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Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem

Print version ISSN 0104-0707On-line version ISSN 1980-265X

Texto contexto - enferm. vol.28  Florianópolis  2019  Epub Feb 25, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-265x-tce-2016-0245 

Original Article

MENTORING AS A SOURCE OF PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR NURSING TEACHING

MENTORING COMO FUENTE DE CONOCIMIENTO PEDAGÓGICO DEL CONTENIDO PARA DOCENCIA EN ENFERMERÍA

Lauriana Medeiros Costa Santos1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6164-6137

Vânia Marli Schubert Backes2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6217-4212

1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Escola de Saúde, Natal, RN, Brasil.

2Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

Objective:

to understand Mentoring as a source of pedagogical content knowledge for the new teacher in Professional Education of Technical Level in Nursing.

Method:

a case study, with a qualitative approach, with teachers, management representative and students of a federal public school of Professional Health Education in the northeast of Brazil. The data were collected from October 2013 to September 2014 and submitted to thematic analysis.

Results:

the study focuses on the Mentoring category as a source of pedagogical content knowledge, with a theoretical guidance of the specific framework, configured as a personal action with institutional support.

Conclusion:

the construction of the pedagogical content knowledge happened in the pedagogical practice, mediated by a relation of dialogue and cooperation, in which the Mentoring was understood as part of teamwork and the provision of working conditions for competent teaching performance.

DESCRIPTORS: Nursing; Education; Faculty; Nursing faculty practice; Education, nursing, associate

RESUMEN

Objetivo:

comprender el Mentoring como fuente de conocimiento pedagógico del contenido para el profesor novato en la Educación Profesional de Nivel Técnico en Enfermería.

Método:

estudio de caso, con abordaje cualitativo, con docentes, representante de la gestión y estudiantes de una escuela pública Federal de Educación Profesional en Salud del nordeste de Brazil. Los datos fueron recolectados de octubre de 2013 a septiembre de 2014, y sometidos al análisis temático.

Resultados:

el estudio se centra en la categoría Mentoring como fuente de conocimiento pedagógico de contenido, con orientación teórica del referencial específico, configurada como una acción personal con apoyo institucional.

Conclusión:

la construcción del conocimiento pedagógico del contenido ocurrió en la práctica pedagógica, mediada por una relación de diálogo y cooperación, en la que el Mentoring fue comprendido como parte del trabajo en equipo y de la oferta de condiciones de trabajo para el desempeño docente con competencia.

DESCRIPTORES: Enfermería; Educación; Docentes; Práctica del docente de enfermería; Graduación en auxiliar de enfermería

INTRODUCTION

The article addresses the process of building the Base Knowledge for Nursing teaching, focusing on the Mentoring as a source of pedagogical content knowledge for the New Teacher on Professional Education on Nursing Technical Level.

Studies in the field of teacher thought and teacher training demonstrate that teaching is a complex profession and that the teacher experiences a process of continuous development, the first years of teaching being the most critical, a period in which can be affected by feelings of loneliness and inadequacy in doing and context, reflecting in insecurity, poor performance and even abandoning the teaching career.1-3 As a means of coping, research has indicated the importance of stimulating initiatives to induce professional development, especially in the early years of teaching, with various types of actions, especially the Mentoring, in which the beginning teacher is welcomed and accompanied or monitored by a more experienced teacher, both in the profession, in the teaching of the discipline and in the institutional context.1-2

The Mentoring is a process that occurs in interpersonal relationships, usually spontaneously (informal, spontaneous or natural mentoring), such as in the family, at school and at work, or stimulated and structured by an organization (formal mentoring), in which a person (mentor), on the basis of their knowledge and experience, voluntarily stimulates and influences another person (mentored person) in the acquisition of knowledge and in social or emotional development, through actions such as orientation, sharing experiences , counseling, but also serving as a guide and model.4-5 Scientifically, this process began to be studied in the 1940s, in the organizational area of ​​North American companies, since its contribution to professional development was verified when comparing the performance of professionals who had or did not have the support of a mentor.5 Progressively, we sought to know the characteristics of this process and to stimulate its implementation, both in the organizational area, as well as in the professional and teacher training.

