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Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem

versão impressa ISSN 0104-0707versão On-line ISSN 1980-265X

Texto contexto - enferm. vol.29  Florianópolis  2020  Epub 07-Fev-2020

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-265x-tce-2018-0407 

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

NURSING PROFESSOR IN HIGHER EDUCATION: TIME, MONEY AND RESISTANCE IN THE MANAGEMENT VISION

EL PROFESOR-ENFERMERO EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR: TIEMPO, DINERO Y RESISTENCIA EN LA PERSPECTIVA GERENCIALISTA

José Renato Gatto Júnior1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0067-6487

Cinira Magali Fortuna1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2808-6806

Leandra Andréia de Sousa2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7147-935X

Fabiana Ribeiro Santana3 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8696-6775

1Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto. Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil.

2Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Enfermagem. São Carlos, São Paulo, Brasil.

3 Universidade Federal de Goiás, Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública. Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil.


ABSTRACT

Objective:

to analyze university teaching in nursing from an institutional dialectic approach.

Method:

a qualitative research based on Institutional Socioclinics. Eighteen nursing professors from four regions of Brazil and from six public institutions of higher education participated. For data production, interviews, observations, documentary analyses, individual and collective restitution and use of the research diary were performed. Data was organized for analysis by transcription/translation, recomposition/rearrangement, and final reconstruction/narration. Data analysis was produced from analyzers, based on Socioclinics, Institutional Analysis current of thought, and on the qualitative mode of analysis by questioning and writing.

Results:

two main analyzers made the institution ‘teaching in higher education and the nursing professor’ emerge: time-money relation and resistance. Teaching time, increasingly associated with money, in managerialist logic, has formatted the nursing professors as passive subjects in the production of knowledge, induced by the evaluation model of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel and its link to the progression in the university career. In this model, the nursing professor is driven to devote more to research than to teaching. This interferes with teaching conceptions and practices, which are more influenced by managerialism and less grounded in pedagogical theories. Resistance against this model has not yet encountered coping mechanisms.

Conclusion:

from the analysis produced with the participants, the choices of the nursing professor are so much more grounded in managerialism and so much less based on pedagogical references, especially those arising from dialectical theories. In this sense, resistance is transformed into a movement of adaptation.

DESCRIPTORS: Nursing professors; Universities; Time; Teaching; Indicators of scientific production

RESUMEN

Objetivo:

analizar la docencia universitaria en enfermería a partir de la dialéctica institucional.

Método:

investigación cualitativa fundamentada en la Socioclínica Institucional. Participaron 18 profesores-enfermeros de cuatro regiones de Brasil y seis establecimientos públicos de educación superior. Para producir los datos se realizaron entrevistas, observaciones, análisis documentales, restituciones individuales y colectivas, además de utilizarse un diario de investigación. La organización de los datos para su análisis se dio mediante la transcripción/traducción de los mismos, su recomposición/reordenamiento, y por su reconstitución/narración final. El análisis de los datos se produjo a partir de analizadores, y se fundamentó en la Socioclínica, una vertiente del Análisis Institucional, y en la modalidad cualitativa de análisis por cuestionamiento y en forma escrita.

Resultados:

dos analizadores principales hicieron surgir la institución de ‘docencia en la educación superior y el profesor-enfermero’, a saber: relación tiempo/dinero y resistencia. El tiempo docente, cada vez más asociado al dinero en la lógica gerencialista, ha conformado al profesor-enfermero como un sujeto pasivo en la producción de conocimientos, inducido por el modelo evaluativo de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento para Personal de Nivel Superior y su vínculo con el avance en la carrera universitaria. En ese modelo, el profesor-enfermero está motivado a dedicarse más a la investigación que a la enseñanza. Eso interfiere con las concepciones y prácticas docentes, que quedan más influenciadas por el gerencialismo y menos fundamentadas en teorías pedagógicas. La resistencia contra ese modelo todavía no encontró mecanismos de confrontación.

Conclusión:

de acuerdo con el análisis elaborado con los participantes, las elecciones de los profesores-enfermeros están tanto más fundamentadas en el gerencialismo como menos basadas en referenciales pedagógicos, especialmente en aquellos devenidos de teorías dialécticas. En este sentido, la resistencia se transforma en un movimiento de adaptación.

