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Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem

versão impressa ISSN 0104-0707versão On-line ISSN 1980-265X

Texto contexto - enferm. vol.26 no.4 Florianópolis  2017  Epub 08-Jan-2018

https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-07072017003230017 

Literature Review

CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICHEL MAFFESOLI’S THINKING TO RESEARCH IN NURSING AND HEALTH

Rosane Gonçalves Nitschke1 

Adriana Dutra Tholl2 

Tassiana Potrich3 

Kelly Maciel Silva4 

Samanta Rodrigues Michelin5 

Daniela Daniel Laureano6 

1Ph.D. in Nursing. Professor, Graduate Nursing Program (PEN), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail:rosanenitschke@gmail.com

2Ph.D. in Nursing. Professor, Nursing Department, UFSC. Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail: adrianadtholl@gmail.com

3Ph.D. students, PEN/UFSC. Professor, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS). Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail:tassiana.potrich@uffs.edu.br

4Ph.D. students, PEN/UFSC. Nurse, Family Health Strategy in Florianópolis. Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail: kellymacielsilva@yahoo.com.br

5Ph.D. students, PEN/UFSC. Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail:samantasemh@hotmail.com

6Master’s student, PEN/UFSC. Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. E-mail:danilaurean@gmail.com


ABSTRACT

Objective:

to analyze the scientific production in nursing and health in which the theoretical and methodological framework of Michel Maffesoli was adopted and reflect on his contributions to Nursing and Health.

Method:

integrative literature review in the scientific publications in Health indexed in SciELO®, BVS, Scopus®, CINAHL®, PubMed® and Web of Science®. The word “Maffesoli” was used. The inclusion criteria were: complete articles, either original or reflections, in which the theoretical framework of Michel Maffesoli was applied in the analysis or discussion of the data, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish and French.

Results:

thirty articles were selected, most of which were Nursing articles with a qualitative approach. The most present notions in the studies were daily, ethic of esthetics, tribe, power, double game, postmodernity, which addressed the daily in its different care contexts. The importance of paying attention to the subjective aspects of the daily is highlighted, in view of its complexity, permitting new and other modes of being-together.

Conclusion:

Michel Maffesoli’s thinking contributes to the construction of knowledge in nursing and health, indicating routes in the dimensions of care, in the academic and professional fields, departing from people’s daily life, resignifying the care that goes beyond the technique, inciting us to change the look and direction in order to be in tune with the different situations of living and coexisting, giving up the de-involvement to engage in affective care, which touches and is therefore effective.

DESCRIPTORS: Activities of daily living; Nursing; Health; Nursing care; Nursing research

RESUMO

Objetivo:

realizar uma análise da produção científica na área da enfermagem e da saúde que adotou o referencial teórico e metodológico de Michel Maffesoli, bem como refletir sobre suas contribuições para a enfermagem e saúde.

Método:

revisão integrativa da literatura, realizado nas publicações científicas da área da saúde, indexadas na SciELO®, BVS, Scopus®, CINAHL®, PubMed®, Web of Science®. Empregou-se a palavra “Maffesoli”, tendo como critérios de inclusão serem artigos completos, originais ou de reflexão, que aplicaram o referencial teórico de Michel Maffesoli na análise ou discussão dos dados, disponíveis nos idiomas português, inglês, espanhol e francês.

Resultados:

selecionaram-se 30 artigos, sendo grande parte deles com abordagem qualitativa e oriundos da enfermagem. As noções mais presentes nos estudos foram cotidiano, ética da estética, tribo, potência, jogo duplo, pós-modernidade, os quais abordaram o cotidiano nos seus diferentes cenários de cuidado. Expressa-se a importância de estar atento aos aspectos subjetivos do cotidiano, considerando sua complexidade, possibilitando novos e outros modos de estar-junto.

Conclusão:

o pensamento de Michel Maffesoli contribui para a construção do conhecimento em enfermagem e saúde, indicando caminhos nas dimensões do cuidado, no campo acadêmico e profissional, a partir do cotidiano das pessoas, ressignificando o cuidado que vai para além da técnica, incitando-nos a mudar o olhar e a direção, para que possamos estar em sintonia com as diferentes situações do viver e do conviver, abandonando o des-envolvimento, para nos envolvermos com um cuidado afetivo, aquele que toca, sendo, portanto, efetivo.