In teacher training, Mentoring can be created as a personal initiative of a teacher, institutional initiative or specific program of teacher training, and can, in any of these connotations, have its results enhanced if the monitoring is individualized, institutionally recognized and the interpersonal relationship is permeated by respect, dialogue and willingness to reflect, learn and change.1-3

To study this theme, the research adopted the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). The PCK is the category of knowledge that contains a special form of professional understanding for teaching in one area, conformed by the synergistic and dynamic integration of other categories of basic knowledge for teaching, such as: content knowledge; General Pedagogical Knowledge; Curriculum knowledge; Knowledge of learners and their characteristics; Educational Context knowledge; Knowledge of objectives, goals and educational values.6 The main sources of PCK are: the academic formation in the discipline to teach; the materials and the context of the institutionalized educational process; research on schooling, social organizations, human learning and teaching; the wisdom that bestows the practice.6

On the PCK area, it is discussed the relevance of stimulating Mentoring, at the initial stage of teaching, to the novice teacher by an experienced teacher, usually an expert in his field of education.

Although it is difficult to define who is a novice or experienced teacher, the subdivision present in the Brazilian PCK survey of undergraduate nursing teachers was adopted, in which the novice teacher is the one with up to five years of teaching, intermediate when acting 6 to 14 years and experienced when it has been working for more than 15 years.7-8

With Mentoring, the novice teacher, in dialogue and reflection with the experienced teacher, will have the emotional and pedagogical support to transform his content knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge in specific and pedagogically applied ways to the characteristic of the student, the area of teaching, the curriculum and the objectives constructing your PCK.1

On teaching in Nursing, even with initial teacher training, when entering the pedagogical work, the nurse-teacher may experience difficulties, which will be more easily overcome, if there is a reception and pedagogical support. However, there are few reports on Mentoring initiatives, monitoring or follow-up of the novice teacher by an experienced teacher.7

Thus, the present research was constructed in order to understand the Mentoring as a source of pedagogical content knowledge for the novice teacher in professional education on Nursing Technical Level.

It is hoped that the study will provide insights to broaden the understanding of teacher education in this area and, in extension, to Nursing and Health, as well as to reflect on the need for appreciation and the problematization of pedagogical reality as a learning scenario professional development, something that is favored when there is collaboration between colleagues and institutional management initiative.

METHOD

It is a case study, with a qualitative approach, to seek the understanding of complex social phenomena and to answer “how” and “why” questions about a contemporary set of events, preserving the holistic and real life.9-10 The intentionality in the choice of the case guides all the methodological construction, which is studied comprehensively and, following the qualitative approach, it was sought the deepening in the understanding of the phenomenon, through the convergence of the sources of evidence, which was reached by the triangulation of techniques in data collection.9-10

The research was developed from October 2013 to September 2014, in a federal public school of professional health education, which is an academic unit of a federal university located in the Brazilian northeast. The selection of the case was done by means of a poll with students of the last two periods of the technical course in Nursing (25 of the fourth semester and 20 of the fifth semester), who indicated who they considered to be a good teacher and what the reason for that choice was. From the analysis of the data, the most cited novice teacher (up to five years of teaching) was selected, although she had left the institution to do a doctorate and could not be contacted. This was we selected the most cited intermediate experience teacher (six to 14 years of teaching), who was Safira, a teacher with seven years of teaching experience, who was contacted and accepted to participate in the research, highlighting the Mentoring as a source of pedagogical content knowledge, a phenomenon on which we sought to deepen understanding.

Also collaborating with the research were teacher Esmeralda, a teacher with 40 years of teaching, and the institution's education director, Pérola, a teacher for 35 years and with ten years of experience in educational management. In all interviews, the research participants made several references to the teacher who was identified by the Rubi codename, who died a few years before the research, so the data regarding the teacher's contribution were included in the research, but there is no interview with the same in the composition of the study.

The study respected the norms regulating human research, according to the Resolution of the National Health Council N. 466/2012 and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Uiversidade Federal de Santa Catarina. All participants in the study registered their consent to participate in the study, signing an Informed Consent Term, and anonymity was preserved through the establishment of codenames by the researcher.

