32 n.11 Ribeirão Preto Nov. 1999

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1999001100012 

Braz J Med Biol Res, November 1999, Volume 32(11) 1413-1416

Effect of injection of L-NAME on drinking response

W.A. Saad1,2, L.A.A. Camargo1, R. Saad2, A.F. Pereira2 and S. Simões2

1Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brasil
2Departamento de Odontologia, Universidade de Taubaté, Taubaté, SP, Brasil

down.gif (51 bytes) Abstract
Introduction
Material and Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Acknowledgments
Correspondence and Footnotes


Abstract  

The drinking behavior responses to centrally administered NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, were studied in satiated rats, with cannulae stereotaxically implanted into the lateral ventricle (LV) and subfornical organ (SFO). Water intake increased in all animals after angiotensin II (ANG II) injection into the LV, with values of 14.2 ± 1.4 ml/h. After injection of L-NAME at doses of 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl into the SFO before injection of ANG II (12 ng/µl) into the LV, water intake decreased progressively and reached basal levels after treatment with 0.15 M NaCl and with the highest dose of L-NAME (i.e., 40 µg). The water intake obtained after 40 µg/µl L-NAME was 0.8 ± 0.01 ml/h. Also, the injection of L-NAME, 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl, into the LV progressively reduced the water intake induced by hypertonic saline, with values of 5.3 ± 0.8, 3.2 ± 0.8 and 0.7 ± 0.01 ml/h, respectively. These results indicate that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of drinking behavior induced by centrally administered ANG II and cellular dehydration and that the nitric oxide of the SFO plays an important role in this regulation.

Key words: nitric oxide, water intake, SFO, dehydration, CNS


Introduction

Recognition of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in cell-to-cell communication has changed the concept of traditional neurotransmission. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate the dipsogenic response and c-Fos expression induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) (1). It has been demonstrated that NO may facilitate the release of excitatory transmitters, possibly through a presynaptic cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism (2). NO, a unique biological messenger molecule, has been identified as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (3). Many biological activities of EDRF such as smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of platelet aggregation (4), as well as regulation of the immune system (5) have been attributed to NO. Moreover, the presence of immunoreactive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or NADPH diaphorase, a histochemical marker of NOS, has been demonstrated in the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) (6). These circumventricular organs and their anatomically related structures in the lamina terminalis, the nucleus medianus, periventricular area and paraventricular nucleus represent a circuit in the anteroventral part of the third ventricle, the so-called AV3V area, which has an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, drinking behavior, and secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones (7).

The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of a more potent blocker of NOS, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), injected into the SFO on the water intake response of rats with thirst experimentally induced by decreasing intracellular volume, and on the thirst induced by ANG II injected into the lateral ventricle (LV).


Material and Methods

Animals

Adult male Holtzman rats (200-300 g) were housed in individual home cages in a temperature (22oC)- and humidity-controlled environment, with a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, with food and water available ad libitum for at least 7 days before surgery.

Surgery

On the day of surgery, each animal was anesthetized with 2,2,2,-tribromoethanol (20 mg/100 g body weight, ip) and a 20-gauge stainless steel guide cannula was stereotactically implanted into the right lateral cerebroventricle and into the SFO according to the coordinates of the Paxinos and Watson atlas (8).

Experimental design

Two series of experiments were performed: 1) osmotic stimulation. One group of rats received a subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline (1.0 M NaCl) at a dose of 15 ml/kg body weight. 2) One group with cannulas implanted into the LV and SFO received an injection of L-NAME into the SFO followed 10 min later by ANG II, 12 ng/0.5 µl, into the LV. Water intake was measured every 20 min for 60 min. Twenty-five minutes after osmotic stimulation, a 30-gauge stainless steel injector, which extended 0.5 mm below the tip of the icv guide cannula, was inserted into each animal and left in place for 5 min before delivering 1 µl of saline (0.15 M NaCl), or 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl of L-NAME (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) dissolved in 0.9% saline into the LV. Ten minutes after icv injection of the solutions, water was made available to the animals in graduated burettes with a metal spout and the cumulative intake (ml/h) was measured 20, 40, and 60 min after the injection. In another group, L-NAME was injected into the SFO 10 min after ANG II into the LV.