DESCRITORES: Atividades cotidianas; Enfermagem; Saúde; Cuidados de enfermagem; Pesquisa em enfermagem

RESUMEN

Objetivo:

realizar un análisis de la producción científica en el área de la Enfermería y de la Salud que adoptó el referencial teórico y metodológico de Michel Maffesoli, así como reflexionar sobre sus contribuciones a la enfermería y salud.

Método:

revisión integrativa de literatura, a partir de publicaciones científicas del área de la Salud, indexadas en las bases de datos SciELO®, BVS, Scopus®, CINAHL®, PubMed®, Web of Science®. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de los resultados obtenidos en el estudio. Se empleó la palabra “Maffesoli”, teniendo como criterios de inclusión ser artículos completos, originales o de reflexión, que aplicaron el referencial teórico de Michel Maffesoli en el análisis o discusión de los datos, disponibles en los idiomas portugués, inglés, español y francés.

Resultados:

se seleccionaron 30 artículos, siendo gran parte de ellos con abordaje cualitativo y oriundos de la enfermería. Las nociones más presentes en los estudios fueron cotidianos, ética de la estética, tribu, potencia, juego doble, posmodernidad, los cuales abordaron lo cotidiano en sus diferentes escenarios de cuidado. Se expresa la importancia de estar atento a los aspectos subjetivos de lo cotidiano, considerando su complejidad, posibilitando nuevos y otros modos de estar-juntos.

Conclusión:

el pensamiento de Michel Maffesoli contribuye a la construcción del conocimiento en enfermería y salud, indicando caminos en las dimensiones del cuidado, en el campo académico y profesional, a partir del cotidiano de las personas, resignificando el cuidado que va más allá de la técnica, nos cambia la mirada y la dirección, para que podamos estar en sintonía con las diferentes situaciones del vivir y del convivir, abandonando el des-envolvimiento, para involucrarnos con un cuidado afectivo, el que toca, siendo, por lo tanto, efectivo.

DESCRIPTORES: Actividades cotidianas; Enfermería; Salud; Cuidados de enfermería; Investigación en enfermería

INTRODUCTION

Scientific research, over time, has contributed to nursing with an important legacy. Thus, based on the idea that society is in constant transformation, it is believed that the way of doing science also needs to adapt to these changes, in order to meet the social and health demands of the population. Thus, the theorist Michel Maffesoli is a source of inspiration for several areas of knowledge, and we consider that he has contributed a lot to studies in the area of nursing and health, as he does not privilege technical aspects of science, and focuses, as an object of analysis, on all that is not produced by traditional rationality, thus adopting Comprehensive and Daily Life Sociology, of the here and now, which involves the way of living of people and social groups, their imaginary, underlining sensitive reason.1

Michel Maffesoli, a French sociologist, is considered an eternal disciple of Gilbert Durand and Julien Freund. Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the René Descartes University in Paris V-Sorbonne, vice-president and member of the International Institute of Sociology and member of the University Institute of France, is a founder of Everyday Life Sociology, and an outstanding theorist on postmodernity, with singular evidence in Comprehensive Sociology. In 1982, together with Georges Balandier, he founded the Centre d’Etudes sur l’Actuel et et Quotidien (CEAQ - Research Center on the Current and the Daily) and the Centre de Recherche sur l’Imaginaire (CRI - Research Center on the Imaginary), both focused on the new forms of sociability and the expression of the imaginary in its various nuances. Michel Maffesoli has an important academic production. He has authored several books, translated in several languages, receiving national and international acknowledgement, including some awards such as the Grand Prix of Humanities of the French Academy for his book “The Transfiguration of the Politician”, in addition to receiving the title Doctor Honoris Causa in different countries.2

He is set as a milestone in contemporary sociology, mainly by the content and boldness of his thoughts. He has brought significant, original and provocative contributions, especially when proposing his Theoretical and Sensitive Assumptions, when he defends sensitive reason. Within this proposal, Maffesoli presents metaphors, analogies, defending flexible and moving notions due to the characteristic of social life which, by its nature, cannot be understood in a static way, but in movement.3

Maffesoli uses sensitivity as a protagonist for the understanding of the postmodern trajectory, taking into account the pre-individual aspects, through what he calls the “investigation of meaning”, which goes through the in-depth look at the details of everyday life, centered on theories of the imaginary.4 He discusses the simplicity of the original, the everyday life, which includes the different ways of life, the ways of being, of thinking, of situating oneself and of behaving towards the other and nature, gives the experimental character to everyday life, in which the act of interpreting and understanding common knowledge becomes more relevant than explaining the facts.5