The following data collection activities were implemented: an autobiographical open individual interview with Safira, to discuss knowledge sources, with an average duration of one hour, succeeded by semi-structured individual interview to deepen understanding about the Mentoring and the construction of PCK, with an average duration of one hour; non-participant observation, with field journaling, digital voice recorder and digital video camera, from a planning meeting of the Nursing I Semi-technical course (average duration of one hour); semi-structured individual interview with Esmeralda and Pérola with an average duration of one hour, to discuss the Mentoring experience by Safira. It was also sought to collect, in documents, data to understand the history of the school of professional education and was consulted the book that tells the history of the institution (secondary document).11

Data was organized and transcribed in Microsoft Word and transported to the technological tool of qualitative data analysis Atlas.Ti, version 7.1.8. The thematic analysis10 was implemented concurrently with the data collection, consisting of a first exploratory phase of the material and a second interpretative phase, which is organized in the steps of data ordering, data classification, final analysis and construction of the research report. From the analysis of the data, three central categories emerged, being presented, in this article, the data of category “Mentoring as a source of pedagogical content knowledge”. The presentation and discussion of the results followed the theoretical orientation of the PCK reference, and the results were also discussed with studies on PCK, Mentoring and teacher training.

RESULTS

In the present research, the Mentoring was experienced as part of the actions of teamwork in Professional Education in Nursing, configuring as a personal action with institutional support and not a teacher training program. The results, presented here, summarize the origin, the relevance and the way the Mentoring stimulated the construction of the PCK of Professor Safira, in the period when she was new to teaching.

Learning was in the conversations, attending class and doing together

The Mentoring Process was implemented in a federal public school of Professional Education in Health, by two teachers with more than 15 years of teaching and recognized expertise in the teaching of Foundations of Nursing Practice for the Technical Course in Nursing, Esmeralda and Ruby. Professor Safira, who received the pedagogical support, came from a 15-year experience in the hospital area and from a year of teaching in Foundations of Nursing Practice for Undergraduate Education, so she experienced a transition process for teaching and context of Professional Education.

When asked how the Mentoring happened, Safira described an intense process of coexistence and dialogue, in which experienced teachers generously shared practical wisdom in the daily activities of teaching. Opportunity that was used with great interest, because, according to Safira, one only learns what is experienced: [...] learning was in the conversations, it was in attending class and doing together (Safira) [...] At first, I would sit and watch, and then, when I started to feel more prepared, I would participate (Safira).

Safira's account exemplifies the Mentoring action developed in the institution, within a progressive process of learning, agreeing with the description of the teacher Esmeralda on how she thinks and executes the reception to the novice teacher: [...] we love to talk, to support this teacher, and we defend that he does not walk alone [...] that he study, that we present the plan of this discipline, so that he participates in classes with us, and when he goes to internship, let him first stay with a teacher who, little experience [...] And we always make ourselves available for any questions [...] This is good, because a discipline must all have a north to walk it [...] and several substitute teachers, before leaving, come and talk with us to thank for the learning (Esmeralda).

This support and reception action has repercussions in stimulating the construction of knowledge about the educational context, the curriculum and the objectives of the training, besides favoring unity in the work of the teaching staff and demonstrating the pedagogical performance that respects the characteristic of the students and is adapted to the type of teaching content.

The institution's director of education, Pérola, infers that the welcoming action developed by the experienced teachers was motivated by the personal characteristics of the teachers Esmeralda and Rubi, who always had an involvement with the pedagogical issues and sought specific training in this area, is also related to the School culture of integrating the novice teacher to teamwork. He affirms that, frequently, the first reception is carried out by the teaching management and then the articulation between the novice teacher and the more experienced teacher of the discipline is made so that the support is implemented, which happens voluntarily, not being counted in the load teaching hours: [...] First, I present the course, the pedagogical project, the course plan and the electronic academic system. [...] So I tell the new teacher: ‘Look, we have a teacher here, if you want help.’ We offer and do not impose. She responds: ‘I want it a lot, teacher.’ I talk to the oldest teacher and put the two in touch, and the process moves on [...] So, necessarily, it has to be someone from the area who has mastered that field, because, in fact, this old teacher will be a facilitator [...] This has been very good because we realize that it makes it much easier for the teacher, the student, the field, and reflects our commitment to education (Pérola).

