versão impressa ISSN 0102-0536
Hortic. Bras. vol.29 no.4 Brasília out./dez. 2011
Genetic similarity between coriander genotypes using ISSR markers
Similaridade genética entre genótipos de coentro por marcadores ISSR
Roberto de A MeloI,II; Luciane V ResendeIII; Dimas MenezesII; Ana Paula A BeckIV; José Carlos da CostaII; Alisson E CoutinhoII; Ana Verônica S do NascimentoV
IIUFRPE, Depto Agronomia, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, 52171-900 Recife-PE; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
IIIUFLA-Depto Agricultura, C. Postal 37, 37200-000 Lavras-MG; firstname.lastname@example.org
IVUFRGS-Depto. Plantas forrageiras e agrometeorologia, C. Postal 15.100, 91501-970 Porto Alegre-RS; email@example.com
VUFAM-Depto.Agronomia, Campus Vale do Rio Madeira; firstname.lastname@example.org
With the development of new cultivars, a precise genetic characterization is essential for improvement programs or for cultivar registration and protection. Molecular markers have been complementing the traditional morphological and agronomic characterization techniques because they are virtually unlimited, cover the whole genome and are not environmentally influenced. Genetic characterization constitutes the basis for studies involving estimates of genetic similarity. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic similarity between ten coriander genotypes (nine cultivars and one line) using ISSR markers. The cultivars used were: Americano, Asteca, Palmeira, Português, Santo, Supéria, Tabocas, Tapacurá, Verdão and the experimental line HTV-9299. The genetic similarity between the cultivars was estimated using 227 banded regions of ISSR molecular markers. The UBC 897 oligonucleotide generated the highest number of fragments (16), resulting in a higher polymorphism. The results indicate that the twenty-nine oligonucleotides chosen were satisfactory for detecting polymorphism. Based on the grouping analysis determined from the similarity data, there were two groups and two sub-groups. The calculated similarity for the genotypes varied from 52 to 75%. The lowest similarity was observed between Português and Verdão, at 52%. The highest similarity was found between Português and Palmeira, at 75%. The ISSR is efficient for identifying DNA polymorphism in coriander.
Key words: Coriandrum sativum L., molecular characterization, microsatellites, condiments.
Com o surgimento de novas cultivares, uma caracterização genética precisa é essencial, visando à utilização em programas de melhoramento ou para fins de registros e ou proteção de cultivares. Marcadores moleculares vêm complementando a caracterização morfológica e agronômica tradicional, uma vez que são virtualmente ilimitados, cobrem todo o genoma e não são influenciados pelo ambiente. A caracterização genética constitui a base para trabalhos de estimativas de similaridade genética. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a similaridade genética entre dez genótipos de coentro (nove cultivares e uma linhagem) por meio de marcadores ISSR. As cultivares utilizadas foram Americano, Asteca, Palmeira, Português, Santo, Supéria, Tabocas, Tapacurá, Verdão e a linhagem experimental HTV-9299. A similaridade genética entre as cultivares foi estimada com base nos marcadores moleculares de ISSR, utilizando-se 227 regiões de bandas de ISSR. O oligonucleotídeo UBC 897 gerou o maior número de fragmentos (16), resultando em um maior polimorfismo. Os resultados indicam que os vinte e nove oligonucleotídeos escolhidos foram satisfatórios para detecção de polimorfismo. Como resultado da análise de agrupamento a partir dos dados de similaridade, verificou-se a presença de dois grupos e dois subgrupos. A similaridade calculada para os genótipos variou de 52 a 75%. A menor similaridade ficou entre Português e Verdão, com 52%. Já a maior similaridade foi obtida entre Português e Palmeira com 75%. O ISSR é eficiente na identificação de polimorfismo de DNA em coentro.
Palavras-chave: Coriandrum sativum L., caracterização molecular, microssatélites, condimentares.
Coriander, Coriandrum sativum L., was originated from Europe and the Orient where it has been cultivated for more than 3,000 years (Nascimento & Pereira, 2005). It is a vegetable, whose leaves and fruits are ground up and consumed, and is used as a condiment. In Brazil, it is consumed more in the North and Northeast, but consumption has been expanding in the Centre-south region (Wanderley Júnior & Melo, 2003).
There are a large number of growers and, consequently, it has a high socio-economic importance (Pereira & Nascimento, 2003). The plants can be harvested whole or by making cuts in the petioles and obtaining various harvests (Filgueira, 2008). However, there are few varieties available to growers in Brazil and, in some regions, local materials of unknown origin are cultivated, whose seeds are produced by the growers themselves using a low level of technology (Pereira et al., 2005).
