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Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Print version ISSN 0102-0935On-line version ISSN 1678-4162

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.54 no.6 Belo Horizonte Dec. 2002

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352002000600019 

COMMUNICATION

[Comunicação]

 

Paraganspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) as potential agent in the biocontrol of muscoid dipterous collected in several substracts in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil

 

[Paraganspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) como agente pontencial no controle biológico de dípteros muscóides coletados em vários substratos em Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil]

 

 

C.H. Marchiori, L.A. Pereira, O.M. Silva Filho, L.C. Ribeiro

Departamento de Ciências Naturais do Instituto Luterano de Ensino Superior de Itumbiara-ILES-ULBRA

Address for correspondence

 

 


The Cynipoidea is a large superfamily of Apocrita that includes about 4,000 species (Fergunson, 1988; Ronquist, 1995). Most cynipoid species are parasitoids of Diptera, while a few of them are parasitoids of Neuroptera and Homoptera. The Figitidae, comprising approximately 110 genera and 15,000 species, is the most species-rich and abundant in the cynipoid family. However, relatively few taxonomic studies have been undertaken on the diverse tropical fauna and many species await description (Hanson & Gauld, 1995). The Eucoilinae are solitary endoparasitoids in the larval stage of cyclorrhaphous Diptera and emerge as adults from the puparium (Quilan, 1979; Wharton et al., 1998).

The research was carried out in order to find the hosts of the parasitoid Paraganaspis egeria associated to several muscoids substracts in Itumbiara, Goiás State, Brazil.

In a natural area, two pig carcasses weighing approximately 10 kg each, were used as baits. They were mechanically killed and immediately placed inside metal frame cages to exclude the large vertebrate scavengers. Underneath the cages, metal trays with sawdust were placed to collect the pupae. The pupae were obtained by the floating method and individually deposited in jelly capsules until flies and the parasites were able to come out. The adults obtained by this process were counted and identified.

The cattle feces were kept in the manure deposit for about 10 days, serving as a substract for the development of several fly species. Collection of pupae was carried out every 15 days, on the manure dung that stayed for more than eight days in the manure deposit. The manure was collected in plastic basins (40cm diameter and 12cm high) of manure. The pupae were obtained by the floating method and individually deposited in jelly capsules until the flies and the parasites were able to come out. The adults obtained by this process were counted and identified.

The flies were attracted to the traps, which were made of dark dull cans, measuring 19cm height and 9cm diameter, with two openings like blinders, located in the inferior third part to allow the entrance of the flies. In the upper part, the cans were coupled with nylon funnels, opened at the bottom, base pointing down and wrapped with plastic bags, enabling collection of flies and parasitoids. Human feces, cattle kidneys and chicken carcasses deposited on top of a soil layer were placed as bait inside the each can. Three traps were hanged on trees one meter above the ground, two meters apart from each other. The collected insects were taken to the laboratory, sacrificed with ethyl ether and kept in 70% alcohol for further identification. The content of the traps were placed in plastic containers, having a layer of sand to be used as a substratum of larvae pupae. Therefore, this sand was sifted after being 15 days in fields and from this sand the pupae was extracted and individually placed in jelly capsules (00 number) to obtain flies and /or the parasitoids.

This study was conducted at the Faculdade de Agronomia settled in the city of Itumbiara, GO (18º25´S – 49º13´W), Brazil. The prevalence of parasitism was calculated according to the formula of Margolis et al. (1982) and Bush et al. (1997).

A total of 6,087 pupae of dipterous muscoids were collected in several substracts, from January, 1999 to October, 2001,pointing out the importance of the species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedennam) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). C. albiceps has a great medical and sanitary importance, being responsible for secondary myiasis and carrying of pathogenic microorganisms.

As shown in Table 1, 206 individuals of Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) parasitoids were obtained in five substracts and from four different hosts. The use of several P. egeria dipterous facilitaded their permanence in the environment, improving their potential as biological agent keepers.

 

 

A great number of individuals were obtained from Sarcophagula occidua (Fabricius)(Diptera: Sarcophagidae), approximately 84.9% in cattle dung. The total prevalence of observed parasitism was approximately 3.4%. The host showing the highest prevalence of parasitism was the Fannia pusio (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Fanniidae) in chicken.

Natural regulators, such as parasitoids, can be used to control flies. These agents are responsible for the reduction of the synanthropic fly populations. Several eucoilid species have been reported as important natural enemies of different dipteran species (Wharton et al., 1998)

Keywords: Insecta, Diptera, Hymenoptera, parasitoid, substract


RESUMO

Este estudo determinou as espécies de hospedeiros do parasitóide Paraganspis egeria (Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh, 1996) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) em esterco bovino, fezes humanas, rins de bovino, galinha e carcaça de suíno. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 3,4%.

Palavras-chave: Insecta, Diptera, Hymenoptera, parasitóide, substrato


 

REFERENCES

BUSH, A.O.; LAFFERTY, K.D.; LOTZ, J.M. et al. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. Revisited. J. Parasitol., v.84, p.575-583, 1997.        [ Links ]

FERGUSSON, N.D.M. A comparative study of the structures of phylogenetic importance of female genitalia of the Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Syst. Entomol., v.13, p.13-30, 1988.        [ Links ]

HANSON, P.E.; GAULD, I.D. The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford: Oxford University, 1995. 893p.        [ Links ]

MARGOLIS, L.; ESCH, G.W.; HOLMES, J.C. et al. The use of ecological terms in parasitology (report of ad hoc committee of the American Society of Parasitologists). J. Parasitol., v.68, p.131-133, 1982.        [ Links ]

QUILAN, J. A revisionary classification of the Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) of the Ethiopian zoogeographical region. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Ent.), v.39, p. 85-133, 1979.        [ Links ]

RONQUIST, F. Phylogeny and early evolution of the Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Syst. Entomol., v.20, p.309-335, 1995.        [ Links ]

WHARTON, S.M.; OVRUSKI, S.M.; GILTRAP, F.E. Neotropical Eucoilidae (Cynipoidea) associated with fruit-infesting Tephritidae, with new records from Argentina, Bolivia and Costa Rica. J. Hym. Res., v.7, p.102-115, 1998.        [ Links ]

 

 

Address for correspondence
C.H. Marchiori 
L.A. Pereira
O.M. Silva Filho
L.C.
Ribeiro
Caixa Postal 23-T
75.500-000 - Itumbiara, GO
E-mail: pesquisa.itb@ulbra.br 

Recebido para publicação em 20 de fevereiro de 2002
Recebido para publicação, após modificações, em 29 de abril de 2002

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