SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.5 issue10Quilombolas e direitos humanos no SurinameNOVAES, Regina Reyes. De corpo e alma: catolicismo, classes sociais e conflitos no campo. Rio de Janeiro: Graphic, 1997. 238 p. author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Horizontes Antropológicos

Print version ISSN 0104-7183On-line version ISSN 1806-9983

Horiz. antropol. vol.5 no.10 Porto Alegre May 1999

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-71831999000100010 

Espaço Aberto

Traficando con hombres: la antropología de la masculinidad

Matthew C. Gutmann1 

1Brown University – Estados Unidos

Resumen

La antropología siempre ha tenido que ver con hombres hablando con hombres sobre hombres, no obstante es bastante reciente el que dentro de la disciplina unos pocos hayan realmente examinado a los hombres como hombres. Este articulo explora el cómo entienden, utilizan y discuten los antropólogos la categoría de masculinidad mediante la revisión de análisis recientes sobre los hombres como sujetos que tienen género a la vez que lo otorgan. Se comienza con las descripciones de cuatro formas distintas de definición y tratamiento de la masculinidad en la antropología, y se presta atención especial a las relaciones de diferencia, desigualdad, y mujeres con el estudio antropológico de las masculinidades, incluida la curiosa omisión de la teoría feminista por patie de numerosos antropólogos estudiosos de lo varonil. Los temas específicos que se discuten abarcan las diversas economías culturales de la masculinidad, la noción de regiones culturales en relación a las imágenes de hombría, amistad masculina, machismo, corporalidad masculina, violencia, poder, y fisuras sexuales.

Palabras clave cuerpo; machismo; masculinidad; relaciones de género

Resumo

A antropologia sempre foi uma questão de homens falando com homens sobre homens. Apenas recentemente, alguns poucos antropólogos começaram a estudar homens enquanto homens. Este artigo considera como estes antropólogos entendem, usam e discutem a categoria de masculinidade em análises recentes. Iniciamos com a descrição de quatro maneiras distintas de definir e tratar a masculinidade, chamando atenção inclusive para a omissão curiosa da teoria feminista por parte de muitos pesquisadores. Prosseguimos com a reflexão sobre as diversas economias culturais da masculinidade, a noção de regiões culturais em relação às imagens de bravura, amizade masculina, machismo, corporalidade masculina, violência, poder, e fissuras sexuais.

Palavras-chave corpo; machismo; masculinidade; relações de gênero

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

Referencias

1 ALLISON, A. Nightwork: sexuality, pleasure, and corporate masculinity in a Tokyo hostess club. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. [ Links ]

2 ALMAGUER, T. Chicano men: a cartography of homosexual identity and behavior. Diferences, v. 3, n. 2, p. 75-100, 1991. [ Links ]

3 ALTER, J. S. The wrestler’s body: identity and ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. [ Links ]

4 ARDENER, E. The voice of prophecy and other essays. London: Basil Blackwell, 1989. [ Links ]

5 BACA-ZINN, M. Chicano men and masculinity. Journal of Ethnic Studies, v. 10, n. 2, p. 29-44, 1982. [ Links ]

6 BATTAGLIA, D. “We feed our father”: paternal nurture among the Sabarl of Papua New Guinea. American Ethnologist, v. 12, n. 3, p. 427-441, 1985. [ Links ]

7 BENEDICT, R. Patterns of culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934. [ Links ]

8 BLOCH, M. From blessing to violence: history and ideology in the circumcision ritual of the Merina of Madagascar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. [ Links ]

9 BLOCH, M. Descent and sources of contradiction in representations of women and kinship. In: COLLIER, J. F.; YANAGISAKO, S. J. (Ed.). Gender and kinship: essays toward a unified analysis. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987. p. 324-337. [ Links ]

10 BLY, R. Hombres de hierro. Buenos Aires: Planeta, 1992. [ Links ]

11 BOLTON, R. Machismo in motion: the ethos of Peruvian truckers. Ethos, v. 7, n. 4, p. 312-342, 1979. [ Links ]

12 BOURDIEU, P. Le sens pratique. Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980. [ Links ]

13 BOURDIEU, P. A dominação masculina. Educação e Realidade, v. 20, n. 2, p. 133-184, 1995. [ Links ]

14 BOURDIEU, P. Masculine domination revisited. Berkeley Journal of Sociology, Quito: Ediciones ABYA-YALA, p. 9-108, 1997. [ Links ]

