versión impresa ISSN 0102-695X
Rev. bras. farmacogn. v.18 n.1 João Pessoa ene./mar. 2008
Efeitos osmótico e morfológico na membrana de hemácias: ação de um extrato aquoso de Lantana camara
IUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Avenida General Gustavo de Farias s/n, 59010-180 Natal-RN, Brazil
IIUniversidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Departamento de Biofísica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro 87, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
IIIInstituto Nacional do Câncer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa, Praça Cruz Vermelha 23, 20230-130 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
The Lantana camara ("cambara de espinho") leaves infusions are used popularly in some countries to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Osmotic fragility assay and morphometric analysis have been used to verify the interaction of drugs with the membrane of red blood cells (RBC). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract of Lantana camara on the osmotic fragility and on the morphology of RBC. Blood samples were treated with extract of Lantana camara (10 mg/mL), osmotic fragility assay and morphological analysis were carried out. In the presence of the extract, the data obtained indicated (i) a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hemolysis and (ii) modifications on the morphology of RBC. These effects of the Lantana camara may be associated with some pharmacological properties of the chemical compounds of this studied extract.
Keywords: Lantana camara, Verbenaceae, morphology, red blood cells, osmotic fragility.
As infusões de folhas de Lantana camara (cambara-de-espinho) são usadas popularmente em alguns países para tratar doenças gastrointestinais. O experimento de fragilidade osmótica e a análise morfométrica têm sido usados para verificar a interação de drogas com a membrana de hemácias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de um extrato aquoso de Lantana camara na fragilidade osmótica e na morfologia de hemácias. Amostras de sangue foram tratadas com extrato de Lantana camara (10 mg/mL), o ensaio de fragilidade osmótica e a análise morfológica foram realizadas. Na presença do extrato, os dados obtidos indicaram (i) um aumento significativo (p < 0,05) da hemólise e (ii) modificações na morfologia das hemácias. Estes efeitos da Lantana camara poderiam estar associados com algumas propriedades farmacológicas de compostos químicos do extrato estudado.
Unitermos: Lantana camara, Verbenaceae, morfologia, fragilidade osmótica, hemácias.
The Lantana camara (cambara-de-espinho) leaves infusions are used popularly in some countries to treat gastrointestinal diseases, as emenagogue, diuretic, expectorant and antirheumatic. (Hernandes et al., 2003; Sagar et al., 2005; Agra et al., 2007). Lantana camara plant has been reported to possess a number of pharmacological properties as antipyretic, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antithrombin, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and antinoceptive (Ahmed et al.,1972; Sashi et al., 1994, Ghisalberti, 2000; Uzcategui et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2006; Barbosa-Filho et al., 2006; Misra et al., 2007). The importance of this plant has promoted their inclusion in Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Brandão et al., 2006)
The chemical compounds present in Lantana camara extracts include mono and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, furanonaphoquinones, sthsteroids and phenyl ethanoid glicosides, triterpene and diterpenes.(Ghisalbert, 2000).
The volume of the red blood cells (RBC) seems to be regulated by a direct action of the sodium-potassium pump that controls the solute concentration inside the cell, thereby regulating the osmotic forces that can make a cell swell or shrink (Alberts et al., 2002). The resistance of RBC to hemolysis characterizes what is called the osmotic fragility (OF) of the cell membrane. The osmotic fragility is classically used as an in vitro assay to evaluate the effects of natural and synthetic drugs on membrane (Didelon et al., 2000). The "fragility curve" reflects the structural and geometrical changes in RBC. Hemolysis results from a structural perturbation of the RBC and cytoskeleton caused by high partition in the membrane (Cruz Silva et al., 2000; Didelon et al., 2000).
RBC have been proposed as a prototypical cellular system regarding drug mediated plasma membrane effects (Li et al., 1999). Different techniques have demonstrated that therapeutic drugs can modify the structure and morphology of these cells (Nwafor and Coakley, 1986; Scheiman and Elta, 1990; Li et al., 1999; Shacter and Weitzman, 2002; Suwalsky et al., 2003; Hubner et al., 2005; Santos et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2005).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of the Lantana camara on the osmotic fragility and on the morphology of red blood cells using in vitro studies.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The animals were maintained under environmental conditions (25 ± 2 °C, 12 h of light/dark cycle), water ad libitum and normal diet. Blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture with a heparinized syringe from adult male Wistar rats (n = 6, 3-4 months, 245 ± 35 g). The experimental procedures have followed the Ethical Guidelines of the Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro with the protocol number CEA/127/2006.
Identification and preparation of the Lantana camara extract
The leaves were collected in the forest of the city of Petrópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The material collected was identified by the Biologist Ricardo Carneiro da Cunha Reis, Botanic Herbarium RB of the Jardim Botânico, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where a voucher specimen (4070081) was kept. The extract of Lantana camara was prepared with leaves triturated (150 mg, dried in ambient air) added in 15 mL of boiling 0.9% NaCl during 10 minutes. The preparation was filtered through paper (quality filter paper) and considered as 10 mg/mL. As reproducibility control of the extract was used the value of the absorbance of a aliquot of extract at 480 nm (0.17 ± 0.03) determined in a spectrophotometer (ANALYSER 800M ANALYSER Comércio Indústria LTDA, São Paulo).