Launching into postmodernity another methodological view, in which he proposes the search for similarities and not truths, Maffesoli works with what he calls the “open dimension”, using notions and presuppositions instead of concepts. Thus, postmodernity for Maffesoli is not a concept, but was is being elaborated after modernity, a historical moment in which appearance, common sense or the experience lived, through internal reason, regain an importance that modernity had denied them in favor of economic pragmatism.5 Postmodernity brings us the revolution of daily life in which the intimate and intuitive knowledge of a world no longer individual but collective remains. It considers a culture made up of simple elements, which consolidates the being together and living together, expressed in duplicity, daily theatricality, the tragic feeling of existence, in the fantastic daily life, in the proxemia that is insignificant and, at the same time, structuring.5

The theoretical and sensitivity assumptions brought by Michel Maffesoli are: the critique of schematic dualism; the shape; relativistic sensitivity; stylistic research; and libertarian thinking.

In the first assumption, the critique of schematic dualism, Maffesoli argues that, in order to analyze a phenomenon, it is necessary to resort to two complementary attitudes: reason and imagination. In the first, there is a cut in criticism, mechanism and reason; in the second, nature, feeling, the organic and the imagination.7 In his second presupposition, the form, Maffesoli brings his notion of formism, understanding that it is a modulation that permits “describing the contours from within, the limits and the need for the situations and representations that constitute daily life”.7:14 In the third assumption, Maffesoli describes the impossibility of living in constant concerns or scientific representations, and argues that, in a simplified way, the relativistic sensitivity makes possible the existence of methodological relativism, in which the diversification of reality demands a kind of comprehensive understanding for an always factual and momentary truth. Replacing “technical reflection” with relativism (by “relating”) allows for multiculturalism and polysemy to be taken into account.6 In stylistic research, his fourth assumption, Maffesoli stresses the importance of ensuring reciprocity between form and empathy, without forgetting scientific rigor.7 In the fifth and final presupposition, libertarian thought, Maffesoli defends the importance of “freedom to look”. Here, the researcher, through interaction with the participant, becomes part of the research, which permits another look at the social situation.7

Thus, the questions emerge: what has actually been published in journals in the field of health and nursing, based on the thinking of Michel Maffesoli? What have been his contributions? Thus, the objective was to analyze the scientific production in the area of nursing and health that adopted the theoretical and methodological framework based on the thinking of Michel Maffesoli, from 1993 to 2016, as well as reflect its contributions to nursing and health.

A brief history

In our reality, the ideas of Michel Maffesoli began to be inserted in the area of Health and Nursing in the early 1990s, with Professors Ana Lúcia Magela de Rezende and Estelina Souto do Nascimento, on the occasion of the Doctorate in São Paulo, at the Faculty of Education-USP, when they took their sandwich doctoral program at the SORBONNE, Paris V, under the direction of Professor Michel Maffesoli. When they returned to Brazil, inspired by the Centre d’Etudes sur l’Actuel et le Quotidien (CEAQ - Center for Studies on the Current and the Daily), they founded the Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudos sobre Quotidiano e Saúde (NUPEQS - Center for Research and Studies on the Daily and Health), in Belo Horizonte. Based on their dissertations, “The seduction of the health/illness myths in the soap opera” and “The everyday health-disease of schoolchildren”, respectively, began a phase of significant academic production, articulating Maffesolian thinking with health and nursing.

In 1992, Professor Ana Lúcia Magela de Rezende was invited to collaborate in the implementation of the Nursing Doctorate, in the Graduate Program in Nursing, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). In teaching her disciplines and discussing the work of Michel Maffesoli, she captivated many Ph.D. students, who were stimulated to produce in the framework of Maffesoli’s ideas. Thus, the book O “Fio das Moiras” (The Wire of the Fates) was born, from the course conclusion manuscripts produced in the discipline. Simultaneously, with the encouragement and enchantment of the post-graduate students, the Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudos sobre Quotidiano e Saúde de Santa Catarina (NUPEQS-SC - Research and Study Center on the Daily and Health of Santa Catarina) was created in 1993 and registered at CNPq in 1994 under the coordination of Professor Ana Lúcia Magela de Rezende.

