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Acta Botanica Brasilica

versão impressa ISSN 0102-3306

Acta Bot. Bras. v.18 n.4 São Paulo out./dez. 2004

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062004000400027 

New records of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil1

 

Novos registros de Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) em Mata Atlântica no Nordeste brasileiro

 

 

Tatiana Baptista GibertoniI; Leif RyvardenII; Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz CavalcantiI, 2

IDepartamento de Micologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Nelson Chaves, s/n, CEP 50760-420, Recife, PE, Brazil
IIDepartment of Botany, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1045, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo, Norway

 

 


ABSTRACT

Non-poroid Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) in areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil are reported. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. and Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome) Donk are new records to Northeast Brazil.

Key words: Hydnaceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil


RESUMO

Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota) não poróides foram registrados em áreas de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste brasileiro. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E.A. Dick, Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Nikol., Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Boidin, Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. e Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome) Donk são novas ocorrências para o Nordeste do Brasil.

Palavras-chave: Hydnaceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Mata Atlântica, Brasil


 

 

Introduction

The Atlantic Rain Forest is a coastal ecosystem characterised by high biological diversity. Over time, it has been diminished significantly by human activities that have nearly caused its complete destruction (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, dos Recursos Hídricos e da Amazônia Legal 1998; Ranta et al. 1998).

Few mycological studies have been undertaken in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil (Loguércio-Leite & Gerber 1997; Soares & Gugliotta 1998; Gugliotta & Bononi 1999; Gerber & Loguércio-Leite 2000; Góes-Neto et al. 2000; Gibertoni & Cavalcanti 2000; 2003). The hydnoid fungi were studied by Bononi (1979), and species of Lachnocladiaceae and Schizophyllaceae were reported by Burt (1919), Corner (1950), Talbot (1951), Bononi et al. (1981), Bononi (1984), and Hjortstam & Bononi (1986), Capelari & Maziero (1988), Sotão et al. (1991), Jesus (1993; 1996), Silva & Minter (1995), Gugliotta (1997) and Gibertoni & Cavalcanti (2003).

This work aims to contribute to our knowledge of Aphyllophorales in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil.

 

Materials and methods

Collections of Aphyllophorales were made from September/2000 to June/2002 in 13 reserves of the Atlantic Rain Forest in the States of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte.

Collections, preparation of the material and micro- and macroscopic analyses were made following the usual methods for these fungi (Maerz & Paul 1950; Fidalgo & Bononi 1989; Martin 1934; Kotlaba & Pouzar 1964; Singer 1951; Teixeira 1995).

For identification the following literature was used: Cooke (1961), Harrison (1973), Rattan (1974), Maas Geesteranus (1978), Gilbertson & Ryvarden (1986), Stalpers (1996) and Ryvarden (2001).

 

Results and discussion

Four species of Hydnaceae, two of Lachnocladiaceae and one of Schizophyllaceae were recorded in the surveyed areas. Auriscalpium villipes, Climacodon pulcherrimus, Gloeodontia discolor, Irpex lacteus and Scytinostroma duriusculum are new records to Northeast Brazil.

Hydnaceae

1.  Basidioma resupinate, incrusted cystidia present
     2.  Basidiospores amyloid, ornamented ....................... 3. Gloeodontia discolor
     
 2.  Basidiospores inamyloid, smooth ...................................... 4. Irpex lacteus
1.  Basidioma sessile to stipitate, incrusted cystidia absent
     3.  Basidioma stipitate, basidiospores amyloid, 4,5-5,5×3,5-4,5µm .....................
          ...................................................................... 1. Auriscalpium villipes
     3.  Basidioma sessile, basidiospores inamyloid, 2,0-4,5×1,5-2,0µm ......................
          .................................................................2. Climacodon pulcherrimus

1. Auriscalpium villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E. A. Dick, Lloydia 21: 35, 1958.

Hydnum villipes Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 5: 801, 1918.

Basidioma stipitate, reniform, 3,0×2,5cm. Abhymenial surface velutine, MP15L12 (Raw Umber, Partridge). Margin entire, concolorous to the abhymenial surface. Context thin. Hymenial surface hydnoid, MP8L12 (Mandalay, Friar), spines 1mm long. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae clamped, hyaline, thin to slightly thick-walled, 2,0-4,5µm; skeletal hyphae hyaline to brown, thick-walled to solid, sometimes branched, 3,5-4,5µm; gloeopleurous hyphae not observed, "yellowish, 2,0-5,0µm wide" (Ryvarden 2001). Gloeocystidia not observed, "up to 8,0µm wide, hyaline to pale yellow" (Ryvarden 2001). Basidia clavate, 16,0-20,0×4,5-6,5µm. Basidiospores hyaline, subglobose to ellipsoid, echinulate, amyloid, 4,55,5×3,54,5µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Pernambuco: Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, IX/2000, Gibertoni 77411 (URM).

