SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.25 issue2Teacher Self-Efficacy of Future Physical Education Teachers in Contexts of Inclusion in Basic EducationAn Exploratory Study on Strategies and Errors of a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder when Solving Partitive Division Problems author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial

Print version ISSN 1413-6538On-line version ISSN 1980-5470

Rev. bras. educ. espec. vol.25 no.2 Bauru Apr./June 2019  Epub June 13, 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1413-65382519000200004 

Research Report

Education and Pedagogical Policy of Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education in the Public Education Network of Manaus - Brazil

Julia Graziela Bernardino de Araújo QUEIROZ2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7812-3014

Elaine Maria Bessa Rebello GUERREIRO3 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2995-5949

2PhD student at the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM). Santa Maria/RS – Brazil. Master’s Degree in Technological Professional Education from the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Amazonas (Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas – IFAM). Teacher at the Municipal Education Department of Manaus. julia.queiroz@ semed.manaus.am.gov.br. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7812-3014

3Retired professor from IFAM. Volunteer Professor at the Professional Master’s in Technological Teaching at IFAM. Civil Engineer and Psychologist. Santa Maria/RS – Brazil. elaine.guerreiro@ifam.edu.br. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2995-5949

ABSTRACT:

This study aimed to analyze the education and pedagogical policy of Special Education in the municipal public education network of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in the light of the National Policy on Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education; to know the managers profile who work in the Specialized Educational Service (SES) of a particular District Area; describe the structure of operation of the network for the care of students of Special Education, as well as the Special Education Management actions for the continuing teacher education. The research participants were 13 managers. The instrument used in the interview was a semi-structured questionnaire produced in Sphinx Lexica Software. This is a qualitative and descriptive research, in which a documentary survey was initially carried out at the federal and municipal levels and their regulations. At the municipal level, information on enrollment, schools and SES institutionalization, Pedagogical Master Plan, multifunctional resource rooms and actions for the continuing teacher education were collected. The results showed that the educational structure of the Municipal Education Department, although it has some advances, needs improvements in order to comply with current legislation, especially with regard to the teacher education to work in the SES. Regarding the management in the schools, it was evidenced that the managers are not aware of the SES proposal. Consequently, this lack of information may limit the construction of an inclusive school, insofar as its institutionalization runs through information contained in legal documents, in the same way as the education of the school team, where actions need to be articulated with the Municipal Teaching System.

KEYWORDS: Special education; Inclusive education; Specialized Educational Service; Public education policies

1 Introduction

Respect for differences and diversity in school refers to the search for a society that coexists with each other, regardless of their physical or individual characteristics, where inclusion, in this perspective, becomes propulsive as a principle in education. In this context, according to Matos (2013), we are inserted in a society that seeks a relation of belonging, in which we can feel like members of it. Based on the principle of equality, the author adds:

there is something that brings us together that identifies us as people. We are included in this human society by the principle of identity, but we can be excluded by the principle of diversity whenever diversity results in discrimination. Therein lies our contradiction. We have to discuss inclusion, because there is an exclusionary society, which dichotomizes identity and diversity (Matos, 2013, p. 56).

Given this, the acceptance of differences must be present in the educational process, through which school starts disseminating new ways of welcoming all students, with or without disabilities.

Public policies aimed at school inclusion involve the creation of measures, which contemplate respect for differences in order to allow access and permanence and the development of learning, since students with special educational needs must have access to school, which needs to turn to a student-centered teaching, enabling the development of their learning capacities and needs. (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 1994).

The focus on this process is the student, subject of learning capable of learning since means and conditions are provided for this development, requiring a new posture of the school, given the history of exclusion that these students have experienced over the years, in which they were seen as incapable and excluded by society and school.

School’s challenge to become inclusive focuses on actions that guide the school universe, raising the understanding regarding inclusion, autonomy and independence of these students and inclusive pedagogical practices. However, the obstacles in the educational system related to the education of people with disabilities are latent and involve a series of situations, which are due to the lack of structural conditions, teacher education, curricular organization, exclusion and segregation of people with disabilities, learning difficulties, or those that, due to economic and social conditions, are out of school.