From then on, doctoral students from the Graduate Program in Nursing at UFSC sequentially started to be sent to CEAQ, with the co-direction and direction of Professor Michel Maffesoli, who began to participate and integrate their different research groups, such as the Groupe de Recherche sur L’anthropologie du Corps et ses Enjeux (Research Group on the Anthropology of the Body and its Questions), Groupe de Recherche sur la Technique et le Quotidien (Research Group on Technology and the Daily), Groupe d’Etude sur les Mythes et le Monde Imaginal (Study Group on the Myth and the Imaginal World) and Groupe de Recherche sur l´Effervescence et la Dynamique des Identifications Nouvelles (Research Group on Effervescence and the Dynamics of New Identifications). In view of the growing production on the imaginary theme, the group was renamed Núcleo de Pesquisa e Estudos sobre Quotidiano, Imaginário e Saúde de Santa Catarina (NUPEQUIS-SC - Research and Study Center on the Daily, Imaginary and Health of Santa Catarina). The trajectory of NUPEQUIS-SC becomes a driving force for the expansion of Michel Maffesoli’s ideas, instigating the emergence of other groups such as NUPEQUIS - Pelotas, led by Professor Maria da Glória Santana and stimulating partnerships with other groups, such as at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), and Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF).

The partnership with UFPE, with an important incentive led by Dr. Danielle Rocha Pitta and her group, can be translated into his opening, during the International Cycle of the Imaginary, for the creation of the Health Forum, proposed and coordinated by Professor Rosane Gonçalves Nitschke, in the period from 2000 to 2010, leveraging the interdisciplinary and multiprofessional production focused on Health, which was reinforced during the events coordinated by Professor Iduína Montalverde, another great encourager of interdisciplinary dialogues, always opening space for debates focused on Health, with the imaginary as the common theme, at the Faculty of Education of UFF.

Other research centers, such as UFBA, led by Professors Álvaro Pereira, Climene Camargo, Normélia Diniz; of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), with the group led by Professor Roseney Bellato, and now more recently the group at Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), with Professors Cremilde Radovanovic and Rafaely Sanches, as well as Universidade Nacional de Brasília (UNB), have contributed to the academic production in the area of Health, always maintaining the collaboration of the group from Belo Horizonte, especially under the direction of Dr. Claudia Pena, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG).

In an important Nursing event in Ribeirão Preto, held in the late 1990s, with the engagement of Professor Clarice Ferraz, Professor Maffesoli was a lecturer, the Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa e Estudos sobre Quotidiano, Imaginário e Saúde (REBRAPEQUIS - BRASIL - Brazilian Network of Research and Studies on the Daily, Imaginary and Health) was created, upon the initiative of Professor Rosane Gonçalves Nitschke. From then on, members of REBRAPEQUIS began to meet during important nursing events, especially those promoted by the Brazilian Nursing Association, such as SENPE and the Brazilian Nursing Congress itself, where Michel Maffesoli returned as a lecturer in 2000, held in Recife - Pernambuco. At that time, he was also invited to serve as a consultant for the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. This brief history underlines the importance of Michel Maffesoli in the scientific context of nursing and health, showing the relevance of developing the study we propose here.

METHOD

This study is an integrative review of the literature, a research method that permits a broad analysis of the works published, which contributes to discussions about research methods and results, as well as to point out knowledge gaps that can direct the production of new studies.8 The methodological steps for conducting this review were organized through a research protocol that included: a) identification of the theme and elaboration of the guiding question; b) establishment of inclusion and exclusion criteria; c) definition of the information to be analyzed in the selected studies; d) selection of articles; e) evaluation of studies included in the review; and interpretation of results.9-10

As a result of the aforementioned aspects, the following guiding questions were formulated: what are the studies published in the area of nursing and health in the last 23 years, in which the thinking of Michel Maffesoli serves as a theoretical and methodological framework? What are its contributions to nursing and health?

A bibliographic survey was carried out by means of a query in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO®), Virtual Health Library (VHL), PubMed®, Web of Science®, Scopus® and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL).

For the tracking of publications, the word “Maffesoli” was used as a search strategy. It should be noted that the researchers, together with a librarian, chose to search for only one word, since the search for combined words did not result in a representative number of articles published, or articles were not found. Following the survey of the scientific production in the selected databases, the following criteria were applied for the inclusion of the studies: complete, original or reflection articles, using the theoretical framework of Michel Maffesoli in the analysis and/or discussion of the data, published in Portuguese, English, Spanish or French, indexed in the selected databases between 1993 and 2016. Books, book chapters, editorials, reviews, letters, annals of events, dissertations and theses and non-health articles were excluded, as well as the repeated articles.