15 BOURGOIS, P. In search of respect: selling crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. [ Links ]

16 BOWDEN, R. Art and gender ideology in the Sepik. Man, v. 19, n. 3, p. 445-458, 1984. [ Links ]

17 BRANA-SHUTE, G. On the corner: male social life in a Paramaribo Creole neighborhood. Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1979. [ Links ]

18 BRANDES, S. Sex roles and anthropological research in rural Andalusia. Women’s Studies, n. 13, p. 357-372, 1987. [ Links ]

19 BRANDES, S. Metáforas de la masculinidad: sexo y estatus en el folklore andaluz. Madrid: Taurus, 1991. [ Links ]

20 BRISON, K. Changing constructions of masculinity in a Sepik society. Ethnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 155-175, 1995. [ Links ]

21 BROUDE, G. J. Protest masculinity: a further look at the causes and the concept. Ethos, v. 18, n. 1, p. 103-122, 1990. [ Links ]

22 BRUSCO, E. E. The reformation of machismo: evangelical conversion and gender in Columbia. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995. [ Links ]

23 CARRIER, J. M. De los otros: intimacy and homosexuality among Mexican men. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. [ Links ]

24 CASTELAIN-MEUNIER, C. Les hommes, aujourd’hui: virilite et identité. Paris: Acropole, 1988. [ Links ]

25 CATH, S. H.; GURWITT, A.; GUNSBERG, L. (Ed.). Fathers and their families. Hillsdale: Analytic Press, 1989. [ Links ]

26 CHAGNON, N. A. Yanomamo: the fierce people. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968. [ Links ]

27 CHODOROW, N. J. Femininities, masculinities, sexualities: Freud and beyond. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1994. [ Links ]

28 COHEN, L. The pleasures of castration: the postoperative status of hijras, jankhas, and academics”. In: ABRAMSON, R. R.; PINKERTON, S. D. (Ed.). Sexual nature, sexual culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995a. p. 276-304. [ Links ]

29 COHEN, L. Holi in Banaras and the Mahaland of modernity. Gay and Lesbian Quarterly, n. 2, p. 399-424, 1995b. [ Links ]

30 COHN, C. Sex and death in the rational world of defense intellectuals. Signs, v. 12, n. 4, p. 687-718, 1987. [ Links ]

31 COMAROFF, J. Body of power, spirit of resistance: the culture and history of a South African people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. [ Links ]

32 CONNELL, R. W. Gender and power: society, the person and sexual politics. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987. [ Links ]

33 CONNELL, R. W. Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. [ Links ]

34 COUNIHAN, C. Transvestism and gender in a Sardinian Carnival. Anthropology, n. 9, p. 11-24, 1985. [ Links ]

35 COUNTS, D. A.; BROWN, J. K.; CAMPBELL, J. C. (Ed.). Sanctions and sanctuary: cultural perspectives on the beating of wives. Boulder: Westview, 1992. [ Links ]

36 COWAN, J. K. Dance and the body politic in Northern Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. [ Links ]

37 DE BARBIERI, T. Sobre géneros, prácticas y valores: notas acerca de posibles erosiones del machismo en México. In: SÁIZ, J. M. R. (Org.). Normas y prácticas: morales y cívicas en la vida cotidiana. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1990. p. 83-106. [ Links ]

38 DELANEY, C. The seed and the soil: gender and cosmology in Turkish village society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. [ Links ]

39 DI LEONARDO, M. Methodology and misinterpretation of women’s status in kinship studies: a case study of Goodenough and the definition of marriage. American Ethnologist, v. 6, n. 4, p. 627-637, 1979. [ Links ]

40 DUNDES, A. A psychoanalytic study of the bullroarer. Man, n. 11, p. 220-238, 1976. [ Links ]

41 DUNDES, A. Into the endzone for a touchdown: a psychoanalytic consideration of American football. Western Folklore, n. 37, p. 75-88, 1978. [ Links ]