DESCRIPTORES: Docentes de enfermería; Universidades; Tiempo; Enseñanza; Indicadores de producción científica

RESUMO

Objetivo:

analisar a docência universitária em enfermagem a partir da dialética institucional.

Método:

pesquisa qualitativa fundamentada na Socioclínica Institucional. Participaram 18 professores-enfermeiros de quatro Regiões do Brasil e seis estabelecimentos públicos de educação superior. Para a produção de dados, foram realizadas entrevistas, observações, análises documentais, restituições individuais e coletivas e uso do diário de pesquisa. A organização dos dados para análise se deu pela transcrição/tradução dos mesmos, pela recomposição/rearranjo, e pela reconstituição/narração final. A análise dos dados foi produzida a partir de analisadores, fundamentada na Socioclínica, vertente da Análise Institucional e na modalidade qualitativa de análise por questionamento e pela escrita.

Resultados:

dois principais analisadores fizeram a instituição ‘docência no ensino superior e o professor-enfermeiro’ emergir: relação tempo-dinheiro e resistência. O tempo docente, cada vez mais associado ao dinheiro, na lógica gerencialista, tem formatado o professor-enfermeiro como sujeito passivo na produção de conhecimentos, induzido pelo modelo avaliativo da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e seu atrelamento à progressão na carreira universitária. Nesse modelo, o professor-enfermeiro é impulsionado a se dedicar mais à pesquisa do que ao ensino. Isso interfere nas concepções e práticas docentes, que ficam mais influenciadas pelo gerencialismo e menos fundamentadas em teorias pedagógicas. A resistência contra esse modelo não encontrou ainda mecanismos de enfrentamento.

Conclusão:

pela análise produzida com os participantes, as escolhas dos professores-enfermeiros estão tão mais fundamentadas no gerencialismo e tão menos baseadas em referenciais pedagógicos, notadamente naqueles advindos de teorias dialéticas. Nesse sentido, resistir se transfigura em movimento de adaptar-se.

DESCRITORES: Docentes de enfermagem; Universidades; Tempo; Ensino; Indicadores de produção científica

INTRODUCTION

It is notorious that the teaching work at the university has been substantially transformed in the last decades, since the update of the Brazilian State to a state of neoliberal foundation, in the 1990s, brought to the public sector a management device known as New Public Management (NPM) or managerialism.1

The NPM is an ideological movement, born in England and incorporated by the English-speaking countries (notably those that had colonial relations with England) and spread worldwide, whose main characteristics refer to the inculcation in the public administration of business principles and logics, such as the evaluation by productivity, performativity, the responsibility of individuals for their conduct, use of objective and specific goals, efficient use of resources, among others,1-3 it fits in with the neoliberal ideals and their ultimate yearning for business, including making the individual himself a company.2,4

Researchers have shown the impact of managerialism on university teaching, observing the intensification of teaching work5 from the adoption of generation and accountability perspectives through quantitative and quantified assessments,6-7 emphasizing or making the products of teaching work measurable and implementing a regulatory and inductive logic for such work.8 Also, we discuss the logic of competences with the managerialist perspective in Brazilian education, since competences can be understood in this same logic.

There are, however, other progressive pedagogical approaches that move away from quantification, seeking broader perspectives for formation and considering its complexity for human life, highlighting the importance of context, the problematization of class relations, social inequalities, such as critical, emancipatory approaches. In nursing, these approaches are also present during the formation, which are liberating tendency, libertarian tendency and historical-critical tendency of the contents.9 Although nursing education is permeated by some progressive pedagogical tendencies, a study shows that the managerial and neoliberal perspective has intensified the work of nursing professors in public higher education institutions and precarious teaching work in private institutions.10

Added to this is the evaluation model of the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES), which has induced a phenomenon called academic productivism, in which the production of knowledge has followed a quantitative evaluative logic for assigning quality to journals, to graduate programs11-13 and it has been inducing a certain type of higher education, university professor preparation, pedagogical practices and conceptions.