Distribution: Neotropical (Ryvarden 2001).

Remarks: A. villipes shows high macromorphological variation: the basidioma can be sessile to long-stipitate, and the abhymenial surface can be glabrous to hirsute (Ryvarden 2001). In Brazil, it was recorded in Goiás, São Paulo (Bononi-Penteado 1976) and Rio Grande do Sul (Ryvarden 2001), and for the first time in Northeast Brazil.

2. Climacodon pulcherrimus (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Nikol., Fl. Sporov. Rast. URSS 6(2): 194, 1961.

Hydnum pulcherrimum,Berk. & M. A. Curtis, J. Bot. & Kew Gard. Misc. 1: 235, 1849.

Basidioma sessile, applanate, dimidiate, fleshy when fresh, leathery when dry, 4,5-9,0 x 2,5-4,5cm. Abhymenial surface glabrous, MP16A1, when fresh, MP6A12 (Rust Sorolla Br+), when dry. Margin entire, concolorous to the abhymenial surface. Context thin, 0,1cm, MP11B6 (Paeachbeige-). Hymenial surface hydnoid, MP2A1, when fresh, MP3A11 (Wren), MP8L10 (Java+, Nomad Br-), MP11C3 (Sheepskin, Moth+), when dry, spines up to 4mm long, 2-4/mm. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, clamped, thin-walled, 3,0-10,0µm; skeletal hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, sometimes branched, 3,0-6,0µm. Gloeocystidia clavate, 30,0-60,0×5,0-7,0µm. Basidia clavate, 17,0-22,0×3,0-5,0µm. Basidiospores hyaline, ellipsoid, smooth, inamyloid, 2,0-4,5×1,5-2,0µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Paraíba: Santa Rita, RPPN Engenho Gargaú, XI/2001, III/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77371 (URM), 77372 (URM), 77373 (URM), 77374 (URM); Mamanguape, Reserva Biológica Guaribas, III/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77375 (URM), 77376 (URM); Pernambuco: Recife, Reserva Ecológica Dois Irmãos, III/2001, Gibertoni 77367 (URM); Cabo, Mata de Gurjaú, XI/2001, III/2002, Gibertoni 77369 (URM), 77370 (URM).

Distribution: Cosmopolitan (Bononi 1979).

Remarks: C. pulcherrimus is characterised by the dimidiate, white and fleshy basidioma. In Brazil, it was recorded in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo (Bononi 1979), Pará and Rondônia (Bononi 1981). The collections given above are the first ones from Northeast Brazil.

3. Gloeodontia discolor (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Boidin, Cah. Maboké 4: 22, 1966.

Irpex discolor Berk & M. A. Curtis, Grevillea 1: 145, 1873.

Basidioma resupinate. Margin concolorous to the hymenial surface. Context thin. Hymenial surface hydnoid to irpicoid, MP12F7, teeth 2-3/mm. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, clamped, thin-walled, 1,0-4,0µm; skeletal hyphae hyaline, thick-walled to solid, sometimes branched, 1,8-4,0µm. Gloeocystidia cylindrical to clavate, 25,075,0× 5,010,0µm. Cystidia apically incrusted, 6,0-9,0µm wide. Basidia subclavate, 12,0-20,0×3,5-4,0µm. Basidiospores hyaline, ovoid to elliptical, verruculose, amyloid, 3,05,5×2,5-3,5µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Pernambuco: Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, IX/2000, Gibertoni 77368 (URM).

Distribution: Tropical parts of America and Africa (Bononi 1979).

Discussion: G. discolor is characterised by ornamented, amyloid basidiospores. In Brazil, it was found in São Paulo (Bononi 1979; 1984; Bononi et al. 1981; Jesus 1993), and is recorded for the first time in Northeast Brazil.

4. Irpex lacteus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr., Elench. Fung. p. 145, 1828.

Hydnum lacteum Fr.: Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 412, 1821.

Basidioma resupinate. Margin concolorous to the hymenial surface. Context thin. Hymenial surface poroid to irpicoid, MP13F8 (Toast), pores 2-3/mm. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, simple-septate, thin-walled to thick-walled, 2,0-4,0µm; skeletal hyphae hyaline, thick-walled, sometimes branched, 2,5-6,0µm. Cystidia apically incrusted, 50,0110,0×5,0-10,0µm. Basidia clavate, 20,025,0× 4,06,0µm. Basidiospores hyaline, oblong to cylindrical, smooth, inamyloid, 5,0-7,0×2,0-3,0µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Pernambuco: Recife, Reserva Ecológica Dois Irmãos, V/2001, Gibertoni 77378 (URM).

