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Horticultura Brasileira

Print version ISSN 0102-0536

Hortic. Bras. vol.30 no.4 Vitoria da Conquista Oct./Dec. 2012 



Production of cocona and jurubeba seedlings in different types of containers


Produção de mudas de cubiu e jurubeba em diferentes tipos de recipientes



Marcelo A GuimarãesI; Manuel Filipe N GarciaII; Leandro A DamascenoIII; Caris S VianaII

IUFC, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente, Depto. Fitotecnia, 60356-001 Fortaleza-CE; (autor para correspondência)
IIUFAM, Inst. Natureza e Cultura, Colegiado de Ciências Agrárias e do Ambiente, 69630-000 Benjamin Constant-AM;;
IIIUFAM-FCA, 69077-000 Manaus-AM;




The effect of different containers was evaluated to produce cocona seedlings (Solanum sessiliflorum) and jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum). The experiment was performed in the mesoregion of Alto Solimões, in Benjamin Constant, Amazonas state, Brazil, in a particular production area. The seeding was done in black holed polyethylene bags and polystyrene trays with 128, 200 and 288 cells with volumes of 250.00; 32.61; 21.60 and 9.88 cm3, respectively. We adopted a completely randomized design with four containers, four replicates, being assessed five plants per replicate. The seedlings of cocona were evaluated at 27, 38, 45 and 52 days after sowing (DAS) and of jurubeba at 38, 45, 52, 59 and 66 DAS. We evaluated the number of leaves; length of the main root, the aerial and total parts of the plant, fresh and dry matter of the main root, fresh and dry matter of the aerial part. There was no difference on the number of leaves of jurubeba at 45 and 66 DAS; there was no difference on the number of leaves of cocona at 52 DAS; there occurred a greater number of leaves of cocona when seeded on trays containing 200 cells; The other characteristics for both species presented higher values when the seeding was done in the plastic bags, at all evaluation dates.

Keywords: Solanum sessiliflorum, Solanum paniculatum, polystyrene, plastic bag.


Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes recipientes na produção de mudas de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum) e jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum), foi realizado um experimento na mesorregião do Alto Solimões, município de Benjamin Constant-AM em área de produção particular. A semeadura foi realizada em sacos de polietileno preto, furados e bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128, 200 e 288 células cujos volumes variaram de 250,00; 32,61; 21,60 e 9,88 cm3, respectivamente. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro recipientes em quatro repetições, sendo avaliadas cinco plantas por repetição. As mudas de cubiu foram avaliadas aos 27, 38, 45 e 52 dias após a semeadura (DAS) e as de jurubeba aos 38, 45, 52, 59 e 66 DAS. Foram avaliados o número de folhas; comprimento da raiz principal, da parte aérea e total; massa fresca da raiz principal, da parte aérea e total; massa seca da raiz principal, da parte aérea e total por planta. Não houve diferença entre o número de folhas para a jurubeba aos 45 e 66 DAS e para o cubiu aos 52 DAS; foi maior o numero de folhas do cubiu quando semeado em bandeja de 200 células; as demais características, para ambas as espécies, foram superiores quando se semeou em sacos plásticos em todas as datas de avaliação.

Palavras-chave: Solanum sessiliflorum, Solanum paniculatum, poliestireno expandido, saco plástico.



The Amazon region has a great diversity of species with high nutritional, economic and therapeutic value. The species include the cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum) and the jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum), belonging to the Solanaceae family that are native to tropical America and probably originated in the Amazon basin or on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian, Colombian and Equatorial Andes (Brazil, 2010).

The cocona, known as maná, topiro and indian tomato, is found throughout the Brazilian, Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and in the north and north-eastern regions of Brazil. Recently it was introduced to São Paulo state, Brazil. Normally the species grows well in any type of poor, acid soil in the Amazon and is not greatly attacked by pests and diseases (Silva Filho et al., 1996).

The fruits are rich in iron, niacin (vitamin B3), citric acid and pectin (Silva Filho et al., 2003). They are used as foods and can be consumed fresh, as juice, and jelly (Yuyama et al., 2008; Silva et al., 2011). The cocona is used as seasoning for fish, meat and chicken dishes and in traditional medicine it is used to control high levels of cholesterol, uric acid and blood sugar (Yuyama et al., 2005). According to Yuyama et al. (2005) there are indications that the species presents compounds with pharmacological activity. From the point of view of nutrition the cocona has low energetic density, with high concentrations of food fibers and especially pectin (Yuyama et al., 2007). According to Augusto (2002) the cocona leaves and roots are used as medicine, the fruits as food and its juice as a cosmetic.