In higher education, there was a strong commodification/marketing of education with a boom of creation of private higher education institutions, focusing on the profitability and financialization of this sector, increasing financial investments, including foreign capital. This produces and disseminates new conceptions of what is meant by education and even by university, in this context of entrepreneurship of universities, including public ones.12,14-15

In the health field, with the creation of the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) as a state policy with strong popular participation in its conception, resistance to the commodification of public health helped to sustain some achievements amid various investments to make management indirect health (social organizations), the privatization of some types of services and, more recently, the implementation of measures that affect not only health, but also other social areas such as the imposition of an investment ceiling, through Constitutional Amendment (CA) 95 of December 16th, 2016. This also begins to generate changes in the conceptions and practices of what is health.

These updates on the conceptions, practices and structures of both the health and education fields, triggered by the State's update in the neoliberal managerialist sense, have caused important interference in the public university and in higher education teaching. Notably, nursing professors are basing their choices more on the precepts of managerialism than on pedagogical theories, let alone on critical theories. Recent studies with nursing professors show that the teaching work has been greatly influenced by neoliberalism, in which quantitative processes of evaluation in the logic of accountability are asserted.10

Research on this subject is scarce for the issue of teaching in higher education in nursing, being also exclusive when using the Institutional Socioclinical (IS), strand of Institutional Analysis (IA), which is concerned with studying the institutions - produced sociohistorically in the dialectical interplay of instituting forces against what was instituted, in a continuous process of institutionalization, in which institutions are being updated and produced, such as the teaching institution in higher education and the nursing professor, object of this study.

Thus, IA has been produced as a movement that, through group self-analyzes and self-management, seeks to denaturalize all that is crystallized, as it is based on the premise that society and relations are historically and socially constituted.16

In this sense, the institution constantly updates itself from its moments of the instituted (what was universalized), the instituting (what seeks to question the universal, from a certain particularity) and the institutionalization process (that which seeks to consolidate a certain perspective from its uniqueness, aiming for a new universal).16 From the contributions of these precursors, another researcher proposes the Institutional Socioclinics as more lasting interventions and that focuses its analysis on the effects that take place, taking as a marker the socioclinical principles.17-18

Thus, in this research, some principles of IS were used to provoke analysis and self-analysis in a group of university nursing professors regarding the conceptions and pedagogical practices. To this end, pedagogical conceptions and practices were considered in accordance with the concept of professional practice, developed from the perspective of analysis of professional practices, such as those that are updated over time from the numerous instituted, instituting and institutionalization movements (universalization, particularization and singularization), which is closely related to the professional implications of historical-existential, psycho-affective and structural-professional dimensions.17-18

Therefore, the central issue addressed in this article refers to the main influences of managerialism on the conceptions and pedagogical practices of nursing professors in the public university. Thus, the aim of this article was to analyze university teaching in nursing from the institutional dialectic approach.

METHOD

This is a qualitative research, the result of a study on teaching in higher education and the nursing professors, based on the IS, part of the current of IA.16-21 The research field was a public establishment in the state of São Paulo that trains bachelor and graduate nurses, masters and doctors. The choice was intentional and guided by the importance of this establishment in the training of nursing professors for Brazil and Latin America.

The criterion for choosing participants was to be a nursing professor, to be in professional activity during the production of data. Sociologists, psychologists, veterinarians, biologists, pedagogues, among others, who also work in this establishment were excluded.

Thus, a range of analytical devices, understood as anything that assists in the amplification and/or provocation of data analysis and production, that is, the devices help both data production and the analytical process, including themselves,19-21 were used for the production and restitution of data in this research, among them: interviews, observations, documentary analysis, individual and collective restitution, reflection groups, besides the use of research diary and new interviews for continuous data production, reflections, analyzes and interpretations.

Interviews were conducted with 13 participants from the closely monitored study establishment and, to broaden the field of analysis (the field of analysis is the institutions; and the field of intervention is the material basis of the institutions), there were five interviews with nursing professors from other establishments in four regions of the country - North, Northeast, South and Southeast - who were personally invited at national scientific events of nursing education.