One of the most important steps in genetic improvement programs is the selection of those genotypes having the desired characteristics using knowledge of the available germplasm (Blank et al., 2004). With the development of new cultivars, a precise genetic characterization is essential for genetic improvement programs or for registration or cultivar protection purposes, thereby allowing multiplication and commercialization to be controlled (Priolli et al., 2002). It should be emphasized that the information obtained from a study of genetic similarity between different genotypes is an indispensable tool for verifying the duplicity of accessions in germplasm collections or banks, as well as helping in backcross programs.
Molecular markers have been complementing morphological and agronomic characterizations since they are virtually unlimited, cover the whole genome and are not environmentally influenced (Goulão & Oliveira, 2001; Wunsch & Hormaza, 2002; Borba et al., 2005). They have been shown to be a powerful tool in genetic analysis due to the simplicity of the technique, easy handling and, in particular, are independent of environmental influences or the plant growth stage. However, some markers are more appropriate than others when information on the genetic diversity of different genotypes needs to be obtained (Milach, 1998).
The ISSR markers (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat) are considered useful for cultivar identification, the evaluation of phylogenetic relationships, genome mapping and population studies, among other things. Techniques such as ISSR (Zietkiewicz et al., 1994), are based on the amplification of regions between 100 and 300 pb, between two opposing microsatellites of the same type. They show a high degree of polymorphism, a low cost (Salimath et al., 1995; Borba et al., 2005), simplicity and they do not require previous knowledge of the genome sequence which is to be cloned (Reddy et al., 2002). This technique is being used in crops, such as tea (Lai et al., 2001), cotton (Liu & Wendel, 2001), apples (Goulão & Oliveira, 2001), rice (Sarla et al., 2003), coffee (Ruas et al., 2003), lettuce (Magalhães, 2006) and sugarcane (Almeida et al., 2009).
Among the tools used to estimate genetic similarity between a group of genotypes are included the use of morphological, phenological or molecular markers. However, morphological markers used in the characterization and estimation of genetic divergence are significantly affected by the environment and by the plant growth stage (Tatieni et al., 1996; Jesus, 2006). Genetic characterization constitutes a basis for studies to estimate genetic similarity (Conti et al., 2002).
The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic similarity between ten genotypes of coriander (nine cultivars and one line) using ISSR markers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Nine coriander cultivars were used for molecular characterization, including: Americano, Asteca, Palmeira, Português, Santo, Supéria, Tabocas, Tapacurá, Verdão and also the experimental HTV-9299 line. The Verdão, Tabocas and Tapacurá cultivars are grown mostly in the North and Northeast regions and the Português in the Southeast, where it is used to produce green matter. The remaining cultivars have been grown on a smaller scale and have been tested in cultivar competition experiments.
The genetic similarity between cultivars was estimated using molecular ISSR markers as described by Zietkiewicz et al. (1994).
Six seedlings of each genotype were collected for genomic DNA extraction, using the cotyledon leaves and the first definitive leaf, according to the protocol of Ferreira & Grattapaglia (1998). The DNA was quantified in 0.9% agarose gel, in the presence of a marker with a known molecular weight, lambda 50 ng (Invitrogen). The concentration of each sample was standardized to 20 ng/μL. Thirty-seven ISSR oligonucleotides were selected from a group produced by the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada for Sphagnum angermanicum and Pogonatum dentatum (Table 1). The amplification reactions were made for a final volume of 25 μL, containing 20 ng of DNA, a unit of Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen), 10 mM of Tris-HCL (pH 8.0), 2 mM of MgCl2, 0.25 μM of each desoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (DNTPs) and 0.2 μM of oligonucleotide. The DNA amplifications were done using a MJ Research, Inc. PTC100 Programmable Thermal Controller (Watetown, USA) thermocycler, under the following conditions: 15 minutes at 95°C (initial denaturation), followed by 30 or 35 cycles of 30 seconds at 94°C (denatured), 45 seconds at 50 or 55°C (ringing) and 2 minutes at 72°C (extension), with final extension for 7 minutes at 72°C. The products from the amplifications were separated in 2% agarose gel (Figure 1), crowned with Syber gold (Invitrogen), using the 100 pb Ladder 50 µg (1.0 µg/µL) (Invitrogen) marker and observed under an ultra-violet light and registered in a digital Vilber Lourmat photo-documentor.