The documents that guide inclusive education in Brazil bring a new look at education, both internationally - such as the World Declaration Education for All, in Jomtien, (UNESCO, 1990), the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994), the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations [UN], 2006) -, and at the national level, with emphasis on the National Education Guidelines and Framework Law - Law no. 9,394, December 20, 1996, the National Policy on Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education (Política Nacional de Educação Especial na Perspectiva da Educação Inclusiva[PNEEPEI], 2008) and the Statute of the Person with Disabilities (Law no. 13,146, July, 6, 2015). These documents articulate measures and guide Special Education in the perspective of an inclusive school, with regard to the inclusion of the target public students of Special Education in regular education.

To Glat and Pletsch (2010), the difficulties encountered in the Brazilian educational system concerning the education of people with disabilities are beyond access to enrollment, since many are excluded from school, and these ones receive inadequate education due to lack of resources, qualified professionals, and also by the neglect of the public power in relation to their education.

In this sense, Glat (2011) emphasizes that Brazil has experienced controversial moments that separate the psycho-pedagogical perspective and heads for political and ideological issues, hindering its main focus, since the inclusive educational system presents problems and challenges that, however, need to be overcome, such as the social inequalities established by education policies and school relations. Thus, by identifying in the educational system its vulnerability and its difficulties, it is urgent to confront segregation practices and seek alternatives that aim to bring the school closer to an inclusive education, the articulation between the public authorities fomenting actions, thus ensuring conditions so that these difficulties are overcome.

Considering the rights granted by legal provisions, such as access to school enrollment and student retention, the municipality of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, through the Municipal Education Department of Manaus (SEMED), has expanded access to the enrollment of these students in the regular education and Specialized Educational Service (SES) in Multifunctional Resource Rooms (MRR). In the next section, we will present the methodological sequence of the survey, the analysis and the synthesis of this study, which was to learn of the actions of the education and pedagogical policy of SEMED in relation to the target public students of Special Education, in the light of the National Policy on Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education.

2 Method

In order to meet the proposed objectives, we opted for a qualitative and descriptive approach, because it emphasizes the process and not only the results. Thus, the descriptive data were analyzed in detail to understand the object of study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994; Sampieri, Collado, & Lucio, 2013).

For the research design, we also used documentary research, as it is an important technique, to complement the information and provide the consultation of legal or internal documents with data and information that are fundamental for the analysis of the investigated problem (Lüdke & André, 1996; Sá-Silva, Almeida, & Guindani, 2009; Gil, 2010).

In order to gather the official municipal documents of SEMED, Special Education Management, as well as the documents of the selected schools, such as the Pedagogical Master Plan (PMP), a field survey was carried out. Although the Municipal Educational Network is inserted in seven District Zones, due to the time available for the research, only one Zone was selected. The research was therefore undertaken in the West Zone of Manaus as it concentrates the largest number of educational units in the network, with 82 schools, and because it contains the largest number of Multifunctional Resource Rooms established, with a total of 13 MRRs.

The participants of the research were 13 managers of the schools of the Municipal Education Department of Manaus. The instrument used in the research for data collection was a semi-structured questionnaire produced in Sphinx Lexica Software4.

Because the research directly involves human beings, the study was submitted to the Research Ethics Committee through the Brazilian Platform and was approved by Opinion No. 1,982,537 and contemplates Resolution no. 466, of December 12, 2012, of the National Health Council (Conselho Nacional de Saúde - CNS), which assures the right of research collaborators, presenting the ethical principles in the Informed Consent Form.

3 Results and discussions

3.1 Profile and perception of managers regarding Special Education

Our sample, in the present study, was of 13 SEMED schools that have Multifunctional Resource Rooms, with 13 managers participating in the research. The profile of this sample consisted of 61.5% female and 38.5% male, aged 41 to 50 years old. About 61.5% of these work in the management of schools between four and ten years, with 53.8% of the managers in initial education in Pedagogy. This education of the predominant managers in Pedagogy is due to the fact that SEMED considers, for the exercise of the management,5 in schools of the educational network, teachers or pedagogues qualified in school administration, school inspection, educational guidance or school management.