It is identified that the support is offered in an individualized way, voluntarily and by specific area of teaching, essential factors for the success of the Mentoring and for building the PCK as an expression of practical wisdom in the teaching of content.

This process of Mentoring described by Safira could be observed in part during the data collection in the Foundations of Nursing Practice I, when the teachers Esmeralda and Safira began to host a substitute teacher. The field diary notes of the non-participant observation and audio recordings have recorded how the new teacher, since the discipline planning meeting, enthusiastically accepted the offer of support and took advantage of opportunities for dialogue, material exchange, observation sessions of classes of the two teachers and sharing of some classes. These records corroborate the statements of both Safira, who states that they seek to welcome new teachers as well as those who have been welcomed, as well as those of Esmeralda and Pérola, who emphasize the welcoming actions as part of the institution's culture and as an opportunity to socialize knowledge and experiences.

It is understood, then, that the Mentoring is a process that favors teacher development and inspires a welcoming culture that is perpetuated in teamwork.

Mentoring emerged on teamwork

In the history of the Professional Education School, the lack of teachers has always been one of the central problems, as highlighted by Esmeralda and Pérola, and has also been described in the book that tells the history of the institution.11 The scenario has undergone important changes since the 1990s, when the financial autonomy was achieved and six places for effective teachers. In the following period, this faculty promoted the reorganization of the course and the institution, and when the substitute teachers began, contracted for a period of up to two years, the Mentoring as a natural activity of integration to the teamwork to facilitate the process of adaptation of this teacher and to favor the professional development, allied to other actions as pedagogical workshops and discussions about the Course Plan: [...] we started doing this when we started to have substitute teachers, because many teachers were entering without knowing the reality [...] came naturally. I remember that before, when we were a very small group of six teachers, we sometimes did a case study [...] But, you study together is one thing [...] Another thing is that you are sharing, in fact, your talk in the classroom and in the practice scenario (Pérola).

Support for the novice teacher, conferred by a teacher with experience in teaching specific content, both theoretical and practical, for the Nursing Technical Course, sought to facilitate the work and adaptation of the novice teacher to the teaching practice, to the training context and to the institutional context, essential knowledge for the construction of the PCK. It is perceived that there was already a culture of studying together and of socializing knowledge, as well as the premise that professional growth must be collective for the quality of training.

The teaching methodology developed in the institution, the way collective work is organized and the concern to promote working conditions for the novice teacher were also decisive in the construction of Mentoring: [...] in our methodology, we have some disciplines where there are two teachers in the classroom at the same time. And this is very good, one learns from the other, and if this happens between an older teacher and a younger teacher, imagine the wealth that is [...] and in the School people who have a teaching focused on humanization [...] I even get excited about saying this, because it's very good to have working conditions [cries] (Pérola).

It is important to state that the admission to the School of a teacher, whether effective or substitute, counts on the participation of the faculty since the selection process, since, according to the norms of the university institution, the effective teachers, in their respective areas, collaborate in the study of personnel sizing to identify the field necessary for the hiring of teachers, participate in the elaboration of the program of the competition and the selection committee. Therefore, the arrival of the novice teacher is expected by the faculty, who then organizes to welcome him.

If the School only followed the norms of the university structure, the support would currently be offered only to the effective teacher, within the process of tutoring the probationary stage, which was created years later. In this way, the substitute teacher would not be contemplated. However, as the Mentoring arose prior to the establishment of the probationary mentorship, support is also offered between effective and surrogate teachers, although the teaching director identifies that, in the case of the effective teacher, it would be opportune to align the two actions.

Pedagogical and emotional support guided development in teaching

Professor Safira, who came from the hospital area, with assistance, management and health and service experience, stated that the Mentoring implemented by Professors Esmeralda and Rubi, was essential support for their development in teaching and stimulating the transformation of content knowledge into pedagogical content knowledge, because it brought criticisms about their initial formation for teaching, lived in the Master's Degree in Nursing, and reported feeling difficulties with pedagogical issues: [...] their help was of very great importance, because the part of Didactics, properly speaking, to teach, I learned with them two, because the technical knowledge support I carried [...]. Then, from this technical knowledge [...] their participation was in the conduct of how to turn that into a class [...] how are you going to teach someone to do what you already know, participate in practice [...] has also reworked and reconfigured the question of practical experience transformed into teaching [...]. So, it was a lot of didactics, methodology, dealing with the student, the perception of different learning [...]it was from there that I understood the role of the teacher, who is not to pass knowledge only, he is a subject of formation (Safira).

