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Acta Botanica Brasilica

Print version ISSN 0102-3306On-line version ISSN 1677-941X

Acta bot. bras. vol.15 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Apr. 2001 



Iuri Goulart Baseia2
Adauto Ivo Milanez2


Recebido em 17/2/2000. Aceito em 27/6/2000



RESUMO ¾ Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly, um raro gasteromicete lignícolo nos tropicos, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Estado de São Paulo e pela segunda vez para o Brasil, crescendo sobre madeira em decomposição e ocasionalmente sobre outros fragmentos de plantas em solo, sob vegetação de cerrado. É dada a descrição das características macro e microscópicas a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, usando a metodologia tradicional para estudos de Gasteromycetes. O substrato e as características taxonômicas concordam com a literatura consultada.

Palavras-chave ¾ Gasteromycetes, Crucibulum laeve, taxonomia, cerrado, espécie rara


ABSTRACT ¾ (Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly in cerrado vegetation of São Paulo - Brazil). A rare lignicolous gasteroid fungus of the tropics, Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly is recorded for the first time from State of São Paulo and for de second time from Brazil, growing on decaying wood, occasionally on other plant debris, on soil under cerrado vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described from fresh and dried basidiocarps using the traditional methods for Gasteromycetes. The substrate and the taxonomic characteristics agree closely with the literature consulted.

Key words ¾ Gasteromycetes, Crucibulum laeve, taxonomy, cerrado, rare species




This work represent part of extensive studies regarding the Gasteromycetes from the Brazilian cerrado vegetation, which includes the Reserva Ecológica de Jataí and Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu (State of São Paulo).

The genus Crucibulum was established by Tulasne brothers in 1844 and currently includes three species, C. cyathiforme H. J. Brodie, C. parvulum H. J. Brodie and C. laeve (Huds.) Kambly (Brodie 1984). Although this taxon was not found until 1844, for nearly a century and a half, fungus belonging to it has been known and unmistakably figured. Ray (1696), in a list of fungi collected by D. Samuel Doody, mentions this specie in "Fungus seminifer minor".

Crucibulum is segregated from Cyathus by the thick peridium wall consisting of a single layer of hyphae as well as the funiculus of single structure; from Nidula it is separated by the presence of a funiculus (Brodie 1975; 1984).

The nidulariaceous fungi are poorly known in Brazil, probably due to the fact that studies on Brazilian Gasteromycetes are scarce. There are some registers reported by Rick (1961) from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, including: Cyathus ambiguus Tul., C. byssisedus (Jungh.) Tul., C. montagnei Tul., C. poeppigii Tul., C. stercoreus (Schw.) De Toni, C. striatus (Huds.) Hoffm., C. vernicosus (Bull.) DC., Crucibulum laeve, named as C. vulgare Tul. Bononi et al. (1981) and Bononi (1984) reported from the State of São Paulo, Cyathus limbatus Tul., C. poeppigii, C. stercoreus and C. striatus.


Material and methods

Specimens of Crucibulum laeve were collected, during the rainy season of 1999 (January to July), in the Estação Ecológica de Jataí, located in an area of 4.532,18 ha, at 21o33'-21o37'S and 47o45'-46o51'W; and Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, located in an area of 343, 42 ha, at 22o15'-22o16'S and 47o08'-47o-12'W, both in State of São Paulo. Climatic conditions are of the AW type according to Köppen System.

Hand-cut sections of dried material were mounted in Melzer's reagent, 5% KOH, water or cotton blue for microscopical examination (Dominguez de Toledo 1993). Permanent slides were made using PVL resin (Alcohol Polyvinilic and Lactophenol), according to Trappe & Schenck (1982). Colour terms in parenthesis are those of Kornerup & Wanscher (1978), abreviated as KW. The material is preserved in the Herbarium of Instituto de Botânica, Seção de Micologia e Liquenologia (SP), abbreviated by acronyms according to the Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al. 1990).