Regarding the continuous education, 100% of the managers indicated that they have Graduate studies (latu sensu), some with more than one specialization, but none with Master’s or Doctorate. Among the areas of specialization, Educational Management (47.7%) stands out among the 11 most cited courses, and was performed by 76.92% of the managers. Only one manager has continuing education in the area of Special Education, which was a specialization in people with autism.

With this profile, it is observed that the education of managers present knowledge about school management that need to be intertwined with decentralized, shared and participative actions. Lück (2009), when describing the role of the pedagogical manager incorporated into the school context, analyzes that:

Pedagogical management is the most important of all dimensions of school management, since it is more directly involved with the focus on the school, which is to promote students’ learning and education […]’. It is the dimension to which all the others converge, since it refers to the main focus of teaching, which is the systematic and intentional action of promoting the education and learning of students (Lück, 2009, p. 95).

In order to identify the levels of knowledge of the managers with regard to specific knowledge of Special Education, some items that deal with the subject were listed. It was identified that 100% of the participants reported having read the PNEEPEI document. Of these, 84.6% in full form; and 15.4%, only partially. This shows that legal provisions and information on this area are being disseminated.

With regard to the institutionalization of Specialized Educational Service (SES) in the Pedagogical Master Plan of the school, 100% of the managers pointed out that the SES is contemplated in the Master Plan, but when questioned about how it is organized in the Master Plan of their school, 46.7% did not know how to inform. Those who were able to inform reported the characteristics of SES, such as their organization in the counterpart (20.0%), their partnership with the regular school teacher (6.7%), their organization at specific times according to the needs of the student (13.3%) and its basis in legal documents (13.3%). In this way, we highlight that the managers are unaware of the SES proposal. Consequently, this lack of information may limit the construction of an inclusive school, insofar as its institutionalization is permeated by information contained in legal documents, as well as the training of the school staff, whose actions need to be articulated to the Municipal Teaching System.

When the managers were questioned about the proposal of continuing education in the Pedagogical Master Plan of the school, 61.5% indicated that the school does not have this proposal. This fact was observed in the analysis of school Master Plans and, when mentioned, was linked to SEMED through the Municipal Center of Special Education; however, without much clarity as to how this education would take place.

Given this context, there is a need for a new vision regarding the organization of the school and the training of the professionals who work in it. In this sense, Silva (2015) affirms that there is an urgent need for the public school and its actors to recognize changes in the inclusive educational system, since the implementation of pedagogical actions is not limited to legal documents, but also to changes in pedagogical attitudes and practices.

Thus, to Vieira, Effgen, Nogueira, & Almeida (2011), even with the breadth of research and knowledge built, there is a need for investments in the training of managers, conceived as a government policy in the perspective of inclusion. Thus, this training will enable practices that can concretize the school as an inclusive school institution.

3.2 SEMED education and pedagogical policy regarding specialized educational Service

The education and pedagogical policy of the public schools of the municipality of Manaus is articulated to Resolution no. 038/2015, which deals with the general regulations of the teaching units of the Municipal Public Network of Manaus regarding the organization of schools towards the care of students of the Special Education, as well as Resolution no. 011/2016, which defines Special Education, its target audience, enrollment and specialized educational service through MRR and teacher education.

Resolution no. 038/2015 deals with the General Regulations of the teaching units of the Municipal Public Network of Manaus, promulgated on March 18, 2016. It is a document that establishes regulatory norms for administrative and pedagogical organization, serving as a parameter for the elaboration of the School Rules of the Units of Education of SEMED. Table 1 contains a summary of this Resolution in relation to Subsection II of Special Education, which is found in Chapter I.

Table 1 Summary of Resolution no. 038/2015 - Education Council of the Municipality/Manaus. 