The report describes the Pedagogical Reasoning and Action Model, experienced at the beginning of the teaching career by Safira, who now has seven years of teaching experience, transforming her knowledge of content into pedagogical knowledge of content through pedagogical support and emotional that received to build the other categories of knowledge base for teaching: General Pedagogical Knowledge, Knowledge of learners, Curriculum Knowledge, Knowledge of the Educational Context and Knowledge of Educational Objectives. Thus, the support of two teachers with pedagogical training and recognized expertise in the area of education, favored the transition process from the hospital area to the teaching area on Nursing Technical Level, which has its specificities, as pointed out by the teaching director: [...] it is one thing to be a nurse practitioner, another thing is to be a teaching nurse, and still more to Vocational Education. [...] because in the assistance [...] the nurse believes that everyone already knows how to do [...] but, in teaching, it is me to learn to give assistance, teaching [...] and also because there are people who come with the mistaken thinking that for the middle level they have to teach minimal or almost nothing, as if this would make a distinction between the Nurse and Technical categories [...] it is not teaching the least, it is teaching with quality, knowing the skills of the Technician and the Nurse (Pérola).

The story of Pérola interacts with the professional development trajectory narrated by Safira, recognizing that it is impossible for the pedagogical management to be daily with each novice teacher, so it is through this initiative of dialogue and cooperation that is offered the continuous support to overcome the challenges, being also, as a strategy to reach the egress profile and the planned educational objectives.

DISCUSSION

In the process of Mentoring analyzed, it was identified that there was an emphasis on the existence of dialogic relations and cooperation among teachers, based on the objective of maintaining integration in teamwork, which favored the professional development of teachers and the construction of knowledge, being a pedagogical support activity and emotional expression that expresses the assumption of commitment to education and the provision of working conditions for teaching.

This scenario was decisive for the creation and perpetuation of the Mentoring culture, because in contexts of this nature, the sharing of experiences and knowledge becomes part of the individual contribution to collective growth, with a view to the goal of human formation that has been assumed by all. The initiative is also relevant, since, in addition to building a Mentoring program, it is identified that it is essential that the beginning teacher be inserted into a professional culture that legitimately welcomes him and that values professional learning, because when this context does not exist, it is common for the novice teacher to inform that he did not feel supported by anyone, experiencing teaching as a solitary doing.1

Learning stimulated in the interpersonal relationship is something intrinsic to the human, and there are theories of learning that argue that teaching is impossible, but that learning is inevitable, a constant, natural and mutual process that occurs in the coexistence through language; for this, it is essential to develop relationships based on dialogue, respect for the knowledge of all, solidarity and love, emotion that is not just feeling, but energy that mobilizes action for acceptance of the other in its wholeness and legitimacy in the coexistence.12

The reports described the experience of a professional learning that occurred within the pedagogical practice, an essential factor for its success, because it is in practice that the pedagogical challenges arise, as it is also in this context in which the teacher PCK expertise is manifested, from the planning to the completion of a discipline, as Safira could observe in the coexistence with the experienced teachers. As a result, there has been a progressive development facilitated by emotional and pedagogical support, based on dialogue and the stimulation of autonomy and the sharing of expertise teacher, a strategy that is recommended by studies on PCK, since it allows the novice teacher to build knowledge with a support that gives him security and stimulates his critical thinking.1,6,8 Also, it was made explicit the assumption of an ethical commitment to education, which translates into solidarity and acceptance, and the challenges of everyday pedagogical practice are problematized to stimulate reflection and the construction of new knowledge.13