At the end of the experiment the animals were killed and Evans blue was injected icv. The animals were perfused with buffered saline followed by 10% formalin. The brains were removed, fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin solution for at least 2 days, and then cut frontally with a brain slicer. Under a dissecting microscope, the placement of the tip of the internal cannula and the distribution of the dye in the ventricular system and the site of implantation of the SFO cannula were analyzed. Only data from animals with the dye distributed throughout the ventricular system and with injection of L-NAME inside the SFO were used.

Statistical analysis

The results are reported as mean ± SEM and were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance for multiple comparisons between groups. The Dunnett t-test was used to assess differences between individual means.


Results

Effects of L-NAME injected into the LV on water intake induced by decreasing
intracellular volume

As shown in Figure 1, subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline induced an increase in water intake when compared to baseline values (12.0 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 ml/h). A previous injection of L-NAME, 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl, into the LV produced a progressive decrease in the water intake induced by hypertonic saline, with values of 5.3 ± 0.8, 3.2 ± 0.8 and 0.7 ± 0.1 ml/h, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate the influence of NO on water intake induced by changes in intracellular volume.


Figure 1 - Water intake after injection of saline (SAL) (control - subcutaneous (SC) and lateral ventricle (LV)), hypertonic saline (HYP) (SC) and L-NAME (LNA) (LV). L-NAME was used at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 µg/µl. The number of animals is indicated at the top of each column. *P<0.05 compared to saline; +P<0.05 compared to hypertonic saline (SC) (Dunnett t-test).

[View larger version of this image (8 K GIF file)]


Effects of L-NAME injected into the SFO on water intake induced by ANG II injection
into the LV

As shown in Figure 2, isotonic saline injection into the LV and SFO produced no changes in water intake when compared to baseline values (0.6 ± 0.1 ml/h). The injection of ANG II into the LV induced an increase in water intake, with values of 14.2 ± 1.4 ml/h. After injection of L-NAME at the doses of 10, 20 or 40 µg/µl into the SFO, the water intake decreased progressively and reached basal levels at the highest dose of L-NAME (40 µg/µl). The values were 5.3 ± 1.0, 2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.8 ± 0.01 ml/h, respectively. These results show that NO influences the water intake induced by ANG II injected into the LV.


Figure 2 - Water intake after injection of saline (SAL) (control - lateral ventricle (LV) and subfornical organ (SFO)), ANG II injection into the LV, and L-NAME (LNA) injection into the SFO. L-NAME was used at doses of 10, 20 and 40 µg/µl. The number of animals is indicated at the top of each column. *P<0.05 compared to saline; +P<0.05 compared to ANG II injected into the LV (Dunnett t-test).

[View larger version of this image (8 K GIF file)]


Discussion

The present results show that L-NAME progressively reduced the water intake induced by thirst stimuli. It has been demonstrated that icv injection of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), a blocker of NOS synthase, attenuates water intake (9) and preferentially increases plasma concentration of oxytocin and vasopressin in rats deprived of water for 24 h (10). Our results demonstrated that water intake increased after sc administration of hypertonic saline and that the L-NAME previously injected into the LV progressively reduced this ingestion. We also demonstrated that the electrolytic lesion of lateral preoptic area (LPO) and SFO in the same animal abolished the daily water intake induced by hypertonic saline (11). Our results also show that the injection of ANG II into the LV induced an increase in 1-h water consumption by satiated animals. Previous injection of L-NAME into the SFO produced a progressive reduction in water intake induced by ANG II. These results agree with those of Liu et al. (12) and can be explained as follows: a) NO plays an important role in neurotransmission in the CNS; b) the AV3V region plays an important role in the effect of NO on water intake involving the LPO and SFO and other areas; c) ANG II as a thirst-inducing hormone needs NO to produce thirst.