42 DUNEIER, M. Slim’s table: race, respectability, and masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. [ Links ]

43 DURKHEIM, E. A divisão do trabalho social. Lisboa: Presença, 1984. [ Links ]

44 DWYER, O. Images and self-images: male and female in Morocco. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978. [ Links ]

45 ELLISTON, D. A. Erotic anthropology: “ritualized homosexuality” in Melanesia and beyond. American Ethnologist, v. 22, n. 4, p. 848-867, 1995. [ Links ]

46 EVANS-PRITCHARD, E. E. (Comp.). Man and woman among the Azande. London: Faber and Faber, 1974. [ Links ]

47 FANON, F. Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove, 1967. [ Links ]

48 FIGUEROA, J. G. Algunas propuestas analíticas para interpretar la presencia de los varones en los procesos de salud reproductiva. In: VALDÉS, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1998. p. 175-198. [ Links ]

49 FOUCAULT, M. História da sexualidade: vol. 1. Rio de Janeiro: Graal, 1977. [ Links ]

50 FOUCAULT, M. Herculine Barbin: being the recently discovered memoirs of a nineteenth-century French hermaphrodite. New York: Pantheon, 1980. [ Links ]

51 FRIED, M.; HARRIS, M.; MURPHY, R. (Ed.). War: the anthropology of armed conflict and aggression. New York: Natural History, 1967. [ Links ]

52 FRIEDL, E. Women and men: an anthropologist’s view. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, 1984. [ Links ]

53 FULLER, N. Identidades masculinas: varones de clase media en el Perú. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 1997. [ Links ]

54 FULLER, N. La constitución social de la identidad de género entre varones urbanos del Perú. In: VALDÉS, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1998. p. 56-68. [ Links ]

55 GILMORE, D. D. Manhood in the making: cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. [ Links ]

56 GILMORE, D. D. Commodity, comity, community: male exchange in rural Andalusia. Ethnology, v. 30, n. 1, p. 17-30, 1991. [ Links ]

57 GILMORE, M. M.; GILMORE, D. D. Machismo: a psychodynamic approach. Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology, v. 2, n. 3, p. 281-300, 1979. [ Links ]

58 GINSBURG, F. The “word-made” flesh: the disembodiment of gender in the abortion debate. In: GINSBURG, F.; TSING, A. L. (Ed.). Uncertain terms: negotiating gender in American culture. Boston: Beacon, 1990. p. 59-75. [ Links ]

59 GODELIER, M. La formación de grandes hombres: poder y dominación masculina entre los baruya de New Guinea. Madrid: Akal Universitaria, 1986. [ Links ]

60 GODELIER, M.; STRATHERN, M. (Ed.). Big men and great men: personifications of power in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. [ Links ]

61 GREENBERG, D. F. The construction of homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. [ Links ]

62 GREENBERG, J. Blood ties: life and violence in rural Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989. [ Links ]

63 GREGOR, T. Anxious pleasures: the sexual life of an Amazonian people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. [ Links ]

64 GREGORY, J. R. The myth of the male ethnographer and the woman’s world. American Anthropologist, n. 86, p. 316-327, 1984. [ Links ]

65 GUTMANN, M. C. Ser hombre de verdad en la Ciudad de México: ni macho ni mandilón. México: El Colegio de México: Editorial Paidós, 1998. [ Links ]

66 GUTMANN, M. C. Las fronteras corporales de género: las mujeres en la negociación de la masculinidad. In: VIVEROS, M.; GARAY, G. (Org.). Cuerpo, diferencias y desigualdades. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1999. p. 105-123. [ Links ]

67 GUY, D. J. Sex and danger in Buenos Aires: prostitution, family, and nation in Argentina. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992. [ Links ]

68 HERDT, G. (Ed.). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. [ Links ]

69 HERDT, G. The Sambia: ritual and gender in New Guinea. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1987. [ Links ]

70 HERDT, G. (Ed.). Ritualized homosexuality in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. [ Links ]

71 HERDT, G. Guardians of the flutes: idioms of masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. [ Links ]

72 HERDT, G.; STOLLER, R. J. Intimate communications: erotics and the study of culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. [ Links ]