Distribution: Cosmopolitan (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986).

Remarks: both I. lacteus and G. discolor have incrusted cystidia. However, basidiospores in I. lacteus are inamyloid and smooth. In Brazil, it was found in São Paulo and Paraná (Bononi et al. 1981; Bononi 1984; Gugliotta & Capelari 1995; Gugliotta & Bononi 1999; Ryvarden & Meijer 2002), and represents the first record to Northeast Brazil.

Lachnocladiaceae

1.  Basidioma clavarioid, dichohyphidia stellate, basidiospores inamyloid 1. .................
     ....................................................... Lachnocladium schweinfurthianum
1.  Basidioma resupinate, dichohyphidia dichotomously branched, basidiospores amyloid      ................................................................. 2. Scytinostroma duriusculum
    

1. Lachnocladium schweinfurthianum P. Henn., Bot. Jb. 17: 21, 1893.

Basidioma solitary to caespitose, clavarioid, 2,0-4,2cm, shrubby, leathery, MP10G4, branched into 2-5 main flattened, upright branches, 1,0-2,5cm long, MP10G5 (Maise), these branching 2-4 times. Stipe cylindrical, 0,5-2,0×0,2cm. Hymenial surface smooth. Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, simple-septate, thin-walled, 2,5-3,0µm; skeletal hyphae modified into pale brown dichohyphidia, without septa, rays 45,0×2,0-3,0µm. Basidia clavate, 11,0-15,0× 2,53,0µm. Gloeocystidia hyaline to pale green, fusiform to clavate, 40,0×9,0-14,0µm. Basidiospores hyaline, ovoid, with apiculus, 1-guttulate, smooth, inamyloid, 5,5×3,0µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Alagoas: Pilar, RPPN Fazenda São Pedro, V/2002, Gibertoni 77342 (URM); Pernambuco: Recife, Reserva Ecológica Dois Irmãos, V/2002, Gibertoni 77338 (URM); Sergipe: Itabaiana, Estação Ecológica Serra de Itabaiana, VII/2001, Gibertoni 77339 (URM).

Distribution: Cuba to Brazil (Burt 1919), Brazil and USA (Corner 1950).

Remarks: many specimens identified as L. brasiliense (Lév.) Pat. are L. schweinfurthianum, which would be the correct name for the taxon (Stalpers 1996). In Brazil, L. brasiliense was recorded in Bahia (Burt 1919; Corner 1950) and Acre (Silva & Minter 1995), while L schweinfurthianum was recorded in Pernambuco (Gibertoni & Cavalcanti 2003). It is a new record from Sergipe.

2. Scytinostroma duriusculum (Berk. & Broome) Donk, Fungus 26: 20, 1956.

Stereum duriusculum Berk. & Broome, Journal Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 66, 1873.

Basidioma resupinate, 500µm thick. Context 300375µm, MP9B2 (Polar Bear), MP10D4. Hymenial surface smooth, MP12B2 (Flax Pebble-, Peanut+), MP13A2 (Diping Rock), MP14A3 (Beige). Hyphal structure dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, simple-septate, thin-walled, 1,0-2,5µm, not dextrinoid or cyanophilous; skeletal hyphae hyaline to pale yellow, thick-walled, sometimes branched, 1,0-2,0µm, dextrinoid and cyanophilous. Gloeocystidia clavate, cylindrical to subfusiform, hyaline with granular content, 50,0-100,0×6,0-9,0µm. Basidia utriform, 25,0-40,0× 4,05,5µm. Basidiospores hyaline, smooth, globose, with apiculus, amyloid, 4,6-6,0µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Alagoas: Barra de São Miguel, RPPN Rosa do Sol, X/2000, III/2001, V/2001, XI/2001, III/2002, Gibertoni 77360 (URM), 77470 (URM), 77361 (URM), 77362 (URM), 77363 (URM); Pilar, RPPN Fazenda São Pedro, VII/2001, I/2002, Gibertoni 77366 (URM), 77341 (URM); Paraíba: João Pessoa, Mata do Buraquinho, I/2002, Gibertoni 77352 (URM); Mamanguape, Reserva Biológica Guaribas, VII/2001, XI/2001, I/2002, III/2002, Gibertoni 77466 (URM), 77347 (URM), 77467 (URM), 77348 (URM), 77468 (URM); Santa Rita, RPPN Engenho Gargaú, III/2001, XI/2001, Gibertoni 77346 (URM), 77465 (URM); Sapé, RPPN Fazenda Pacatuba, XI/2001, III/2001, Gibertoni 77471 (URM), 77471 (URM); Pernambuco: Recife, Reserva Ecológica Dois Irmãos, IX/2001, I/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77343 (URM), 77344 (URM), 77345 (URM); Cabo, Mata de Gurjaú, V/2001, Gibertoni 77349 (URM); Tamandaré, Reserva Biológica Saltinho, IX/2001, XI/2001, Gibertoni 77364 (URM), 77365 (URM); Rio Grande do Norte: Baía Formosa, RPPN Senador Antônio Farias - Mata Estrela, XI/2000, VII/2001, III/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77353 (URM), 77469 (URM), 77354 (URM), 77355 (URM), 77356 (URM), 77357 (URM); Nísia Floresta, Floresta Nacional de Nísia Floresta, XI/2001, I/2002, Gibertoni 77358 (URM), 77359 (URM); Sergipe: Itabaiana, Estação Ecológica Serra de Itabaiana, III/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77351 (URM), 77340 (URM).