In conclusion, our results show that drinking behavior induced by sc injection of hypertonic saline or by ANG II injection into the LV is attenuated by central inhibition of NOS with L-NAME and that the highest dose of L-NAME abolished the water intake induced by cellular dehydration and by ANG II injected into the LV. These results clearly demonstrate that ANG II needs NO to produce the dipsogenic effect, and that the SFO is an important area for this behavior. Future studies should be carried out to identify other areas of the CNS involved in this behavior and the specific mechanism of NO action.


References

1. Zhu B & Herbert J (1997). Angiotensin II interacts with nitric oxide-cyclic Gmp pathway in the central control of drinking behaviour: mapping with c-fos and NADPH-diaphorase. Neuroscience, 79: 543-553.        [ Links ]

2. Wu SY, Dun SL, Förstermann U & Dun NJ (1997). Nitric oxide and excitatory postsynaptic currents in immature rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vitro. Neuroscience, 79: 237-245.        [ Links ]

3. Rees DD, Palmer RM & Moncada S (1989). Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the regulation of blood pressure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 86: 3375-3378.        [ Links ]

4. Welch G & Loscalzo J (1994). Nitric oxide and the cardiovascular system. Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 9: 361-371.        [ Links ]

5. Lorsbach RB & Russell SW (1992). A specific sequence of stimulation is required to induce synthesis of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide by mouse macrophages. Infection and Immunity, 60: 2133-2135.        [ Links ]

6. Bredt DS, Glatt CE, Hwang PM, Fotuhi M, Dawson TM & Snyder SH (1991). Nitric oxide synthase protein and mRNA are discretely localized in neuronal populations of the mammalian CNS together with NADPH diaphorase. Neuron, 7: 615-624.        [ Links ]

7. Zardetto-Smith AM, Thunhorst RL, Cicha MZ & Johnson AK (1993). Afferent signaling and forebrain mechanisms in the behavioral control of extracellular fluid volume. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 689: 161-176.        [ Links ]

8. Paxinos G & Watson C (1986). The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Academic Press, New York.        [ Links ]

9. Kadekaro M, Terrell ML, Harmann P & Summy-Long JY (1994). Central inhibition of nitric oxide synthase attenuates water intake but does not alter enhanced glucose utilization in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of dehydrated rat. Neuroscience Letters, 173: 115-118.        [ Links ]

10. Summy-Long JY, Bui V, Mantz S, Koehler E, Weisz J & Kadekaro M (1993). Central inhibition of nitric oxide preferentially augments release of oxytocin during dehydration. Neuroscience Letters, 152: 190-193.        [ Links ]

11. Saad WA & Camargo LAA (1980). Interaction between the lateral preoptic area and the subfornical organ in the control of water ingestion caused by cellular dehydration, hypotension, hypovolemia, and deprivation. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 28: 138-149.        [ Links ]

12. Liu H, Terrell ML, Summy-Long JY & Kadekaro M (1996). Drinking and blood pressure responses to central injection of L-NAME in conscious rats. Physiology and Behavior, 59: 1137-1145.        [ Links ]

Acknowledgments

The authors appreciate the technical assistance of Reginaldo C. Queiróz, Silas P. Barbosa, Alexandre A. Vieira, Silvia Fóglia and Silvana A.D. Malavolta. They also thank Ana V. Oliveira for animal care.


Correspondence and Footnotes

Address for correspondence: W.A. Saad, Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, UNESP, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brasil. Fax: +55-16-222-4823. E-mail: silvana@foar.unesp.br

Presented at the Meeting "NO Brazil, Basic and Clinical Aspects of Nitric Oxide", Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil, March 10-13, 1999. Research supported by FAPESP and CNPq. Received June 17, 1999. Accepted July 26, 1999.