The experimental procedure
The osmotic fragility evaluations of the RBC were performed with whole blood samples incubated with Lantana camara extract (10 mg/mL) or with sodium chloride solution (0.9% NaCl) as a control for 60 minutes at room temperature. Samples of these whole blood (control and treated) were centrifuged (Clinical centrifuge, BIO ENG Ind e Com LTDA) and aliquots of RBC are separated. Briefly, RBC samples (100 µL) treated with Lantana camara extract or with saline solution (control) were gently mixed with different hypotonic NaCl (from 0.12 to 0.9%) solutions (Dacie and Lewis, 2001). After 60 min, at room temperature, the preparations were centrifuged (1500 rpm, 15 minutes). The supernatants were isolated and the optical density (OD) to each NaCl concentration was in a spectrophotometer (ANALYSER 800M, Analyser Comércio Indústria LTDA, São Paulo) at 540 nm. The OD of each supernatant was compared with the OD of the 0.12% NaCl solution (100% of lysis). The supernatant at 0.9% NaCl was considered the blank for the preparation, because it has no hemolysis. In according to fragility curve tendency, three intervals were determinated: interval I between 0.12 and 0.36% NaCl, interval II between 0.36 and 0.60% NaCl and interval III between 0.60 and 0.90% NaCl (Cavalcanti et al., 2003). After measuring of osmotic fragility, "fragility curves" were drawn by plotting the percentage of lysis or hemolysis (% hemolysis) for each tube (relative to 100% hemolysis tube) and the corresponding concentration of NaCl. The experiments were analyzed with paired t-test to verify potential differences between hypotonic and isotonic phases (% concentrations of NaCl) versus relative hemolysis (% hemolysis).
Histological preparations were carried out with blood samples in vitro treated with the extract of Lantana camara (10 mg/mL) during 60 min at room temperature, or with saline solution as control group. Blood smears were prepared, dried, fixed and staining by May-Grünwald-Giensa method (Junqueira and Carneiro, 2004). After that, the images of the red blood cells were acquired (Optronics, USA) from blood smears to qualitative morphology analysis under optical microscopy (x1000, Olympus, BX model, Japan).
The data of mean of hemolysis percentage in each interval in the fragility curve were presented as means ± standard deviation. Paired t-test was used to compare the intervals I, II and III between treated and control groups. A significance level at p < 0.05 was adopted. InStat Graphpad software was used to perform statistical analysis (GraphPad InStat version 3.01 for Windows 95/NT, GraphPad Software, San Diego, USA).
Figure 1 shows the osmotic fragility curves obtained after treatment with an aqueous extract of Lantana camara of RBC samples from Wistar rats. The results indicate that the extract used alters the profile of osmotic fragility curves when compared with the control group. The Figure 2 presents the mean of the hemolysis percentage after analysis of the three NaCl concentrations intervals obtained from osmotic curve of the figure 1. These data confirm the results presented in Figure 1. The analysis of the results showed a significant statistical increase (p < 0.05) on osmotic fragility of RBC incubated with Lantana camara extract in the interval II (0.36 to 0.60% NaCl) and in the interval III (0.60 to 0.90% NaCl) from fragility curve. In the interval 3 (0.60 to 0.90% NaCl, that is related to the isotonic interval, the osmotic fragility also increased significantly (p < 0.05) in blood samples treated with Lantana camara extract when compared to control group.
The Figures 3 and 4 represent photomicrographies of blood smears from samples of blood treated with saline (control) and treated with the Lantana camara extract, respectively. The comparison between these figures indicates that the extract is capable to induce alterations on the morphology of the red blood cells.
Authors have described that some drugs are capable of inducing alterations on the shape and physiology of the red cells (Ammus and Yunis,1989; Oliveira et al., 2005). Different techniques have been used to evaluate the effects of the interaction between drugs and plasma membrane (Li et al., 1999, Pompei et al., 2005). The osmotic fragility assay is a classical, rapid, useful and easy technique that has permitted to obtain relevant information about the interactions of natural and synthetic drugs with cellular membrane (Khanna et al., 2002). Morphological analysis is another available method that has permitted to evaluate the effects of natural products on membrane of red blood cells (Oliveira et al., 2002, Oliveira et al., 2003; Presta et al., 2007; Giani et al., 2007).
The data obtained from osmotic fragility assay in this work indicated that Lantana camara extract could alter the membrane integrity at NaCl concentrations close to physiologic level (Figures 1 and 2). In the same way, the morphological analysis of blood smears suggested alteration on the shape of the red blood cells from whole blood treated with Lantana camara extract (Figures 3 and 4). These alterations on the membrane integrity could be related to components present in the aqueous extract of Lantana camara capable of interacting with membrane components and that could modify the erythrocyte membrane ions transport or the osmotic transport balance.
It was reported that compounds present in Lantana camara alter the function of protein C (Herbert et al.,1991). Other data suggested that an antifilarial (Misra et al., 2007) and antitumor (Shashi et al., 1994) effects to this natural product. Moreover, serveral phrmacological properties have been associated with the studied extract. Taken together, these findings could indicate an action of the chemical compounds of the Lantana camara on membrane structure and they could be in agreement with the results obtained in this work.
In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Lantana camara used could affect the membrane integrity decreasing the osmotic resistance and altering the shape of red blood cells. These findings could be related with some properties of the chemical compounds of this studied extract.
This research was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ).
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Received 6 July 2007; Accepted 20 December 2007