In this way, it is inferred that, in addition to the objective of professionalization and technical instrumentalization, the teacher experienced an ethical experience that values ​​learning in the interpersonal relationship in a continuous way, exercising dialogue and cooperation, experiences that can be incorporated into her formation education, and the education of students. In another sense, it can be seen that Mentoring repercussions on the preservation of the memory of the profession, because there is a sharing of practical wisdom, so that the best creations can be preserved, overcoming the individual and collective amnesia that exists in teaching, since it is not exercised for an audience of fellow teachers and does not your records.6

Discussing the role of teaching management, it is highlighted that in a Brazilian study on PCK on Nursing Technical Level, it was identified that the teachers, who received pedagogical support from the course coordination, valued this initiative and acknowledged their contribution to the construction of PCK, while those teachers who did not have this opportunity criticized the pedagogical preparation of the coordinator.14 Thus, the role of the educational manager in promoting pedagogical support initiative and involving the teaching staff in this process is reaffirmed, since the action of Mentoring, which does not rely on proactive management, depending solely on the personal initiative of teachers with more experience, may be doomed to failure.

In a study developed in Malaysia, it was verified that the Mentoring, carried out individually and in the same place of work, had a significant relation with the construction of the PCK, having greater influence, respectively, on Educational Content knowledge, General Pedagogical Knowledge and Content Knowledge, which were the three domains of the PCK analyzed from 146 beginning teachers and 90 mentor teachers.1

Research on Mentoring demonstrate that the investment in the professional development of teachers has reflexes in the satisfaction in the work, in the improvement of the professional performance and in the student learning, causing that the institution acts on one of the factors more decisive for the student success, that is the teaching performance, being another important factor is the cultural baggage and the set of skills and abilities that the students possess, which, being valued, will potentiate the academic performance.1-3

Focusing on the Pedagogical Reasoning and Action Model of the PCK framework, it is reiterated that the competent teaching practice requires that the teacher build a diversity of knowledge and develop continuously to favor student learning.6 Thus, in order to help the student to learn, the teacher will mobilize and integrate, in a synergistic and dynamic way, the categories of Basic Knowledge for Teaching to transform them into a special form of professional understanding, which is PCK.6

In this sense, it is noteworthy from Safira's reports that, when the teacher starts the pedagogical work, his knowledge base for teaching is mainly composed of knowledge of the content and, if he has had an initial teacher training, he will have pedagogical knowledge about the management and management of the classroom. Linking this development process with the Mentoring, it is expected that, based on several sources, one of them being the opportunity mediated by the institutional context and the interpersonal relationship, there is the construction of the other categories of Basic Knowledge for teaching, emphasizing that, through Mentoring, the teacher will have help to understand how to organize the subjects and the subjects of the disciplinary area and to construct the best strategies for the teaching, respecting interests and capacities of the students, becoming more and more specific and diversified its PCK, being the base on which will develop the expertise.6,15

In the experience of nurse-teacher Safira, who came from a fifteen-year career in the hospital area, there was a conscious and critical posture about her incompleteness and an epistemological curiosity about the professional practice of the experienced teachers and experts in the area of education, seeking, with humility, to learn about this practice.13 Therefore, it has been shown that teaching requires specific competencies that go beyond the competencies of health care.2,16-17 Thus, he exerted critical awareness, observing and reflecting on the best pedagogical practices and, continually, constructing his own professional understanding about teaching on Nursing Technical Level for the Technical Course, traversing the path that distinguishes the teacher knowledge from the knowledge of the content specialist and the pedagogue.6

Based on these findings, the relevance of the Mentoring not only for the novice teacher but, specifically, to favor the transition from clinic to teaching, a trajectory that is common in the area of health, often generating the feeling of discomfort even in experienced professionals in the clinical area, because they feel new, again, have uncertainties about how to learn to teach and fear of failing in their new role.2,17

It is inferred, finally, that the stimulated learning in the coexistence was developed in a mutual way, between the novice teacher and the experienced teachers, having contributed to the transformation of the pedagogical practice and collaborated for the growth of the disciplinary integration.

CONCLUSION

Survey data on Mentoring as a source of PCK allowed us to understand a process with roots in the history of the institution itself, which has been developed as an individual practice, which is based on an institutional culture of welcoming and offering working conditions, counting on a committed and caring collaboration of experienced teachers and expertise in the area of education, as well as in the management of the institution.