73 HERMAN, E. The romance of American psychology: political culture in the age of experts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. [ Links ]

74 HERZFELD, M. The poetics of manhood: contest and identity in a Cretan mountain village. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985. [ Links ]

75 HERZFELD, M. ‘As in your own house”: hospitality, ethnography, and the stereotype of Mediterranean society. In: GILMORE, D. D. (Ed.). Honor and shame and the unity of the Mediterranean. Washington: American Anthropological Association, 1987. p. 75-89. [ Links ]

76 HERZFELD, M. Silence, submission, and subversion: toward a poetics of womanhood. In: LOIZOS, P.; PAPATAXIARCHIS, E. (Ed.). Contested identities: gender and kinship in modern Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. p. 79-97. [ Links ]

77 HEWLETT, B. S. Intimate fathers: the nature and context of Aka Pygmy paternal infant care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991. [ Links ]

78 HOLLOS, M.; LEIS, P. Becoming Nigerian in Ijo society. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989. [ Links ]

79 JACOBS, S. E.; THOMAS, W.; LANG, S. (Ed.). Two-spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality and spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997. [ Links ]

80 JARDIM, D. Espaço social e auto-segração entre homens: gostos, sonoridades e masculinidade. Cadernos de Antropologia, Porto Alegre: UFRGS, n. 7, p. 29-42, 1992. [ Links ]

81 KATZ, J. The invention of heterosexuality. Socialist Review, n. 1, p. 7-34, 1990. [ Links ]

82 KEESING, R. M. Introduction. In: HERDT, G. (Ed.). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. p. 1-43. [ Links ]

83 KNAUSS, P. The persistance of patriarchy: class, gender, and ideology in twentieth century Algeria. New York: Praeger, 1987. [ Links ]

84 KOHRMAN, M. Motorcycles for the disabled: power, mobility, and the transformation of experience in urban China. 1997. Manuscrito. [ Links ]

85 KONNER, M. The tangled wing: biological constraints on the human spirit. New York: Harper, 1982. [ Links ]

86 LANCASTER, R. N. Life is hard: machismo, danger, and the intimacy of power in Nicaragua. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. [ Links ]

87 LANCASTER, R. N. On homosexualities in Latin America (and other places). American Ethnologist, v. 24, n. 1, p. 193-202, 1997a. [ Links ]

88 LANCASTER, R. N. Guto’s performance: notes on the transvestism of everyday life. In: BALDERSTON, D.; GUY, D. J. (Ed.). Sex and sexuality in Latin America. New York: New York University Press, 1997b. [ Links ]

89 LANCASTER, R. N. The queer body. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. [ Links ]

90 LAQUEUR, T. La construcción del sexo: cuerpo y género desde los griegos hasta Freud. Madrid: Cátedra, 1994. [ Links ]

91 LEACOCK, E. Myths of male dominance. New York: Monthly Review, 1981. [ Links ]

92 LEAL, O. F. (Org.). Cadernos de Antropologia: Cultura e identidade masculina. Porto Alegre: UFRGS, n. 7, 1992. [ Links ]

93 LEE, R. B. What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scare resources. In: LEE, R. B.; DEVORE, I. (Ed.). Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine, 1968. p. 30-48. [ Links ]

94 LEINER, M. Sexual politics in Cuba: machismo, homosexuality, and AIDS. Boulder: Westview, 1994. [ Links ]

95 LÉVI-STRAUSS, C. Las estructuras elementales del parentesco. Barcelona: Paidós, 1991a. [ Links ]

96 LÉVI-STRAUSS, C. O cru e o cozido: mitológicas. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1991b. [ Links ]

97 LEWGOY, B. Os cafés na vida urbana de Porto Alegre (1920-1940): as transformações em um espaço de sociabilidade masculino. Cadernos de Antropologia, Porto Alegre: UFRGS, n. 7, p. 61-80, 1992. [ Links ]

98 LEWIS, O. Tepoztlán: un pueblo de México. México: Joaquín Mortiz, 1968. [ Links ]

99 LIENDRO, E. Masculinidades y violencia desde un programa de acción en México. In: VALDÉS, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1998. p. 130-136. [ Links ]