During the interviews, observations, discussion groups, restitution meetings, the principles of socioclinics were present, mainly the use of analyzers, which provoke the unveiling of the institutions.17-18,20

There were 13 interviews, 104 hours of observation of classroom activities, laboratory activities, internships and immersions, and analysis of 63 documents, most of which were freely accessible online (documents, studied university and institution legislation ), some of which were provided by professors (lesson plans, course plans) and a document with authorization for access and analysis (institutional assessment document). The time period for the production and analysis of this research data was from January 2014 to September 2018.

Individual feedback was made with tables constructed from the previous data production devices and five face-to-face meetings, lasting three hours each, attended by an average of four professors per meeting, since the coincidence of agendas was the largest challenge found in this research.

After this period, there were moments of new interviews with five nursing professor from four regions of Brazil (one from the North, two from the Northeast, one from the Southeast and one from the South) for reflections and deepening on the data and analyzes achieved so far. The letter P (P01, P02, P03, P04, P05, P05, P06, P08, P09, P10, P10, P11, P12, P13) was adopted for the nursing professors who participated throughout the research and PC (PC01, PC02, PC03, PC04, PC05) for nursing professors who participated in the new interviews.

The organization of the data throughout the research was based on the qualitative perspective of Paillé and Mucchielli regarding the questioning analysis and the scriptural analysis, following proposed moments of transcription/translation, transposition and reconstitution/narration.22 Questioning analysis seeks, through the establishment of increasingly complex questions, to produce knowledge, while the writing of the results enunciates and gives clues to new questions, inciting analytical deepening.

Thus, transcription/translation consisted of interview transcription and organization of all observation material and documents. The transposition was made by the elaboration of tables, figures, analytical schemes that reorganized the corpus highlighting similarities, differences, dissonances, resonances, absence of expected elements, repeated presence of ideas, etc. Finally, in the reconstitution/narration was given the choice of elements, facts that unite contradictions (analysers) for the writing of the final text.22

The analytical process sought support in the IS principles, which provides this porous, articulated, dynamic movement of data production. For this reason, the analytical process was based on the perspective that once one is willing to think about something and to observe it, an analytical process is already underway, intimately engaging researcher and participants in the co-participatory process of data production and research analyzes.19-21

This project followed all ethical precepts set forth by CNS Resolution No. 466, as well as those of the Helsinki Declaration. In this sense, to guarantee the confidentiality and ethical commitment assumed, the name of the educational institution is not mentioned, since, by mentioning it, the research participants could be identified.

RESULTS

The results presented below are the consequence of documentary analysis, research diary and empirical data produced through interviews, observations, individual and collective restitutions and reflection groups. This research device was a producer of analyzers who unveiled what was hidden or not said in the organization, revealing managerialist logics in the conduction of the university, its relation to the production of knowledge, the pedagogical formation of professors, the conceptions and practices of the nursing professors. Thus, the results will be presented according to the following analyzers of the institution ‘teaching in higher education and the nursing professor’: 1) Analyser ‘Time-Money’ and 2) Analyser ‘Resistance’.

The analyser time-money

The first direction analyzed is related to the professors’ use of time, considering that in the managerial university-enterprise the quantity of products and their quantified quality is the most important, since they are responsible for the ranking of graduate programs (make up the indexes) and, consequently, of universities.

I think we are mirroring ourselves in a university model, while researching, right, assuming research as the centrality of the university's role and then overlapping with teaching and extension. And this is a model that I didn't know particularly, I became aware of it. I think about two or three weeks and then it starts to make sense, you know? Which is a model of excellence, of what is excellence, excellence is that which produces knowledge. So, some universities, for example, are assuming some strategies to pursue this excellence in research and, therefore, be an international reference, right? rankings of evaluations and are assuming some questions. [...] I think it's at the root of being a professor, I think the big discussion is what is being a university professor? What is it, what is our purpose? The purpose of our work: is it to conduct research? Is it to produce? It is a perverse logic of productivity, it is a production market that is entering the university space, right? (PC05, analysis during new interview with a nursing professor from the Northeast of the country).