Concept What Resolution no. 038/2016 says
Special Education It is the responsibility of Special Education as a principle of Inclusive Education to adopt the same definition both for definition of Special Education and the public attended by this modality of education, as explicit in its Art. 47 and 48. This resolution also communes the same spaces for the SES according to PNEEPEI 2008, but adds that this service can also be done in Resource Rooms and with support from the Municipal Center of Special Education.
MRR/RR This resolution also ensures, in Article 50, that the spaces for this service are adequate and organized in order to meet the educational needs of the students, as a way of providing access and participation in regular education, as well as the details in the internal bylaws of the schools about the care offered to these students.
Enrollment Its Art. 51 emphasizes access to student enrollment and provides guidance on the number of Special Education students to be enrolled in regular teaching rooms in order to provide conditions and respect for their singularities and specificities in the teaching and learning process and signals that the medical report is not mandatory at the time of enrollment; however, it indicates that the report may be presented later to complement the SES plan.
Referrals and assessment of students Its Art. 56 deals with the referrals that are necessary for the identification of the target public students of Special Education, to be carried out by the schools, with orientation of the professionals of the competent sector of SEMED, which will affect the evaluation of this student in the process of teaching and learning.
Special School Article 54 deals with the functioning of the special school André Vidal de Araújo, which is maintained by SEMED and, according to the Secretariat, is considered inclusive because it is based on the reconstruction and recognition of differences and pedagogical practices based on new educational strategies, offering pedagogical workshops focused on student training (acting in the productive world and training in the development of daily economic and labor activities).
Assessment of learning in schools Regarding the evaluation of these students, Art. 56 points out that it should be carried out by teachers and the school, as an integral part of the Pedagogical Proposal and the curriculum implementation, and the pedagogical action to be resized, having a procedural, formative and participative nature, be continuous, cumulative and diagnostic so that the students can adequately express their learning.
Teacher education Article 57 deals with the training of the professional to work in MRR, RR in the SES, which needs to have adequate training and the municipal education network must guarantee the continuing education for teachers who work in the SES, as well as for all that form the school team.

Source: Resolution no. 038-CME /2015. Adapted by the authors.

It is verified that Resolution no. 038/2015 brings with it measures for the organization of Special Education in the schools of the network, so it is guided in the construction of inclusive educational systems, considering the Special Education as support and provision of resources for the promotion of learning of the student. Regarding access in schools and SES, it does not indicate a mandatory medical report when enrolling, in order to comply with Technical Note No. 4, dated January 23, 2014, of the Ministry of Education & Secretariat for Continuing Education, Literacy, Diversity and Inclusion. However, the school points out its need to complement SES planning.

Subsequent to the approval of Resolution no. 038/2015, the Education Council of the Municipality of Manaus (CME) approved Resolution no. 011/CME, dated June 2, 2016, in which the guidelines and procedures for Special Education in the perspective of Inclusive Education in the Municipal Teaching System of Manaus.

This new Resolution is composed of 31 articles. Chapter IV contains Section I - Specialized Educational Service. As a result of its recent approval, it incorporated the principles addressed in the Brazilian Inclusion Law of 2015 (Law no. 13,146, dated July 6, 2015), as well as the 2014/2024 National Education Plan (Law no. 13,005, dated June 5, 2014). Regarding the definition of Special Education, it corroborates with PNEEPEI, in which it is transversal and perpasses all stages and modalities of teaching.

Considering that Resolution No. 011/CME is based on the PNEEPEI document, there is a need for schools to adapt to receive these students, since, to Baptista (2013, p. 47), “the challenges of the education system are numerous and the quest to qualify them to offer quality teaching with different pedagogical action plans ensure the inclusion process”. It is observed that the |Resolution introduces the principle of inclusion with recognition of differences and potentialities of the student and equality of conditions for permanence and success in school. However, in order for the inclusion principle to be effective and the school to become inclusive, it is necessary to provide conditions for the full development of the students.

Regarding the target population of Special Education, Resolution No. 011/CME defines students according to PNEEPEI; however, it modifies the term students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and justifies this change based on current legislation. Thus, the Resolution explicitly states in its Article 8, on ASD:

VII - Autistic Spectrum Disorder (TEA) - a person with autism spectrum disorder is considered to be the carrier of a clinical syndrome with the following characteristics:

a) persistent and clinically significant disability of social communication and interaction manifested by marked impairment of verbal and non-verbal communication used for social interaction; absence of social reciprocity; failure to develop and maintain relationships appropriate to their level of development;

b) restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities manifested by stereotyped motor or verbal behaviors or by unusual sensory behaviors; excessive adherence to ritualized routines and patterns of behavior; restricted and fixed interests (Resolution no. 011/CME, 2016).