Thus, 182 articles were selected in the databases. At the end, the review consisted of 30 articles. The details of the selection process of the studies are described in the flowchart displayed in figure 1.

Figure 1 Flowchart of selection process of the studies in the databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Florianópolis-SC, 2017 

To analyze the data, initially, publications that did not refer to the theme defined as the focus of this study were excluded. The selected publications were fully read to answer the guiding question.

RESULTS

The characteristics of the studies with regard to the theoretical and methodological dimension of the framework are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Characteristics of studies related to the theoretical and methodological foundations based on Michel Maffesoli's thinking, in the excerpt 1993-2016. Florianópolis - SC, 2017 

Title Notions and Premises Type of study Subjects - Scenario
A1 - Reflexões concernentes ao conceito trabalho na cotidianidade (in Agnes Heller and Michel Maffesoli).11 Notions: Appearance, astuteness, simulation, repetition, theatricality, duplicity, daily Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A2 - Ética e cotidiano: uma motivação para o debate em Saúde.12 Notions: Daily Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A3 - Outras palavras e novas rotas no quotidiano do gerenciamento de Enfermagem.13 Notions: Daily, plurality Premises: Criticism against dualism, form, relativista criticism against dualism, form, relativista sensitivity, stylistic research, libertarian thinking Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A4 - Pluralismo no cotidiano do espaço organizacional do enfermeiro.14 Notions: Pluralism Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A5- Psicologia social, comunidade e contemporaneidade.15 Notions: Presenteeism, post-modernity Reflection Social psychology - Daily care
A6 - O estilo estético presente na Enfermagem.16 Notions: Ethic of esthetics, post-modernity, saturation, daily, sociality Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A7 - Solidão, a busca do outro na era do eu: estudo sobre sociabilidades na modernidade tardia.17 Notions: Tribe, sociality, Daily Research (quanti-qualitative) Participants in News Magazine initiative - Daily care
A8 - Um ensaio teórico filosófico sobre o desejo no cuidado numa perspectiva interdisciplinar.18 Notions: Ethic of esthetics, sensitive reason Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A9 - Relações familiares e cotidiano: a análise de quatro estudos à luz de Michel Maffesoli.19 Notions: Daily, double game, astuteness, silence, acceptance of life and organic solidarity Documentary analysis Nursing - Home
A10 - A contramão dos programas de educação em saúde: estratégias de diabéticos.20 Notions: Daily, double game, transgressions, masks, astuteness Qualitative research Diabetes patients - Primary health care
A11 - O compartilhar espaço/tempo entre pessoas doentes hospitalizadas.21 Notions: Daily, sociality, double game, proxemics, ethic of esthetics, plurality, presenteeism, imaginary, power Qualitative research Hospitalized people - Hospital
A12 - Os deslocamentos entre o imaginário do trabalho e do lazer na poesia de Chico Buarque de Holanda: o lado contrário da vida, o lado contrário da dor.22 Notions: Post-modernity, imaginary, power, daily, presenteeism Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A13 - A escolha profissional no imaginário social - enfermeiras brasileiras e peruanas.23 Notions: Imaginary Qualitative research Nursing - Daily care
A14 - Famílias de pessoas dependentes de cuidado: aspectos das mudanças na vivência do cotidiano.24 Notions: Daily, power, adjustment, tribe, imaginary Premises: Form Qualitative research Families with dependent people - Home
A15 - O cuidar institucional da enfermagem na lógica da pós-modernidade.25 Notions: Daily, sociality, post-modernity presenteeism, tribe, masks, plurality. Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A16 - Avistando o presenteísmo da convivência familiar com pessoa dependente de cuidados físicos.26 Notions: Presenteeism, daily, sociality, tribe, power, ethic of esthetics Premises: Form Qualitative research Families with dependent people - Home
A17 - Desvendando o senso do limite de familiares que convivem com pessoa dependente de cuidados físicos.27 Notions: Theatricality, daily, power, ethic of esthetics, plurality, presenteeism Premises: Form Qualitative research Families with dependent people - Home
A18 - Trastocamiento de la salud en la cotidianidad de las mujeres embarazadas con pre-eclampsia.28 Notions: Daily, adaptation of life, duplicity, imaginary, sociality, ethic of esthetics Qualitative research Pregnant women - Home
A19 - Fathers attending labour and their understanding of the birth process.29 Notions: Power, daily Qualitative research Fathers who accompanied birth - Hospital
A20 - Persona postamputada portadora de dolor de miembro fantasma: dolor y cuerpo.30 Notions: Daily, imaginary Qualitative research Amputated people - Home
A21 - A Sociologia Compreensiva de Michel Maffesoli: implicações para a pesquisa em Enfermagem.31 Notions: Imaginary, daily, post-modernity, tribe Premises: Criticism against dualism, relativist sensitivity, research, statistics, criticism against the form, literary thinking Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A22 - O SUS é universal, mas vivemos de cotas.32 Notions: Daily Qualitative research Family health strategy professionals and managers - Primary care
A23 - Um olhar sensível às tribos pós-modernas: cuidando da saúde dos adolescentes no cotidiano.33 Notions: Daily, tribe, post-modernity, presenteeism, sociality, pluralism Reflection Adolescents - Daily reality of urban tribes
A24 - O quotidiano e o imaginário no processo saúde-doença para as famílias quilombolas.34 Notions: Daily, imaginary, sensitive reason Qualitative research Families - Daily quilombola life
A25 - Pressupostos teóricos da sensibilidade de Maffesoli e aprendizagem baseada em problemas na educação de Enfermagem.35 Notions: Mechanical and organic solidarity, ethic of esthetics, daily, imaginary, instituting and instituted Premises: Criticism against dualism, relativist sensitivity, stylistic research, criticism against the form, libertarian thinking Qualitative research Undergraduate Nursing students - University
A26 - Reflexões sobre o quotidiano profissional de enfermeiras.36 Notions: Daily, sociality, power, ethic of esthetics Reflection Nursing - Daily care
A27 - Cotidiano do familiar acompanhante durante a hospitalização de um membro da família37 Notions: Daily, tribe, ethic of esthetics, power Premises: Criticism against dualism, relativistic sensitivity, stylistic research, criticism against form, libertarian thinking. Qualitative research Family - Hospital
A28 - Evaluation of the quality of the teaching-learning process in undergraduate courses in Nursing.38 Quantitative research Undergraduate nursing students - university
A29 - Integrality: life principle and right to health.39 Notions: Daily Qualitative research Family health strategy professionals - Primary care
A30 - Experiência sensível e sociabilidade no IPPMG: quando o cinema vai ao hospital.40 Notions: Sociality, daily, sensitive reason. Experience report Children - Hospital