For the nursing professor, the prioritized issues are those related to hegemonic research and its quantifiable products.

[...] comes a very clear situation that we are experiencing right now [...]. That is the desire of many professors here, even for feeling, is... in this overload, this desire to think that what will solve the professor’s life within the university is to decrease the degree. So, I will shorten the number of classes and hours in undergraduate courses. Then comes questions that go beyond our unity, a lot of interference that is the ideas that come up. So, I will discuss the direction of undergraduation, but focusing on reducing vacancies, closing course, this school cannot accommodate two courses and goes on this idea that this is what will solve the professor's problem [...]. And then when we propose right “well then, let's look at the teaching work process”. It is not only undergraduation is the postgrad... non-communicable - this does not enter into discussion and mainly because it has a program grade seven, because it has this, because it has that and has funding. So, undergraduation is going to cost, graduation is going to cost, it's... And this view that is decreasing the number of professors, then, has to decrease vacancy, because there are not enough professors to account for the number of students in school. And don't think about the whole, including the professor himself and what it will mean for him, decreasing vacancies, decreasing classes, it's... workload (P07, analysis during meeting).

But I think that we, as professors, are very charged considering scientific production. So the university [...] has a bigger goal that is education, but we are charged, but in the sense of how much we produce new knowledge (P02, analysis during individual interview).

When analyzing the conceptions and pedagogical practices of the studied group, several movements of approximation towards the pedagogical dimension were evidenced, from the instrumental and technical use of some teaching-learning strategies as if they had no commitment or relation with pedagogical theories, or as if they were ideologically neutral, or even as if it were not important to reflect on what one intends to do pedagogically and what one actually does. The following analytical excerpt addresses the issue of saving time in teaching to engage in other activities.

So, that's how it is, so little time we have to structure a good discipline with these diverse strategies. It needs the time and sometimes the professor does not have it, and that is what hinders changes that I perceive in other subjects. [...] Now, in the disciplines where we have a larger number of people [professors], people don't have the same time availability, so much chronological time, and internal time to pursue a new technology, to pursue a new strategy. Then, you bump into these issues and you can always see that you can improve, but it doesn't advance because of the difficulties of letting yourself... no longer... investing time in the preparation of the discipline (P10, analysis during individual interview).

Already in the following analytical excerpts, the participants address the need for pedagogical preparation for teaching in higher education but, because the professors have to manage their time, including to participate in such courses, this has become unfeasible in view of the charges, and productivist demands of the neoliberal university-enterprise.

I didn't have the initiative to do again [the university pedagogical course offered by university instances] precisely because of my working conditions, which does not allow me to take, at least in the first semester, a full day for an outside activity, it’s very complicated to have this commitment [...] in the calendar it does not fit (P04, analysis during individual interview).

The analyser resistance

Some pedagogical perspectives, especially dialectical trends, are no longer able to find support in the educational establishment to continue to exist, as noted in the following passage:

[...] I cannot say that it has no university support, but the university does not recognize the professor's work in these other perspectives [non-traditional or emancipator ones], which is a work that requires a higher workload, which demands more time from the professor to prepare. [...] Many times, I can't return the portfolio in time for that student because I couldn't finish reading the material. So, this work model that we are also inserted does not favor our practice (P07, analysis during individual interview).

In the following analytical excerpt, some issues are highlighted that evidence the structural difficulty in facing the managerial imposition, such as the cuts and non-rehiring of professors in the same work regime.

[...] I don't know how long we will resist this model. I will give a clear example, with the retirement of some colleagues from the area in which I teach, I do not know until when we can maintain this pedagogical proposal for a numerical matter. How will we be able to work with 150 students from the three subjects of each semester with three professors, within a proposal to work with 10 students per professor? I may want, I can do, but the institution may not be able to afford it. So it is not enough just what I believe, which my colleague believes. There are a number of other factors that are independent of the people who end up in this process [...]. It's a very powerful force and I think people don't realize it or they don't want to, because on the other hand this model brings a little more comfort, ease, things are more practical, easier, more accessible in the sense of a lot of consumerism. So people get seduced a little by it and end up not seeing the impact of it in the future (P06, analysis during individual restitution).