The standards of the amplified ISSR products behave like dominant markers (Goulão & Oliveira, 2001) and were tabled as present (1) or absent (0) for the ten coriander genotypes evaluated. The similarity between all the genotypes was calculated using a simple matching coefficient. The computational program NTSYSpc ver. 2.01 (Rohlf, 2000) generated a genetic similarity matrix between the genotypes. In order to construct the dendrogram from the matrix, groups were generated using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPMGA). To verify the adjustment between the similarity matrix and the dendrogram obtained, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was calculated (r) (Sokal & Rohlf, 1962).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Of the thirty-seven oligonucleotides tested for ISSR, two did not amplify and six did not show reproducible standards. The remaining twenty-nine oligonucleotides were selected since they exhibited defined amplification standards, which were highly reproducible and all of which had the dinucleotide 3' repetitions anchored (Table 1).
The 29 oligonucleotides selected for evaluating the 10 genotypes, amplified 227 DNA fragments. The UBC 848, UBC 849, UBC 858 and UBC 868 oligonucleotides resulted in the least number of amplified fragments (3), while the UBC 897 oligonucleotide generated the highest number of fragments (16), resulting in a higher polymorphism (Table 1). According to Liu & Wendel (2001), the method gives highly reproducible results and generates abundant polymorphism in many systems. The mean number of fragments amplified per oligonucleotide was 7.8 and fragment size varied between 300 pb (UBC 2) and 2072 pb (UBC 897). These results show that the 29 oligonucleotides chosen satisfactorily detected polymorphism. ISSR markers have also been used to identify polymorphism in chrysanthemums (Wolff et al., 1995), sorghum (Yang et al., 1996) and Rhodiola crenulata (Lei et al., 2006).
The result of the grouping analysis calculated from the similarity data indicated the presence of two groups and two sub-groups, with a mean similarity of 61% (Figure 2). The similarity calculated for the 10 genotypes ranged from 52 to 75%, showing considerable divergence between the 9 cultivars and the line. Those plant species, which have been subjected to genetic improvement programs for longer periods, such as soybeans, dry beans, rice and cotton, show much higher similarity values than those observed in this study (Blair et al., 1999; Li et al., 2001; Bertini et al., 2006; Bonato et al., 2006).
The first large group included the Americano, Asteca, HTV-9299, Palmeira, Português, Tabocas, Tapacurá and Verdão cultivars, while the second group consisted of Santo and Supéria. However, the first group is further divided into two smaller groups, the first formed by Americano, Asteca, HTV-9299, Palmeira and Português and the second by Tabocas, Tapacurá and Verdão.
The value for the cophenetic correlation coefficient was 76.67%, indicating that the groups formed were very reliable. The lowest similarity was registered between the Português and Verdão cultivars, at 52%, with the former being the commonest cultivar in São Paulo (Southeast) and the latter in Pernambuco (Northeast). Both cultivars are genetically the most distant. The Português cultivar has a growth cycle of around 53 days for producing green matter, has a lower anthocyanin concentration and a shorter plant, whereas the Verdão cultivar has a shorter cycle for producing green matter (30-35 days), a higher anthocyanin concentration and dark green leaflets, among other differences (Melo et al., 2009). A greater similarity was seen between the Português and Palmeira cultivars, at 75%, with these genotypes being genetically closer compared to the others. It is believed that the Português cultivar originated from Europe, more precisely, Portugal, but there is no information on the origin of Palmeira. They have some distinct phenotypic characteristics but the formation of this group may be due to the sharing of genes derived from more distant common ancestors, thus explaining the existing genetic similarity.
The second highest similarity registered 72% for Verdão and Tapacurá, which have common morphological characteristics, such as leaflet color, anthocyanin concentration and seed weight (Melo et al., 2009). Asteca and HTV-9299 showed 70% similarity, with special characteristics, such as the presence of anthocyanin, mean length of the fifth leaf, a length-width relationship for cotyledons. This cultivar and the line may have common ancestors (Melo et al., 2009). Santo and Supéria showed 69% similarity, with very similar morphological characteristics and initiated bolting after an average 55 days. Americano and Supéria, in spite of belonging to different groups, showed a 56% similarity, with some shared characteristics, such as the length of the fifth leaf, plant weight and the number of days to initiate bolting (Melo et al., 2009).
Allogamous species, which have been intensely improved, may show a mean similarity of 100% (Vieira & Nodari, 2007). The mean similarity found in coriander was 61%, indicating that these materials have common characteristics.
The ISSR technique was efficient for identifying DNA polymorphism in coriander and permitted a more rapid identification. The data generated can provide a guide for future genotype crossing studies with the aim of improving the genetics of this species.
To UFRPE and CAPES for institutional support, Hortivale® - Sementes do Vale Ltda., for supplying the coriander genotypes, to CNPq/PDATC for financial support in the acquisition of the oligonucleotides and reagents.
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(Recebido para publicação em 31 de maio de 2010; aceito em 10 de outubro de 2011)
(Received on May 31, 2010; accepted on October 10, 2011)