Results and discussion

Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly, Univ. of Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist. 17(4): 167, 1936.

Synonyms: Crucibulum vulgare Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. 3(1): 90, 1844; Cyathus laevis DC., Fl. Fr. 2: 269, 1805; Cyathus crucibulum Pers., Syn. Fung. 238, 1801; Nidularia crucibulum (Pers.) Secret., Mycogr. Suisse 3: 378, 1833; Nidularia junglandicola Schw., Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II(4): 253, 1834; Crucibulum junglandicolum (Schw.) de Toni, in Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 7: 44, 1888; Crucibulum crucibuliforme Write, Bull. Torr. Club 29: 269, 1902 (according to Brodie 1975).

Peridium bell-shaped, 7-9 mm high (Fig. 1-2), 6-7 mm across the top (Fig. 3), when young subglobose, at maturity narrowed slightly from the top toward the sessile truncate base which attached to a subiculum; outer surface greyish brown (KW-5D3), finely tomentose but glabrous in age; inner surface light grey (KW- 1D1), smooth, margin thick, wall of a single layer of woven hyphae 1-2 mm diam., branched (Fig. 4). Peridioles light grey (KW- 1D2), lenticular almost irregular, 1,5-2 mm wide, attached to the cup by a funiculus, covered with a yellowish white membrane (KW- 1D1); peridiole hyphae 1,5-3 mm diam., hyaline, branched (Fig. 5). Basidiospores almost hyaline, smooth, elliptical to subovate, 5-6,4-8,2 x 3,5-4,7-5,5 mm. (Fig. 6)



Material examined: BRAZIL. São Paulo: Município de Luís Antônio, Estação Ecológica de Jataí, 23/II/1999, Baseia I. G. 338, SP 307295, gregarious on wood debris; BRAZIL. São Paulo: Município de Moji Guaçu, Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, 2/V/1999, Baseia I. G. 405, SP 307296, scattered in shading places on decaying wood or leaves; BRAZIL. São Paulo: Município de Moji Guaçu, Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, 11/VII/1999, Baseia I. G. 418, SP 3072297, gregarious on soil in which wood is buried.

Additional material examined (donated to SP Herbarium): UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Iowa: North Liberty, 11/IX/1926, det. G. W. Martin, SP 61671; Iowa City, 6/VII/1948, det. G. W. Martin, SP 62187; FRANCE: Briançonnais, 14/X/1958, coll. L. Kofler, SP 61483

Although cited as Crucibulum vulgare Tul. & C. Tul., it is incorrect (Coetzee et al. 1997) because Crucibulum laeve is the correct name to be used for this fungus (Eckblad 1955; Brodie 1984; Calonge & Demoulin 1975, Liu 1984, Kreisel 1990). All of the aforementioned authors, however, use different author citation. The present authors agree with Kreisel (1990) and Coetzee et al. (1997) in using the combination Crucibulum laeve (Huds.) Kambly.

Concerning the distribution of this taxon, Write (1902) and Coker & Couch (1928) reported it for North America, Bottomley (1948), for Southern Africa and Liu (1984) for China. According to Brodie (1984) and Hawksworth et al. (1995) the major distribution records of Crucibulum laeve is from temperate zones. In tropicals zones it appears to be rather rare, judging from the few records of Crucibulum (Gomes & Perez-Silva 1988). This is the first register for this lignicolous genus from the State of São Paulo and the second from Brazil. The first record was given by Rick (1961) from State of Rio Grande do Sul, as C. vulgare Tul.



We acknowledge the financial support from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES), Brazilian agency. Many thanks also to the Instituto de Biociências/USP and Instituto de Botânica for the structural support and use of laboratory facilities.



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1 Parte da Tese de Doutorado do primeiro autor. Bolsista CAPES

2 Instituto de Botânica, Seção de Micologia e Liquenologia, C. Postal 4005, CEP 01061-970, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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