The publication period ranged from 1993 to 2016, with the highest number of publications in the years 2002 and 2012 (n=4 in each year). There was a growing increase in Brazilian publications as from 2012 though.

As to the origin of the studies, the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) stood out with ten manuscripts: five publications from the university itself, four publications with other Brazilian universities and a publication with the partnership of a foreign university. To justify the scientific productions at the Master’s, Doctorate and postdoctoral levels, as well as the disciplines of the Nursing Graduate Program, articulated with NUPEQUISFAM-SC, which has the integration with other Brazilian and foreign universities as one of its objectives.

The Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) contributed to the production of knowledge with eight manuscripts: four publications with other Brazilian universities and four publications from the university itself. The Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing (EERP) ranks in the results with four manuscripts and UEM with three manuscripts.

As for the type of study adopting the theoretical framework of Michel Maffesoli it was verified that, of the 30 manuscripts, 14 are qualitative studies; 12 reflection articles; an experience report, a qualitative-quantitative research; a quantitative research and a documentary analysis.

Regarding the subjects and the study scenarios, 14 reflected on the daily routine of nursing care; one manuscript on the daily life of social psychology; five other manuscripts researched daily care at home, three involving families of people with dependency at home, one with pregnant women and one with amputees. Four other studies on the day-to-day care of the hospital environment involved: children, inpatients, the father accompanying the birth of the child and the family member accompanying a relative; two studies on the daily life of undergraduate students in nursing at the university; three studies about daily life in basic care, involving people with diabetes, health professionals and managers; one study on the daily life of quilombola families and a study on the daily life of urban tribes of adolescents.

As to the use of Michel Maffesoli’s theoretical assumptions and sensitivity, of the 30 articles, four manuscripts discussed the five assumptions of sensitivity, three other studies discussed the premise of “form”, and the other articles used the notions of Michel Maffesoli for the analysis of the study, the most frequent notions being: daily, ethic of esthetics, tribe, power, double play, post-modernity.