With regard to enrollment, Resolution no. 011 establishes the early call for Special Education students. According to information obtained from the Special Education Management of SEMED, the early call of this modality of teaching occurs so that schools can organize themselves regarding the formation of classes, teaching staff, accessibility, pedagogical resources, as well as the SES and its physical structure. However, we believe that this should be clarified before the entire school community so that there is no room for doubt as to its effectiveness and intention.

Regarding the objective of the SES, the analysis of the document shows the same definition as the PNEEPEI when being defined as complementary and supplementary, not substitutive to schooling, so that it needs to be part of the Pedagogical Master Plan of the school, articulated with the health sector and the involvement of the family. Concerning the locus of this service, it indicates that it is held in the Resource Room (RR) and/or Multifunctional Resource Room (MRR) of the schools of the network, as well as in the André Vidal de Araújo Municipal Education Center. However, its operationalization is similar to that of the Special Education Policy of 1994, already repealed, thus, it is not clear what policy is actually adopted by the education network investigated.

When we sought to know the Pedagogical Master Plan of the researched schools, in search to identify its interface with the SES, we observed that this happens in an incipient form. In its Article 6, the Resolution no. 011 says that the Municipal Education System must guarantee Special Education students conditions of access, permanence, ensuring that the SES is institutionalized in the Pedagogical Master Plan, as well as the services and adaptations necessary to meet the specificities of the students. In Article 20, the SES is also signaled, its integration into the Pedagogical Master Plan, which corroborates with Resolution no. 4 of October 2, 2009, which says that the school’s pedagogical plan should institutionalize the SES, as well as its organization. In this sense, Resolution no. 011 is in accordance with the legal provisions presented, however, as mentioned previously, the schools do not present planning of the actions directed to this service.

With respect to teacher education for SES, Resolution no. 011, item III of Article 6, says that they need adequate training to act in this service, as well as teachers of regular teaching trained to include Special Education students in regular education. The Resolution complements, in Article 23, that the minimum training to act in the regular education and MRR follows what is disposed in Art. 62 of Law no. 9,394, of December 20, 1996 6, complementing that it must be offered by the Teaching Municipal System the opportunity of continuous education of teachers for the SES in the inclusive perspective, as well as training of managers and other professionals of the school.

As we found in the Pedagogical Master Plan of the schools, in relation to the teachers that work in the MRR and RR, their education was not identified for this activity and, according to these Plans, their training is given by the SEMED of Manaus, through the André Vidal de Araújo Municipal Education Center. This points to the need for SEMED to develop actions that orient educational institutions in the structuring process of the SES since its conception, as well as continuing education for the teacher to assume this function.

3.3 Manaus Municipal Educational Network structure for Special Education Students

SEMED is organized in seven district zones (Table 1), including municipal schools, nursery school, Municipal Center for Early Childhood Education (known as CMEI) and Municipal Center for Young and Adult Education (known as CEMEJA). The data in Table 1 were provided by the Special Education Management and the Statistics and Information Division of SEMED in 2017.

Table 2 SEMED Educational Units by Zones. 

Zones Educational Units Nursery school CMEI Municipal school CEMEJA
DDZ South Zone 68 4 21 46 -
DDZ West Zone 83 4 27 52 -
DDZ North Zone 59 - 18 41 -
DDZ Central-South Zone 54 2 16 36 -
DDD East Zone I 72 1 18 52 1
DDD East Zone II 70 3 11 56 -
DDD Rural Zone 85 - 1 84 -
TOTAL 491 14 112 364 1

Source: Elaborated by the authors based on information obtained at Semed/Deplan /Sigeam in 2016.

Of the 491 schools, it was identified that 409 schools have enrollments of Special Education students, a total of 4,384 students. Of these, 1,129 are enrolled in Special Classes. Of the total number of schools, 304 attend Elementary School and Youth and Adult Education, 100 are Early Childhood Education Centers and there are five nursery schools (Table 3).

