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Acta Botanica Brasilica

Print version ISSN 0102-3306

Acta Bot. Bras. vol.1 no.1 Feira de Santana Jan. 1987

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33061987000100002 

MINI-REVISÃO

 

Defesas químicas de plantas: fitoalexinas

 

Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins

 

 

Márcia Regina BragaI; Sônia M.C DietrichII

IEstagiária da Seção de Fisiologia e Bioquímica de Plantas, Bolsista da CAPES
IIPesquisadora Científica VI, Seção de Fisiologia e Bioquímica de Plantas, Instituto de Botânica. Caixa Postal 4005. CEP 01000 - São Paulo, SP - Brasil

 

 


RESUMO

A resistência de plantas ao ataque de microorganismos causadores de doenças relaciona-se à presença de barreiras físicas e (juímicas de defesa. Dentre as barreiras químicas destacam-se as fitoalexinas, substâncias fungitoxicas sintetizadas de novo pelas plantas principalmente após a invasão ou o contato de seus tecidos com microorganismos, Essas substâncias englobam vários grupos compostos naturais tais como terpenos, isoflavonóides e poliacetilenos e seu acúmulo pode ser induzido por organismos vivos, seus produtos (elíciadores) ou ainda agentes químicos, como sais de metais pesados, ou físicos (congelamento, luz U.U.).
Alguns aspectos abordados nesta revisão são: a ocorrência de fitoalexinas em angiospermas, a relação entre sua natureza química e o grupo taxonômico das plantas que as produzem, a sua ação sobre organismos pró e eucarióticos.
São descritas também os fatores que interferem nas respostas das plantas aos agentes indutores e as técnicas usuais para a indução e detecção de fitoalexinas.
O papel dos eliciadores na indução da sâitese de fitoalexinas e o mecanismo pelo qual exercem sua função indutora são discutidos.
Nesse contexto está incluída a teoria das oligossacarinas, fragmentos de parede celular que parecem controlar não só a resposta de defesa em plantas mas também outros fenômenos fisiológicos em plantas.

Palavras-chaves: fitoalexinas, defesas e eliciadores.


ABSTRACT

Chemical defense of plants: phytoalexins - This review describes the concept of phytoalexins as a chemical defense of plants against microorganisms as well as a response of plants to chemical or physical agents.
The current information on phytoalexins is presented, regarding the following aspects: occurrence in angiosperms; relation-snips between chemical composition and taxonomy; toxicity; factors affecting plant response; techniques for induction and detection of phytoalexins; role of elicitors and mechanisms of action. The latter includes the oligosaccharins-fragments of cell wall polysaccharides which seem to control the defense response as well as other physiological fenomena in plants.

Key-words: Phytoalexin, defense, elicitors.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Aceito em 30.12.86.

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