In moments of observation, one of the participants complains that they would have to modify the whole conformation of the discipline, adapt to be able to keep their somewhat dialectical perspective of teaching.

In an informal meeting with P03 in the school, she reported that “we will need to rethink how we work in the discipline, because we have fewer professors.” She noted that due to the cuts, and the rearrangements being made, they may have to work with more students per professor - the question that remains is how much of a potential this situation has to derail emancipatory prospects, such as the use of the pedagogical cycle [teaching-learning methodology used at the studied establishment], the perspective of formative assessment, close monitoring, among other aspects (research journal).

The nursing professors involved with dialectical pedagogical perspectives, focused on more democratic teaching-learning processes, skipped the confrontation, sometimes because they are unwell with peers, sometimes because of illness.

[...] I think this panorama that you show justifies the leaves, getting sick, it is... leads people to exhaustion, causes them to leave, right? from what you put from the defensive movement to an integrative movement in order to survive. [...] a very clear but very saddening panorama at the same time [...]. Because I'm done, I'm one of the tiredness group. Not long ago at university, but I assume, why? Why am I saying this? Because I bring the story of getting sick and I got sick. So, I preferred to retreat at this time, it may be that in a while, a year, two years, I decide to go to the front again, but at that moment I decided to retreat, but at least within My micro space, within my microgroup, of the students I work with I have been trying to spread some ideas and propose in the work process what I believe may not be the best, but it is what I have been thinking of doing (P06, analysis during a meeting).

Or, being coerced via project evaluation and reports, which sometimes are no longer approved.

[...] do you know why? Because I think you generate a lot more enmity in this situation, more than that free competition issue that you posed. I think you generate a lot of enmity when you want to face situations because you believe in different pedagogical conceptions. You gain a lot more enmity in the [studied establishment], you have difficulty approving a number of issues, even approvals of little things, you have difficulty. You have difficulty getting away because people start judging you from.... You understood? Difficulty in getting your students approved for post-graduation programs. Thus, it is a mechanism of wickedness that forms around those who oppose... (P06, analysis during encounter).

DISCUSSION

The analyser time-money

This analyzer reveals that professors’ use of time is, on the one hand, increasingly unused for activities that do not generate products that positively interfere with the ranking of universities, postgraduate programs and the university professor (himself).

On the other hand, there is a slackening of professors’ use of time for the production of the university-enterprise exchange currency: the nursing professor who publishes article in journals Qualis/CAPES A1 or A2 (Brazilian periodic qualification system) remains accredited in the postgraduate program, climbs other functions with prolabore, rises in career and improves the salary, gets and maintains productivity grants; the postgraduate program to which it is linked, in turn, maintains its grade or improves grade in the CAPES ranking and thus manages its resources more flexibly, investing more in its professors and students in the field of research studies that respond to this managerialist logic. Such reflection was also brought by another author.14

In this way, they can establish, maintain and continue international partnerships, produce articles within this criterion and align more with this logic; the university improves its world ranking and postgraduate studies in Brazil should improve its ranking worldwide also, within these managerial criteria; that is, a quality that has as its reference the ideological principles of managerialism, based mainly on neoliberalism.

Regarding what touches most directly on teaching in higher education, in 1996, that is, during the period of managerial ideals, the CAPES model for the evaluation of postgraduate programs was created, through which resources for postgraduate would be distributed to higher education institutions.12-13

It was a postgraduate model based on the American model of production and quantification of knowledge production by universities. This model was heavily influenced and directed toward managerial principles and thus to meet neoliberal purposes. Thus, the resource distribution model was based on competition and competitiveness between programs, and the criteria were established from universities taken as models, such as national and Anglo-Saxon ones.12-13

Therefore, the programs are evaluated based on quantitative criteria and measurements, such as those related to the quantity of products desired and taken as a synonym of excellence, or to those, such as quality quantifications, for example, number of citations that the article and the journal receives notably citations of bases as much international as possible.

