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Print version ISSN 0104-4060

Educ. rev.  no.16 Curitiba Jan./Dec. 2000

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0104-4060.211 

ARTIGOS DE DEMANDA CONTÍNUA

 

Cognição situada e a cultura da aprendizagem: algumas considerações

 

 

Cristina Azra Barrenechea

Professora do Setor de Educação, da UFPR. cristinab2001@yahoo.com.br

 

 


RESUMO

Este trabalho comenta as declarações levantadas no artigo de Brown, Collins e Duguid's, intitulado "Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning" (1989). Nesse artigo, os autores apresentam um modelo para ensinar o conhecimento dentro de contexto de funcionamento. Eles também sugerem que os métodos usados na educação não são efetivos para uma aprendizagem robusta e duradoura. O presente trabalho discute algumas das evidencias desse estudo apontando para a necessidade de um estudo mais extensivo não apenas nos modelos de aplicação como também em sua fundamentação teórica. De acordo com os autores, a cognição do conhecimento tem uma natureza situada porque partes importantes dela são implícitas ao seu contexto de atividade. A educação atual esquematiza conceitos gerais de um conhecimento para facilitar sua explicação para os alunos. No entanto, essa forma de ensinar um conhecimento é muito abstraída da situação real que produziu este conhecimento. Por isso, os alunos terminam aprendendo um tipo passivo de conhecimento, pois eles não aprendem como ele funciona em uma situação real. Assim, pela falta de conhecer o contexto no qual um conhecimento opera, os alunos não aprendem a aplicar aquele conhecimento propriamente. O contexto de atividade de um conhecimento detém importantes aspectos de conhecimento implícitos em uma forma cultural de ver, produzir e usar as ferramentas. Ao experienciar todos estes aspectos, os alunos podem construir modelos operativos para produzir um tipo de conhecimento ativo, que é abertamente influenciado pelo contexto de aplicação. Os autores sustentam que o conhecimento deveria ser ensinado em uma visão integrada de seu contexto, atividade, ferramentas e cultura, que têm um importante pa-pel na cognição deste conhecimento.

Palavras-chave: ciência cognitiva, aprendizagem, educação ancorada.


ABSTRACT

This work comments on the claims raised on Brown, Collins and Duguid's article " Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning" ( 1989 ). In that article, the authors present a model for approaching knowledge on a more work like context. They also suggest that the way schooling methods approach knowledge are not effective for an enduring learning. This work discusses some of the main evidences of their study pointing at the need of a more thorough study not only on workable models but also on theoretical framework. According to the authors, the cognition of a knowledge has a situated nature because its important parts are placed in its context of activity. Current education schematize general concepts of a knowledge to make its explanation easier to the students. However, this way of teaching a knowledge is too abstracted from the real situation that produced this knowledge. Therefore students end up learning a passive kind of knowledge for they don't learn how it works in a real situation. Hence, by lacking to know the context in which knowledge works, students don't learn how to apply that knowledge properly. The context of knowledge activity holds important features of the know-ledge that are implicit in the cultural perceptions of practitioners, which produce and use the tools. By experiencing all of these aspects, students can build operating models to produce an active kind of knowledge, that is openly influenced by its application's context. The authors claim that knowledge should be taught in an integrated view of its context, activity, tools and culture, which have an important role on the knowledge's cognition.

Key-words: cognitive science, learning, anchored instruction.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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1 A tradução de aprendizagem vem no contexto de Apprenticeship, é um termo usado para designar o processo de aprendizado ou treinamento dos artesãos e dos aprendizes em um ofício.
2 Apprenticeship é um termo usado para designar o processo de aprendizado dos artesãos, o processo de iniciação dos aprendizes em um ofício.

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