Distribution: Pantropical (Talbot 1951).

Remarks: according to Rattan (1974), S. duriusculum differs from the other species of the genus by the smooth, amyloid basidiospores, by the presence of gloeocystidia, and absence of incrusted cystidia. It was recorded in the States of Roraima (Jesus 1996) and Rio de Janeiro (Talbot 1951), and for the first time in Northeast Brazil.

Schizophyllaceae

1. Schizophyllum commune (Fr.) Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 330, 1921.

Basidioma solitary to caespitose, flabellate, sessile, 0,8-2,0×1,1-1,7cm. Abhymenial surface velutinate, zoned or not, MP1A7, MP2B2, MP43A1 (Agate Gy+). Margin entire, concolorous to the abhymenial surface. Context thin, MP2C1. Hymenial surface lamellate, MP12A2 (Flax), MP 26A1, MP42A1 (Agate Gy+). Hyphal structure monomitic; generative hyphae clamped, thick-walled, hyaline, 2,7-6,3µm. Basidia clavate, 9,0-13,6×2,7µm. Basidiospores hyaline, smooth, oblong to cylindrical, 3,6-7,5×1,8-2,7µm.

Material examined: BRAZIL. Alagoas: Barra de São Miguel, RPPN Rosa do Sol, V/2001, I/2002, III/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77325 (URM), 77326 (URM), 77327 (URM), 77328 (URM); Pilar, RPPN Fazenda São Pedro, X/2000, III/2001, V/2001, VII/2001, XI/2001, I/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77329 (URM), 77330 (URM), 77331 (URM), 77332 (URM), 77333 (URM), 77334 (URM), 77335 (URM); Paraíba: Santa Rita, RPPN Engenho Gargaú, VII/2001, I/2001, I/2002, III/2002, Gibertoni 77307 (URM), 77308 (URM), 77309 (URM), 77310 (URM); João Pessoa, Mata do Buraquinho, I/2002, III/2002, Gibertoni 77316 (URM), 77317 (URM); Sapé, RPPN Fazenda Pacatuba, XI/2000, Gibertoni 77324 (URM); Pernambuco: Cabo, Mata de Gurjaú, X/2000, V/2001, VII/2001, I/2002, V/2002, Gibertoni 77311 (URM), 77312 (URM), 77313 (URM), 77314 (URM), 77315 (URM); Tamandaré, Reserva Biológica Saltinho, VII/2001, IX/2001, XI/2001, Gibertoni 77336 (URM), 77337 (URM); Rio Grande do Norte: Baía Formosa, RPPN Senador Antônio Farias - Mata Estrela, V/2001, VII/2001, Gibertoni 77318 (URM), 77319 (URM), 77320 (URM); Nísia Floresta, Floresta Nacional de Nísia Floresta, I/2002, III/2002, Gibertoni 77321 (URM), 77322 (URM), 77323 (URM).

Distribution: Cosmopolitan (Cooke 1961).

Remarks: S. commune can be characterised by the small, whitish grey, flabellate and lamellate basidioma. In Brazil, it was studied in vitro by Cavalcanti (1972) and recorded in the States of Amapá (Sotão et al. 1991), Pará (Silva & Minter 1995), Pernambuco (Gibertoni & Cavalcanti 2003), Rondônia (Capelari & Maziero 1988) and São Paulo (Bononi et al. 1981; Bononi 1984; Gugliotta 1997). It is a new record for Alagoas, Paraíba, and Rio Grande do Norte.

 

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr. Paul M. Kirk, for English improvements and to the staff of the reserves, for the facilities.

 

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Received: September 02, 2003. Accepted: Juny 18, 2004

 

 

1 Part of the Dr. Thesis of the first Author; supported by CAPES
2 Corresponding Author: xiliamac@terra.com.br