Scholars of the phenomenon of academic productivism in the public university, especially since the 1990s, identify a number of characteristics that delimit this phenomenon and begin to signal, in general, the effects on the public university, teaching in higher education and on postgraduate training in Brazil,11-13,23 and this logic is interfering with the type of university and university teaching that is being produced, since they accompany the updates suffered by the institution Brazilian State (here understanding the state in the sense of IA).

Several authors have also associated the university with an enterprise to highlight productivist aspects at the heart of the institution University, that is, an update undergone by the university that resembles the work process of an enterprise, its mode of production and its products and by-products. In fact, we can reflect that the opening of higher education to capital investment, allowed, mainly, from EC 19/1998, led to an unbridled expansion of private higher education establishments, surpassing the number of public ones.11-13,23-24

However, it was the association with the implementation and dissemination of the NPM that the neoliberalism implementation device was able to reach public establishments, transforming them through its management based on managerial principles: efficiency, effectiveness, cost reduction, resource saving, accountability of individuals for their actions and conducts, among others.2,25

Thus, according to the results of this article, the studied university aligns its activities to correspond to the neoliberal State model in institutionalization since 1998, assuming management processes, implementing work processes aligned with the managerialist perspective: reduction in the number of full-time professors, hiring professors on a temporary basis, creating the possibility of salary reduction and change of work regime for professors who do not correspond to the productivist precepts induced by CAPES since 1996, that is, it implements a form of evaluation based on objective goals, which evaluate students and professors from managerial indexes.

One study argues that the managerialist perspective was widespread as early as in basic education26 and here, in this article, its implementation is discussed with its own characteristics in higher education and in the work of the nursing professor. This shows that working in this managerial perspective is not just a personal choice of the professor; he has no autonomy to decide on it, it is an imposition that begins to cost him a salary and a job at a public university.

The analyser resistance

Despite the nursing professor’s concern with pedagogical training and the desire to become professional for teaching in higher education,27 this research has shown a more perverse process that has prevented this professionalization from happening in any other way than that based on managerial principles and the culture of accountability,6,10 in relation to managerial professionalism (a way of acting in teaching in higher education based on managerial principles).

An Australian study already discusses alternatives to the performance management to which the elementary level teachers have been submitted, refuting this logic that focuses only on accountability and does not, in fact, consider the formative and transformative process of permanent teacher learning.28

Teaching choices related to the teaching dimension are increasingly grounded in managerialism and less grounded in pedagogical references/theories, especially dialectical and critical theories. It is also evident that management principles prevail in the face of teaching choices, leaving pedagogical conceptions far in the background. Thus, there are also strategies of short-lived resistance (reorganize/redesign/reconfigure the discipline with increasing weekly teaching load in undergraduate), but which, in fact, are merely adaptations to managerial impositions, since there is no answer found for the following question: What is the pedagogical rationale for this change?

Thus, the nursing professor’s time is taken to produce what fits into the managerial goals of the studied university, that is, what ranks the university internationally with great emphasis on the production of a kind of knowledge that is assessed by its publishability in journals that are indicated as renowned also from quantitative indexes such as the number of citations they receive (with emphasis on citations on an internationalized basis) and their subsequent parameterization and indexes the most diverse as possible.

Thus, postgraduate programs, built on these precepts from the regulatory agency in this direction (CAPES), induce in their advisors these goals and principles that, in addition to spreading this ideology to their advisees, also make choices in their direction that prioritize what achieves these goals and that leave other aspects of the university's role aside, such as university professors’ pedagogical preparation and the choice of pedagogical frameworks that support the consolidation of a democratic society through the education of professionals and critical and participative people.

However, these critical pedagogical references are being given less and less place in this university-enterprise, which performs in the managerial logic. What can be seen is that the regulatory discourse is increasingly based on the principles of managerialism, where profit is the center of attention, and the skills and competencies that work to achieve it converge to it too, not allowing place for other perspectives, notably those based on dialectical and critical theories.26 It is believed that this neoliberal device is implemented to make it impossible for the professor to resist it, since it imprisons the professor in the execution and accountability of his work based on criteria grounded on managerial and neoliberal proposals, which are objective, achievable in the short term, tangible and enforceable, and being able to be measured by quantitative instruments (performativity and accountability).