DISCUSSION

The analysis of scientific production in nursing and health, with Michel Maffesoli’s thinking as a theoretical and methodological framework, points out an increase in Brazilian publications, especially in nursing, expressing its leadership.

Thus, this reality shows the pertinence of this framework to support and contribute, effectively, to answer some questions that emerge from the practice in the area of health in general, and specifically nursing. The dissemination of knowledge supported by these ideas, in the training of professionals, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level, has contributed to this, in addition to Maffesoli’s frequent participation as a lecturer in international events promoted by Brazilian universities, as well as by the dissemination of his thinking by researchers at events involving health and education in general and nursing in particular.

It is observed that everyday life is the object of study in the different scenarios of nursing and health research, not only as a synonym for everyday life, but also as an expression of a way of living in a given context. Thus, paradoxically, the daily life is not only shown as a scenario, but mainly integrates the scenes of living and living together! Thus, it comes to support his understanding brought to the area of Health, understanding the daily as the way of living of human beings that is shown in the day to day, expressed by their interactions, beliefs, values, symbols, meanings, images and imaginary, which outline their process of living, in a movement of being healthy and sick, punctuating their life cycle.3 This journey through the life cycle has a certain pace that characterizes our way of living, influenced by both the needs and desires of daily life, called rhythm of life and of living.

Sensitive reason has given support to sensitive care, that is, underlining the importance of touch, look, aromas, flavors, sounds. Hence, the ethical notion of esthetics, recovering the essence of esthetics, that is, feeling together, supports us in the questions of humanization, which today are even included as a health policy. In addition, it also contributes to multiprofessional and interdisciplinary work, contemplating organic solidarity, wanting to be together, that is, going beyond the established, the mechanical solidarity, expressed by having to be together.

The theoretical and sensitivity presuppositions also validate these aspects, besides allowing us a relativizing science. Thus, these premises support the predominance of qualitative studies, bringing a leading role to the participating studies, after all, it is argued that the researcher needs to be inserted amidst what he studies, while not accepting a perspective that makes it possible to integrate the quantitative studies and mixed methods as well.

Libertarian thinking has contributed to caring, researching, as well as to supporting education and educating, approaching the constructivist perspective of Paulo Freire, making it possible to support active methods and the increasing adoption of conversation wheels, circles of culture and knowledge, workshops, including the integration of entertainment such as music and cinema for example.

Post-modernity has directed us not only to what phenomena we need to pay attention to, that is, not only helping us in what we see, but also supporting us in how we need to look at these phenomena.

Studying daily life reveals that human beings use transgressions and double play to circumvent the norms imposed by living in society, bringing them into the dimension of the present.1,14 In addition, the articles selected reveal the importance of paying attention to the subjective aspects of daily life, such as the image, the imaginary, the symbols, the way of living, the relationships, the emotions, the being together, in short, everything that cannot be quantified, affirming that the recognition of a complex world does not boil down to sovereign reason, but gives back their place to the feelings, the sensitive, the ghosts and other fantasies the human experience is modeled on.6

Nursing has sought to overcome the saturation the dogmas of modernity entail within its corpus of knowledge and, consequently, in health care, enabling the emergence of new values more linked to the esthetic style of being and being in the world, reordering its practices, sometimes negotiated in the workplace, based on a comprehensive analysis of the organic relations, necessary for the humanization of services and the quality of life of professionals.6,31 Consequently, Comprehensive and Daily Sociology signals the search for “Good Time”, allowing us to look through its eyes at the construction and manipulation of the symbolic-imaginary dimension.16-17

Thus, contemporary social life presents some paradoxes:11 it impoverishes individual action, but allows the appropriation of new possibilities that are shown based on the collective, the being and feeling together; it is alienating, but humans react to oppressive circumstances. And, in many ways, abstract systems provide greater possibilities for reappropriation than those available in traditional cultures.

It is important to change our perception and actions of caregivers to a perspective that includes subjectivity and the desiring subject in care, supporting the instrumental actions. This approach is neither definitive nor prescriptive, but it is useful for a better understanding of the dimensions of care,12,15 renewing and transforming itself, promoting togetherness.24,32 The reflection on contemporary nursing care is not a very easy exercise if the complexity of the current society is considered. The role of the nurse emerges from this paradigm, of permanently adapting professional care to the dynamics of this becoming, without confronting the daily life of people, especially families.20

The studies in this integrative review, discussed in the light of the sociologist Michel Maffesoli’s Comprehensive and Daily Life Sociology, point to the need for changes in health care, especially indicating directions for nursing work that considers people and families in all their dimensions of care, whether in the hospital context, at home, in primary health care, as active participants29 in the process of becoming ill and being healthy.

