versão ISSN 0104-7930
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins v.8 n.1 Botucatu 2002
EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PROPOLIS EXTRACTS
THESIS. E. C. Almeida submitted this dissertation for his degree of Master of Sciences publicly examined at the Department of Biology of Rio Claro Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University UNESP Rio Claro, Brazil, in 2000.
Advisor: Professor Hércules Menezes
ABSTRACT. Propolis is known for its medical properties, including anti-microbiotic and anti-hypotensive properties. Literature about the anti-inflammatory activity is scarce. In vivo models of experimentally induced inflammation were adapted to inbred mice BALB/c (19-23 g). Commercial extracts of propolis (CEP) from Apis mellifera randomly acquired in drugstores or in shops that sell apiculture products were tested with samples of ethanolic extracts prepared in our laboratory according to pre-established concentrations (20%-40%) intraperitoneally (IP) and by topical application to the skin. Seven criteria were used: (1) the 0.01% yeast-induced peritonitis model; (2) the ear edema model induced by 2mg arachidonic acid (AA) and croton oil (CO) (Croton sp); (3) the plantar edema model induced by 1% carrageenin; (4) the cotton-pellet granuloma model; (5) the arthritis model induced by 5mg/mL Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA); (6) Arthus reaction induced by 2% ovalbumin; and (7) Delayed-type Hypersensitivity model (DTH) induced by 2% oxazolone. CEP anti-inflammatory activity was better in the following three of the above experimental models. In acute peritonitis model (1), 100% of CEP samples inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the peritoneal cavity when compared to traditional anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid (6mg/kg - IP); 30% showed a similar activity to indomethacin (1.3 mg/kg - IP); 20% were lower than the vehicle (ethanol 95% - 20ml IP); and 10% showed high anti-inflammatory levels (p<0.01). In the ear edema model (2) induced by 2mg AA, 32% of CEP samples showed anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the vehicle and standard drugs in a dose-dependent way. The other samples were innocuous and/or increased inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, in the ear edema model induced by CO (2), 96% of CEP samples were effective and only 4% showed an antagonic activity. In the DTH model (7), 100% of CEP samples inhibited the inflammatory reaction; 66.7% showed a similar activity to corticosteroids (topical 0.1mg hydrocortisone); and 11.1% was similar to the action of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent way. These results may be used to establish the standards for products containing propolis. However, comments about CEP anti-inflammatory activity may depend on route of administration, dose given, and therapeutic duration.
KEY WORDS: propolis; anti-inflammatory activity; Apis mellifera; honeybee.
E. C. de ALMEIDA- Departamento de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Câmpus de Dourados, Rod. Dourados-Itahum, km 12, Caixa Postal 533, 79804-970, Dourados, MS, Brazil. Fone: 55 75 224-8237 / Fax: 55 75 224-8019.