Thus, it is believed that NPM, in particular its managerialist side, has induced transformations in higher education and on nursing professors’ conceptions and practices, cluttering those practices that align with dialectical theory, and supporting those that align with neoliberal assumptions, that is, hindering the advancement of progressive perspectives, which has also been happening and reported in a study in the area of social assistance.29

Also in this study, it was found that the managerial university gets the nursing professor increasingly trapped in the production of what the university and the postgraduate regulatory agencies demand and is in line with the thought that NPM in the university comes to control it in the perspective and vigilance of ‘managers’ about how professionals work at the university, the content and type of their work, since it focuses on the dissemination of ideas that support the neoliberal consolidation in the university, based on market perspectives and desires.29-30

This aspect is very relevant because it associates the CAPES model of evaluation with the process of implementation of management devices that affect the university and nursing teaching, making the resistance to this model complex. The main limitation of this research, which also becomes an object of consideration in future research, reveals the non-inclusion of students' view in the production of data.

CONCLUSION

Analyzing the conceptions and pedagogical practices from the institutional dialectic perspective, some analyzers were highlighted with the university nursing professors regarding the use of their time and its relationship with the financial aspect, how they have been evaluated and rewarded in their teaching work and, also, the resistances.

The culture of performativity has served to evaluate the work of the nursing professor, since in order to be able to maintain his work as a professor-researcher at the university, he must meet the quantitative criteria imposed by the managerial model. This model is increasingly solidified in the Brazilian neoliberal State, dictating the rules for the operation of the institution “Brazilian public university”. The professor is then evaluated by constant accountability about his work, the result of which unfolds in scores that keep him or not in his job as a researcher. Managerialism has been so perversely consolidated that either nursing professors align with this proposal or they are out of the production of knowledge, since there is still no clarity on possible mechanisms of resistance to this model.

In the pedagogical field, nursing professors are being driven to base their teaching choices each time more on managerial impositions and less and less on de facto pedagogical frameworks, even less on those based on dialectical, critical and emancipatory theories.

Resistance to the maintenance of the management model and its implementation devices becomes an increasingly complex and challenging task in the public university, because the pedagogical foundations in dialectical theories are scarce because they do not find space in the managerial model and in the university-enterprise. In this sense, resistance becomes a movement of adaptation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Our acknowledgments to Professor Gilles Monceau for the numerous reflections provoked during the development of the thesis; to Professor Solange L'Abbate in her discipline on Institutional Analysis; to Professor Sébastien Pesce for his acceptance and supervision at the international exchange program, a provocative moment of deterritorializations necessary for the analytical consolidation; to Professor Noeli Prestes Padilha Rivas, for the problematization of university teaching; and to Professor Maria José Bistafa Pereira for her reflections on public health.

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NOTES

ORIGIN OF THE ARTICLEExtracted from thesis - The nursing faculty and the teaching in higher education: between pedagogical theories and management, presented to the Postgraduate Program in Psychiatric Nursing Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, in 2018

FUNDING INFORMATIONNational Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq): social demand scholarship process No. 147900/2014-0; and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel - Brazil (CAPES) - Financing Code 001 - CAPES-PDSE Notice No. 19/2016 and Case No. 88881.133978/2016-01.

APPROVAL OF ETHICS COMMITTEE IN RESEARCH Approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, under Opinion No. 2,144,477, CAAE No. 37750214.9.0000.5393.

Received: October 26, 2018; Accepted: April 01, 2019

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR José Renato Gatto Júnior jose.gatto@usp.br

CONTRIBUTION OF AUTHORITY

Study desiing: Gatto Júnior JR. Data production: Gatto Júnior JR. Analysis and interpretation of data: Gatto Júnior JR, Fortuna CM. Discussion of the results: Gatto Júnior JR, Fortuna CM, Sousa LA, Santana FR. Writing and/or critical review of content: Gatto Júnior JR, Fortuna CM, Sousa LA, Santana FR. Review and final approval of the final version: Gatto Júnior JR, Fortuna CM, Sousa LA, Santana FR.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

There is no conflict of interest.

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