The jurubeba, known as joá-manso, gerobeba, jupeba, juribeba, jurupeba, jurubeba-verdadeira and jurubeba is found throughout tropical America and is widely distributed in Brazil occurring from Rio Grande do Sul to Rio Grande do Norte. It flowers and fructifies practically all year (Santos Neto et al., 2006). It is a plant that infests empty plots, highway edges and degraded pastures and can occur in almost exclusive populations.

Research to understand the initial development of the species is extremely important to understand how they develop and improve the domestication method, and includes assessment of recipients for seedling production, considered a vital phase in the productive process.

According to Filgueira (2008), the lack of knowledge of more suitable technology for seedling production can lead the producer to crop practices that culminate in low productivity and fall in production (Silva & Vizzotto, 2001).

Different types of recipients are used for seedling production (test tubes, trays, plastic bags), made from different materials (including expanded polystyrene, polypropylene) and sizes, especially expanded polystyrene trays that are the most used for seedling production (Filgueira, 2008).

Many studies with different species have been carried out with the same objective (Resende et al., 2003; Belfort et al., 2005; Brito, 2005), and the results have shown that larger recipients have allowed the seedlings to grow and develop better.

Thus the objective of the present study was to assess cocona and jurubeba seedling production in different sized recipients.



The experiment was carried out in a private vegetable production area located in the Alto Solimões mesoregion, municipality of Benjamin Constant (04º22'58"S, 70º01'51"W, altitude of 65 m). The temperature ranges from 40 to 15ºC. The average accumulated rainfall over the year is 3,000 mm, and the climate of the region is the wet and humid tropical type.

The cocona seeds were obtained from healthy fruits of plants cultivated in Benjamin Constant, and the jurubeba seeds were obtained from plants cultivated in Tonantins, both in Amazonas state, Brazil. Both sets of seeds used were obtained from fruits produced in the 2011 growing season. The seeds were extracted according to Lopes & Pereira (2005), and the fruits were depulped and the seeds placed on blotting paper to remove excess moisture. Four days after depulping the seeds were sown using a complete randomized design with four replications. The treatments were: 1) plastic bags and expanded polystyrene trays with different cell quantities and volumes of 250.00 cm3 capacity plastic bag; 2) 128-cell polystyrene tray (32.61 cm3/cell); 3) 200-cell polystyrene tray (21.60 cm3/cell); and 4) 288-cell polystyrene tray (9.88 cm3/cell).

The substrates used were matured chicken bed enriched with mineral nutrients, and the chemical analysis presented pH= 6.4 in H2O; P= 936 mg/dm3; K= 876 mg/dm3; Ca2+= 20.5 cmolc/dm3; Mg2+= 3.3 cmolc/dm3; Al3+= 1.5 cmolc/dm3; H + Al= 5.0 cmolc/dm3; SB= 26.0 cmolc/dm3; CTC (T)= 31.0 cmolc/dm3; CTC (t)= 27.5 cmolc/dm3 and MO= 21.8 dag/kg.

Three seeds were sown per cell or plastic bag at a depth of 0.5 cm, and the recipients were kept in a protected environment covered with 100 µm thick plastic film. The soil moisture was maintained close to field capacity using a spray nozzle-type irrigator.

Seventeen days after sowing (DAS) the seedlings were thinned maintaining only one seedling per treatment, and the plants were harvested (five plants per replication) at 28, 38, 45 and 52 DAS for the cocona and 38, 45, 52, 59 and 66 DAS for the jurubeba, assessing the following characteristics: number of definitive leaves per plant (NF); total plant length (TPL), total canopy length (TCL) and main root length (MRL), total plant fresh matter (TPFM), total canopy fresh matter (TCFM) and total main root fresh matter (TMRFM) total plant dry matter, total canopy dry matter (TCDM) and total main root dry matter (TMRDM).

The results obtained were submitted to analysis of variance in the Sisvar program and the means compared by the Scott-Knott test at the level of 5% probability. The polynomial regression curves were fitted for the effects of assessment periods on the TPL, TPDM and NF.



Significant differences were observed for the cocona and jurubeba seedlings on all the assessment dates for the qualitative characteristics evaluated on all the sizes of recipients used (Tables 1 and 2). Generally, when the recipient volume was larger the growth and development of the seedlings produced was faster for both the species.

Reghin et al. (2003) researched pak choi seedlings (Brassica chinensis) assessing the effect of polystyrene trays with different sized cells and observed that when the cell size was larger in the trays used, the seedling development was greater for all the characteristics assessed, including early production, where the plants from 72-cell trays were 6 days earlier compared to the plants from seedlings produced on 288-cell trays.