100 LIMÓN, J. Dancing with the Devil: society and cultural poetics in Mexican-American South Texas. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994. [ Links ]

101 LOMNITZ, L. A. Cómo sobreviven los marginados. México: Siglo Veintiuno, 1975. [ Links ]

102 LOMNITZ, L. A.; PÉREZ-LIZAUR, M. Una familia de la élite mexicana, 1820-1980. México: Alianza, 1993. [ Links ]

103 LUHRMANN, T. M. The good Parsi: the fate of a colonial elite in a postcolonial society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. [ Links ]

104 LUMSDEN, I. Machos, maricones, and gays: Cuba and homosexuality. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. [ Links ]

105 LUTZ, C. The gender of theory. In: BEHAR, R.; GORDON, D. A. (Ed.). Women writing culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. p. 249-266. [ Links ]

106 MACCORMACK, C.; STRATHERN, M. (Ed.). Nature, culture and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980. [ Links ]

107 MAGEO, J. M. Male transvestism and cultural change in Samoa. American Ethnologist, v. 19, n. 3, p. 443-459, 1992. [ Links ]

108 MALINOWSKI, B. Sexo e repressão na sociedade selvagem. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1973. [ Links ]

109 MALINOWSKI, B. A vida sexual dos selvagens. Rio de Janeiro: Francisco Alves, 1983. [ Links ]

110 MARSHALL, M. Weekend warriors: alcohol in a Micronesian culture. Palo Alto: Mayfield, 1979. [ Links ]

111 MEAD, M. Male and female: a study of the sexes in a changing world. New York: William Morrow, 1975. [ Links ]

112 MEAD, M. Sexo y temperamento en tres sociedades primitivas. Barcelona: Paidós, 1982. [ Links ]

113 MERLEAU-PONTY, M. Phenomenology of perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. [ Links ]

114 MERNISSI, F. Beyond the veil: male-female dynamics in a modern Muslim society. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1987. [ Links ]

115 MIRANDE, A. Hombres y machos: masculinity and Latino culture. Boulder: Westview, 1997. [ Links ]

116 MONSIVÁIS, C. Escenas de pudor y liviandad. México: Grijalbo, 1981. [ Links ]

117 MONTOYA, O. Nadando contra corriente: buscando pistas para prevenir la violencia masculina en las relaciones de pareja. Managua: Puntos de Encuentro, 1998. [ Links ]

118 MOORE, H. L. Feminismo y antropología. Madrid: Cátedra, 1991. [ Links ]

119 MORGAN, L. H. Ancient society. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985. [ Links ]

120 MOSSE, G. L. The image of man: the creation of modern masculinity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. [ Links ]

121 MURPHY, Y.; MURPHY, R. F. Women of the forest. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. [ Links ]

122 MURRAY, S. O. Latin American male homosexualities. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995. [ Links ]

123 NANDA, S. Neither man nor woman: the hijras of India. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1990. [ Links ]

124 NEWMAN, P. L.; BOYD, D. J. The making of men: ritual and meaning in Awa male initiation. In: HERDT, G. (Ed.). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982, p. 239-285. [ Links ]

125 NEWTON, E. Mother camp: female impersonators in America. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1972. [ Links ]

126 NORDSTROM, C.; MARTIN, J. (Ed.). The paths to domination, resistance, and terror. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. [ Links ]

127 OLIVEN, R. A parte e o todo: a diversidade cultural no Brasil-Nação. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1992. [ Links ]

128 ORTNER, S. B. Está a mulher para o homem assim como a natureza para a cultura?. In: ROSALDO, M.; LAMPHERE, L. (Org.). A mulher, a cultura e a sociedade. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1979. [ Links ]

129 ORTNER, S. B.; WHITEHEAD, H. Accounting for sexual meanings. In: ORTNER, S. B.; WHITEHEAD, H. (Ed.). Sexual meanings: the cultural construction of gender and sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. p. 1-27. [ Links ]

130 PAIGE, K. E.; PAIGE, J. M. The politics of reproductive ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. [ Links ]