Mentoring was set up as a collaborative initiative that has repercussions on the integration of pedagogical work, teacher training and the quality of teaching, something that is desired by teachers and management, and which has a direct impact on student learning.

The individualized monitoring, carried out in the specific discipline, with the participation of experienced teachers and experts in the teaching of content, contributed, decisively, to the construction of the categories of Basic Knowledge for teaching in Nursing in the initial period of the teaching career. The process of construction of the PCK took place in the reality of the teaching work, through dialogue, observation of the expression of the practical wisdom of the experienced teachers and sharing of the pedagogical doing. In this way, the Mentoring has emerged as a rich source of pedagogical content knowledge.

In this sense, it is stated that such characteristics became decisive for the success of the collaborative action, inferring that other teachers in the same institution may not experience similar experience, given the individuality and specificity of the interaction process, It is also important to consider that the stimulus to development may be affected, in other contexts, if the action of Mentoring be developed with the overseer and non-pedagogical and collaborative character.

The participation of the teaching management was highlighted, both by the support to the initiative, and by the action of articulation between the teachers to favor the accomplishment of the educational and emotional support.

It is important to clarify that the sharing of knowledge and accompaniment of the novice teacher by an experienced teacher does not replace the initial pedagogical training and the deepening of the knowledge of the content of the teaching area, however, certainly collaborate to build knowledge about the educational scenario, the curriculum , the educational objectives and the characteristics of the students, in order to favor the construction of more effective pedagogical actions for student learning. With this, it is hoped that the results of the study will reflect on the potential of learning that exists in the reality of the pedagogical work and on the sharing of knowledge among teachers, so that these processes can be valued and stimulated in the pedagogical scenario and that there is a participation of education management in the promotion of similar initiatives.

The restricted production of Nursing in the international scenario and absence of previous studies in the Brazilian Nursing on the Mentoring as a source of PCK, both in Vocational Education and in Higher Education, made it difficult to discuss the results of the research with other experiences, which is one of the limitations of the research, as well as its contribution to innovation in studies in the area. Thus, to discuss the study results, it was necessary to seek data in other areas of teaching, which corroborated the findings of the present research, however, it is argued that new studies are implemented on the subject, both in Professional Education, as in Higher education.

To conclude, with regard to the theoretical and methodological aspects of the study, it should be noted that the triangulation in the research data sources, which is a necessity in Case Studies, indicated the pertinence in describing the origin, motivation and implementation of the Mentoring, and reports were collected that dialogued with each other and allowed a more detailed understanding of the experience. The theoretical reference of the PCK collaborated to the understanding of the specificity of the teacher making and the necessary knowledge for the pedagogical practice of the good teacher of Nursing, having been explained the Model of Pedagogical Reasoning and Action that the novice teacher lives for the construction of his practical teaching wisdom.

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ORIGIN OF THE ARTICLE

Article extracted from the thesis - Pedagogical Knowledge of the Content of Teachers of the Professional Education of Technical Level in Nursing, which integrates the macroproject “The professional knowledge of the teacher of the health area: processes of construction and transference to the teaching practice”, linked to the Postgraduation Program In Nursing of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), in partnership with the group Formación Docente e Innovación Pedagógica, from Universidad de Barcelona, in 2015.

FUNDING INFORMATION

This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

ETHICS COMMITTEE IN RESEARCH

Approved by the Ethics Committee in Research with Human Beings of the Universisade Federal de Santa Catarina, N. 412.492, Certificate of Presentation for Ethical Appreciation CAAE N. 20735213.8.0000.0121.

CONSENT OF USE OF IMAGE

Not applicable.

Received: June 25, 2016; Accepted: February 03, 2017

CORRESPONDENCE AUTHOR Lauriana Medeiros Costa Santos laurianamc@hotmail.com

CONTRIBUTION OF AUTHORITY

Study design: Santos LMC, Backes VMS. Data collect: Santos LMC, Backes VMS. Data analysis and interpretation: Santos LMC, Backes VMS. Discussion of the results: Santos LMC, Backes VMS. Writing and / or critical review of content: Santos LMC, Backes VMS. Review and final approval of the final version: Santos LMC, Backes VMS.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No any conflict of interest.

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