For Cucumis sativus (cucumber) seedling production, Seabra Júnior et al. (2004) observed that using a greater volume of substrate resulted in greater development and earliness. In studies on melon, Bezerra & Aquino (2003), studied the effect of the recipient size on seedling production in the species and observed that seedlings produced in recipients with greater substrate volume (68 and 100 mL) presented greater development of the canopy characteristics compared to the smaller recipients (30 and 40 mL).

For nursery owners and producers of determined species, obtaining seedlings more quickly that have been developed under good conditions can be considered highly advantageous (Reghin et al., 2007), because of the economy in daily seedling crop treatments, higher annual volume and earlier production. The polynomial regression analysis of the characteristics total length, total fresh matter and total dry matter showed that there was similar performance of the variables assessed in the treatments and that higher values were obtained when the number of days after sowing was greater, and the seedlings produced in the plastic bags showed the greatest increases.

For the number of leaves, maximum points were observed for all the treatments assessed for the cocona crop. For the jurubeba, all the treatments presented approximate leaf number values and on the last assessment date a greater number of leaves was observed on seedlings in all the treatments assessed (6.25) and there was no significant difference among the treatments.

Figures 1A and 1B show the total length of the cocona and jurubeba seedlings, respectively, grown in different sized recipients. Progressive increase was observed in the total length of both the species with days after sowing (DAS) that was greater in the plants produced in plastic bags.

These results corroborated those obtained by Resende et al. (2003) and Oliveira et al. (2004), who worked with the lettuce seedling production in different sized recipients filled with variable substrate volumes and observed that the larger recipients gave better conditions for growth and development to the plants of the species, and this observation became more evident as the number of days after sowing increased.

For the total fresh matter characteristic, for both the cocona (Table 1) and the jurubeba (Table 2), there was progressive accumulation in the growth phase that was greater in the seedlings developed in plastic bags, in agreement with the results obtained by Medeiros et al. (2008) who assessed tomato seedling production on polystyrene trays with different numbers of cells and observed greater leaf, stem and root fresh matter accumulation in the seedlings produced on 72- and 128-cell polystyrene trays compared to 200-cell trays.

Similar curves to those obtained for fresh matter were observed for the total dry matter (Figures 2A and B). Rodrigues et al. (2010) studied Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and observed that the seedlings produced on 72-cell polystyrene trays with 7% organic compost in the substrate presented greater fresh matter in the canopy, dry matter in the main root and canopy and main root length, compared to those produced on 128- and 200-cell polystyrene trays. Nesmith & Duval (1998) and Echer et al. (2000) stated that nutrient absorption is affected by restricted main root development caused by recipient size. According to Medeiros et al. (2008), the better development of seedlings in larger recipients can be explained by the greater availability of substrate that may allow better main root development, thus increasing the area for nutrient absorption.

Smaller cells have smaller spaces for main root development, and it is more difficult to supply factors such as air, water and nutrients that ensure production and the normal seedling growth and development (Reghin et al., 2007).

In proportional terms, the TPDM:TPFM ratio for the seedlings grown in each one of the recipients studied showed that for both the cocona and jurubeba plants, dry matter percentage contribution increased until 45 DAS in the fresh matter characteristics assessed. For the plastic bag, this increase continued to be observed until the last assessment of both the species. The 128- polystyrene trays tended to stabilize in the following assessments. However, this ratio decreased for the 200- and 288-cell polystyrene trays.

For the characteristic assessed of number of leaves per seedling, the polynomial regression analysis on the different assessment dates, for the cocona crop, showed quadratic performance for each one of the treatments assessed. This performance enabled maximum points to be obtained above 37 DAS for this characteristic in all the treatments assessed (Figure 3A). Simple comparison among the treatments for this crop showed that up to 45 DAS, the seedlings produced in larger recipients usually had a larger number of leaves. However, at the last assessment (52 DAS), reductions were observed in the number of leaves of these in all the treatments (Table 1).

For the jurubeba, there was little effect of the size of the recipients on seedling leaf emission (Figure 3B). This was because all the treatments assessed presented a very close number of leaves per plant and no treatment was outstanding in promoting the development of a greater number of leaves (Table 2). However, aspects of nutritional deficiency, such as those observed for the cocona crop, were also observed for the jurubeba in all the treatments assessed, but on different days after sowing.

Thus the results obtained in the present study showed that cocona seedlings produced in plastic bags can be kept in these recipients up to 45 DAS without any harm being observed to the plant growth and development characteristics.

For the jurubeba crop the plastic bag was a recipient that in general permitted better development conditions for the seedlings. However, regardless of the recipient used for the species, the seedling should be transplanted before 66 DAS.



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(Received on October 24, 2011; accepted on September 19, 2012)

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