131 PAPATAXIARCHIS, E. Friends of the heart: male commensal solidarity, gender, and kinship in Aegean Greece. In: LOIZOS, P.; PAPATAXIARCHIS, E. (Ed.). Contested identities: gender and kinship in modern Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. p. 156-179. [ Links ]

132 PARKER, R. G. A construção da solidariedade: AIDS, sexualidade e política no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Relume-Dumará, 1994. [ Links ]

133 PARKER, R. G.; GAGNON, J. H. (Ed.). Conceiving sexuality: approaches to sex research in a postmodern world. New York: Routledge, 1995. [ Links ]

134 PARKER, S.; PARKER, H. Male gender identity in the Israeli kibbutz: reflections on “protest masculinity”. Ethos, v. 20, n. 3, p. 340-357, 1992. [ Links ]

135 PARKER, A. et al. (Ed.). Nationalisms and sexualities. New York: Routledge, 1992. [ Links ]

136 PARSONS, T.; BALES, R. F. Family, socialization and interaction process. New York: Free Press, 1955. [ Links ]

137 PELETZ, M. G. Reason and passion: representations of gender in a Malay society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. [ Links ]

138 POOLE, F. J. P. The ritual forging of identity: aspects of person and self in Bimin-Kuskusmin male initiation. In: HERDT, G. (Ed.). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. p. 99-154. [ Links ]

139 RAMÍREZ, R. L. Dime capitán: reflexiones sobre la masculinidad. Río Piedras: Ediciones Huracán, 1993. [ Links ]

140 READ, K. E. Nama cult of the Central Highlands, New Guinea. Oceana, v. 23, n. 1, p. 1-25, 1952. [ Links ]

141 ROBERTSON, J. The politics of androgyny in Japan: sexuality and subversion in the theater and beyond. American Ethnologist, v. 19, n. 2, p. 419-442, 1992. [ Links ]

142 ROGERS, S. C. Female forms of power and the myth of male dominance: a model of female/male interaction in peasant society. American Ethnologist, v. 2, n. 4, p. 727-755, 1975. [ Links ]

143 ROSCOE, W. The Zuni man-woman. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991. [ Links ]

144 RUBIN, G. El tráfico en las mujeres: notas acerca de la “economía política” del sexo. New Antropología, n. 8, p. 95-145, 1986. [ Links ]

145 RUBIN, G. Thinking sex: notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality. In: ABELOVE, H. et al. (Ed.). The lesbian and gay studies reader. New York: Routledge, 1993. p. 3-44. [ Links ]

146 RUBIN, G. Sexual traffic: interview. Differences, v. 6, n. 2-3, p. 62-99, 1994. [ Links ]

147 SACKS, K. Sisters and wives: the past and future of sexual inequality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982. [ Links ]

148 SANDAY, P. R. Fraternity gang rape: sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York: New York University Press, 1990. [ Links ]

149 SCHEPER-HUGHES, N. Saints, scholars, and schizophrenics: mental illness in rural Ireland. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. [ Links ]

150 SCHEPER-HUGHES, N. Death without weeping: the violence of everyday life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. [ Links ]

151 SCHWALBE, M. Unlocking the iron cage: the men’s movement, gender, politics, and American culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. [ Links ]

152 SEDGWICK, E. K. Between men: English literature and male homosocial desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. [ Links ]

153 SMITH, R. The negro family in British Guiana: family structure and social status in the villages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956. [ Links ]

154 SPIRO, M. E. Oedipus in the Trobriands. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. [ Links ]

155 STACK, C. All our kin: strategies for survival in a black community. New York: Harper and Row, 1974. [ Links ]

156 STERN, S. J. The secret history of gender: women, men, and power in late colonial Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. [ Links ]

157 STOLER, A. L. Carnal knowledge and imperial power: gender, race, and morality in colonial Asia. In: DI LEONARDO, M. (Ed.). Gender at the crossroads of knowledge: feminist anthropology in the postmodern era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. p. 51-101. [ Links ]

158 STRATHERN, M. Gender of the gift: problems with women and problems with society in Melanesia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. [ Links ]

159 STREICKER, J. Policing boundaries: race, class, and gender in Cartagena, Colombia. American Ethnologist, v. 22, n. 1, p. 54-74, 1995. [ Links ]