The everyday perspective drives health professionals to approach the world of particularities and details, to the “un/important”, the “insignificance” of the family’s daily life.13 Different meanings of caring and being cared for permit the approximation of experiences constituted based on contemporary social facts, made of empathy and sensitivity, symbolic resignification35 of space in an environment, whose relations are marked daily by the unpredictability and which values the experiences in the process of caring and being cared for.4

The presence of the disease in the family causes changes in the way of living and of finding ways to confront and adjust the family.19 In a specific context and temporality, the disease is a complement to presenteeism,20 contributing to the harmony of family relationships.

The sense of limit, stimulated by the presence of the disease in daily living, promotes the manifestation of diversified feelings and changes in routines and habits of the daily reality. On the other hand, the practice of care, demanded by the tragic of the disease, fosters family unity. All actions taken to confront the physical, emotional and social impositions that emerge from the tragic, and exhibit the theatricality lived daily, declare the will to change and the confrontation of the impositions, seeking hedonism.22

In daily care, one lives with multiple identities23 in view of the limits and powers of the process of living and falling ill. The lenses of Comprehensive and Daily Life Sociology direct us towards the construction of singular and sensitive care models,23 which underline the plurality28 of the human being in all its dimensions, seeking integrality27,34 as a principle of life and the right to health.

Based on the above, it is noticed that Comprehensive and Daily Life Sociology offers important contributions to research and practice in health and nursing, especially in the academic context,30,33 in view of the enrichment of different practices in the care process, involving the human condition, and the vast field of intervention it has to teach us, starting from the daily life. In this sense, we move along a path that goes beyond technique, urging us to change the look and direction, so that we can adjust it to situations, teaching us that, instead of trying to normalize people, all human beings need stimulation, involving their power.

Despite the increasing production about the daily, this nomenclature (as well as Comprehensive and Daily Life Sociology, as well as other notions such as sensitive reason) still is not used as a descriptor, making it difficult to search databases, for an effective and real identification of what has been produced, as well as the interlocution among the researchers. The necessary integration between the scholars and the researchers who adopt this reference was perceptible, indicating the movement of resumption of the study networks such as REBRAPEQUIS, with Michel Maffesoli’s thinking as the guiding thread.

We emphasize that the limits of this study involve the keywords and the descriptors. despite the increasing production on the daily, this nomenclature is not yet used as a descriptor, making it difficult to search the databases and effective and truly identify what has been produced, as well as the interlocution among the researchers.

CONCLUSION

The objective in this study was to analyze the scientific production in the area of nursing and health that has adopted the theoretical and methodological framework based on the thinking of Michel Maffesoli, from 1993 to 2016, as well as to reflect on their contributions to nursing and health.

The scientific production in the area of nursing and health, with Michel Maffesoli’s thinking as a theoretical and methodological framework, has been growing gradually, offering significant contributions as from the 90s until the present day. These contributions can be illustrated by the emphasis on the sensitive reason and power of the human being, families and communities, particularly raised in some discussions that involve current health policies for the consolidation of our Unified Health System, such as the Health Humanization and Promotion Policy, when we highlight dimensions such as empowerment and happiness.

Thus, we can say that Michel Maffesoli’s framework contributes to nursing and health care, indicating ways in the different dimensions of care in the academic and professional field, based on people’s daily lives, focusing on their way of life, which occurs at a certain rhythm, resignifying the care that goes beyond the technique, urging us to change the look and direction, so that we can be in tune with the different situations of living and living together, abandoning development to engage in affective care, which touches and is therefore effective.

(Re)integration is needed between the scholars and researchers who adopt this framework, indicating the resumption of study networks, under the leadership of nursing and health, woven around the potent driving force of Michel Maffesoli’s thinking.

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Received: March 31, 2017; Accepted: August 03, 2017

Correspondence: Tassiana Potrich, Av. Fernando Machado, 108 E, Caixa Postal 181, 89802-112-Centro, Chapecó, SC, Brazil. E-mail: tassiana.potrich@uffs.edu.br

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