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Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Print version ISSN 0102-0935On-line version ISSN 1678-4162

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.54 no.5 Belo Horizonte Oct. 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352002000500019 

COMMUNICATION

(Comunicação)

 

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a parasitoid of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): first report in Brazil

[Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) como parasitóide de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): primeiro relato no Brasil]

 

C.H. Marchiori, L.A. Pereira, O.M.S. Filho

Departamento de Ciências Naturais do Instituto Luterano de Ensino Superior de Itumbiara-ILES-ULBRA
Caixa Postal 23-T
75.500-000 - Itumbiara, GO

 

Recebido para publicação em 1 de outubro de 2001
Recebido para publicação, após modificações, em 21 de março de 2002
E-mail: pesquisa.itb@ulbra.br

 

 

Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) assumes great medical importance as an agent responsible for the production of primary myiasis and, more frequently, secondary myiasis (Queiroz et al., 1996). It plays also a significant role as predator of other dipterous larvae. In addition, this dipterous is importante in public health, as a vector of pathogenic microorganisms to human beings (Greenberg, 1971; Marchenko, 1985).

The adult stages feed on a large variety of components such as flower nectar, urban garbage, fallen fruits, human feces and other animal tissues including liver, meat and fish (Queiroz, 1996).

All the representatives of Chalcididae Diptera behave as parasitoid and most attack Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera (Clausen, 1940; Burks, 1960; Grissel & Schauff, 1990).

Chalcididae are cosmopolitan insects (Burks, 1960; Hubu, 1960; Askew, 1994; Pujade, 1994), including approximately 1500 species in the tropics (Gauld & Bolton, 1988). They are predominantly solitary endoparasitoids (Gauld & Bolton, 1988).

Species of the genus Brachymeria Westwood are important primary parasitoid of muscoid Diptera, such as species of the Sarcophagidae family (Burks, 1960; Habu, 1960; Grissel & Schauff, 1990) and Calliphoridae (Bishop et al., 1996). Some species are of economical importance as they attack insect pests (Gauld & Bolton, 1988).

Fly control using insecticides usually selects resistant populations and are palliative measures. Mendes & Linhares (1993) state the need for research on new methods of fly control. Natural regulators, such as parasitoids, are agents responsible for reduction of fly populations (Mendes & Linhares, 1993). The aim of this note is to report a new host for B. podagrica species in Brazil.

This study was conducted at "the Agriculture Faculty" (Itumbiara, GO, 18º25´S – 49º13´W), Brazil. The flies were attracted to 19x9cm opaque dark can traps built with two openings like blinders, located in the third inferior part to allow entrance of flies. Nylon funnels were coupled in the upper part the cans, opened in the ends, with bases pointing down and wrapped with plastic bags, enabling collection of flies and parasitoids. Chicken viscera were used as baits inside the cans, over a layer of sand. Five traps hanging on eucalyptus trees one meter above the ground two meters apart from each other and meters from domestic garbage cans were disposed. The collected insects were taken to the laboratory, killed with ethyl ether and kept in 70% alcohol for identification. The contents of the traps were placed in plastic containers having a layer of sand to be used as a substratum for larvae to pupate. The sand was sifted after 15 days and pupae were extracted and placed individually in gelatine capsules (00 number) to obtain flies and/or the parasitoids. The prevalence of parasitism was calculated by the following formula: P= (parasite pupae/total of pupae) x100.

From March to August 2001 four specimens of Brachymeria podagrica Fabricius, 1787 were collected in 29 pupae of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) showing 13.8% of parasitism. The high prevalence of parasitism can also be related to the type of methodology used. The species B. podagrica occurs almost everywhere around the world and lives associated to synanthropic dipterous and other Diptera, emerging from their pupae shell, formerly known as Brachymeria fonscolombei (Delvare & Boucek, 1992). According to Roberts (1933), Burks (1960) and Habu (1960), B. podagrica was collected as a solitary parasitoid of Sinthesiomyia larvae (Muscidae), Cochliomyia, Lucilia, Calliphora sp., Calliphora coloradensis Hough, Callitroga macellaria (Fab.), Phaenicia sericata (Meig.), Phaenicia mexicana (Macq.), Phormia regina (Meig.) (Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga carnaria Linné, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis Fallén, Sarcophaga impar Aldrich, and Sarcophaga peregtina Robineau-Desvoidy (Sarcophagidae).

This species occurred as dipterous parasitoid and developed in rats carcasses in areas of tropical forrests in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Its preferred host was Patonella intermutans (Walker) (Sarcophagidae) from where parasitoid pupae emerged, predominating females (Silva, 1991). Tomberlin & Adler (1998) studying the decomposition and colonies of insects in the carcasses of rats during the summer and winter in the South Caroline (E.U.A) collected B. podagrica in pupae of Sarcophaga sp. (Sarcophagidae).

According to De Santis (1980), the genus Brachymeria has 11 species found in Brazil, spread over the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Amazonas, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais.

This is the first report of B. podagrica in pupae of C. albiceps in Brazil.

Keywords:Fly, parasitoid, biological control, natural enemy, Brazil

 

RESUMO

Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787) parasitando estádios imaturos de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Brasil. Utilizaram-se armadilhas contendo como isca vísceras de galinha. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. Foram obtidas 29 pupas de C. albiceps, quatro das quais emergiram parasitóides. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 13,7%.

Palavras-chave: Moscas, parasitódes, controle biológico, inimigo natural, Brasil

 

 

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