160 TAGGART, J. M. Gender segregation and cultural constructions of sexuality in two Hispanic societies. American Ethnologist, v. 19, n. 1, p. 75-96, 1992. [ Links ]

161 TIGER, L. Men in groups. New York: Marion Boyars, 1984. [ Links ]

162 TSING, A. L. In the realm of the Diamond Queen: marginality in an out-of-the-way place. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. [ Links ]

163 TUZIN, D. F. Ritual violence among the Ilahita Arapesh: the dynamics of moral and religious uncertainty. In: HERDT, G. (Ed.). Rituals of manhood: male initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. p. 321-355. [ Links ]

164 TUZIN, D. F. The Cassowary’s revenge: the life and death of masculinity in a New Guinea society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. [ Links ]

165 VALDÉS, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidad/es: poder y crisis. Santiago de Chile: ISIS Internacional, 1997. [ Links ]

166 VALDES, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1998. [ Links ]

167 VIVEROS, M. Los estudios sobre lo masculino en América Latina: una producción emergente. Nómadas, n. 6, p. 55-65, 1997. [ Links ]

168 VIVEROS, M. Quebradores y cumplidores: biografías diversas de la masculinidad. In: VALDES, T.; OLAVARRÍA, J. (Org.). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: FLACSO, 1998. p. 36-55. [ Links ]

169 VIVEROS, M.; GÓMEZ, F. La elección de esterilización masculina. In: MUJERES, HOMBRES Y CAMBIO SOCIAL. Bogotá: Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1998. p. 85-131. [ Links ]

170 WACQUANT, L. J. D. The pugilistic point of view: how boxers think and feel about their trade. Theory and Society, v. 24, n. 4, p. 489-535, 1995a. [ Links ]

171 WACQUANT, L. J. D. Pugs at work: bodily capital and bodily labour among professional boxers. Body and Society, v. 1, n. 1, p. 65-93, 1995b. [ Links ]

172 WACQUANT, L. J. D. The prizefighter’s three bodies. 1997. Manuscrito. [ Links ]

173 WEEKS, J. Sexuality and its discontents: meanings, myths, and modern sexualities. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985. [ Links ]

174 WELZER-LANG, D.; PICHEVIN, M. (Ed.). Des hommes et du masculin. Lyon: Presses Universitaires, Centre de Recherches et d’Etudes Anthropologiques, 1992. [ Links ]

175 WEST, M. M.; KONNER, M. J. The role of the father: an anthropological perspective. In: LAMB, M. E. (Ed.). The role of the father in child development. New York: John Wiley, 1976. p. 185-218. [ Links ]

176 WESTON, K. Lesbian/gay studies in the house of anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, n. 22, p. 339-367, 1993. [ Links ]

177 WHITEHEAD, H. The bow and the burden strap: a new look at institutionalized homosexuality in Native North America. In: ORTNER, S. B.; WHITEHEAD, H. (Ed.). Sexual meanings: the cultural construction of gender and sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. p. 80-115. [ Links ]

178 WHITING, B. B. (Ed.). Six cultures: studies of child rearing. New York: Wiley, 1963. [ Links ]

179 WHITING, B. B.; WHITING, J. W. M. Children of six cultures: a psycho-cultural analysis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975. [ Links ]

180 WHITING, J. W. M.; KLUCKHOHN, R.; ANTHONY, A. The function of male initiation ceremonies at puberty. In: MACCOBY, E. E. et al. (Ed.). Readings in social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958. p. 359-370. [ Links ]

181 WILLIAMS, W. The spirit and the flesh: sexual diversity in American Indian culture. Boston: Beacon, 1988. [ Links ]

182 WILLIS, P. Learning to labor: how working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. [ Links ]

183 WILSON, C. Hidden in the blood: a personal investigation of AIDS in the Yucatan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. [ Links ]

184 YANAGISAKO, S. J.; COLLIER, J. F. Toward a unified analysis of gender and kinship. In: COLLIER, J. F.; YANAGISAKO, S. J. (Ed.). Gender and kinship: essays toward a unified analysis. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987. p. 14-50. [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución 4.0 Internacional.