Table 3 Network of attendance to the target public students of Special Education. 

Schools Modalities and stages Quantity
Elementary and Young Adult Education 1st to 9th grade of Elementary School, 1st Young Adult Education segment (1st to 5th grade) and 2nd Young Adult Education segment (6th to 9th grades) 304
Municipal Center for Early Childhood Education 1st and 2nd periods of early grades 100
Nursery schools Maternal 1st, 2nd and 3rd periods of early grades 5
TOTAL 409

Source: Elaborated by the authors based on information obtained from Semed/Deplan/Sigeam in 2016.

The Pedagogical Assemblage was also created in the Municipal Network, which is a Curricular Proposal of the initial grades that is part of the National Pact for Literacy in the Right Age (known as PNAIC), signed by SEMED and The Ministry of Education in 2012, whose objective is to organize the Elementary School (1st, 2nd and 3rd grades) in order to guarantee literacy of students with a maximum of eight years of age. Thus, the Pedagogical Assemblage comprises students in the 1st grade (6 and 7 years old completed until March 31); in the 2nd grade (7 and 8 years old completed until March 31); in the 3rd grade (8 and 9 years old completed until March 31 with a certified school life).

A fact that was observed in the data provided by the Special Education Management and the Information and Statistics Division of SEMED is that, in addition to having students with some kind of special educational need in the regular rooms of Elementary School and Youth and Adult Education (known as EJA), there are specific rooms for Special Education students. This information can be observed in Chart 1 below.

Chart 1 Distribution of enrollment in the modalities and stages of teaching by special educational needs. Source: Elaborated by the authors based on data from SEMED/DEPLAN/SIGEAM/DIE, 2017. 

Regarding the Youth and Adult Education - Elementary 1st Special Segment, Resolution no. 011/2016 specifies that these classes will be composed of a maximum of 15 students during the day, in order to provide for the inclusion of Special Education target students aged over 15 years. However, there is, in the aforementioned Resolution, the outline of the pedagogical work and the perspectives of academic progress for these students.

Special Class students are those referred by the regular class teacher by observing in the student some special educational needs and are therefore referred to the Municipal Education Center for special class enrollment. We were informed by the Special Education Management that their stay in this class is temporary - until the development of the skills necessary to return to the regular class is reached. In this sense, the Municipal Education Center has not explained whether these students are referred to the Special Class because of a learning disability or they have any special educational need because of a disability or disorder.

Based on the information presented, we noted that the right to such students is denied, such as enrollment in regular education and to be accompanied by the SES in the Multifunctional Resource Room. This demonstrates its divergence with PNEEPEI, which seeks to break the parallel teaching model and which, historically, segregated students, focusing on disability. This contributes to the exclusion process of the students and, from the information presented, the education network still contemplates the Special Education Policy of 1994 with a model of integration and not of inclusion, according to the legal documents, such as the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN, 2006), PNEEPEI (2008) and Brazilian Inclusion Law (Law no.13,146, of July 6, 2015).

3.4 Actions of the Special Education management for continuing teacher education

The Special Education Management is a sector of the public education network of Manaus that works in the Municipal Center of Special Education André Vidal de Araújo, organ linked to SEMED. This management has as its purpose the planning for the continuing education of the teachers, being realized through the Municipal Center of Special Education, who are responsible for this training are professionals with academic education strictu sensu, with Master’s or PhD; however, the educational area of these professionals was not detailed.

This continuing education provided to teachers by the Special Education Management is part of the program “Raising awareness” and is offered in a period of three days. This process of continuing education is organized at the beginning of the school year and three events are carried out during the year. The pedagogical advisors are teachers of this teaching network and are responsible for articulating actions of the Municipal Center of Special Education with the schools, as well as advising the MRR teachers, accompanying the students of the SES and conducting a survey with the MRR teachers on the themes to be worked on in these educational events. These professionals also work in teaching courses, lectures or workshops in the areas of visual impairment, autism, Brazilian Sign Language and production of adapted pedagogical material.

Thus, it is evident that, despite the above-mentioned educational network having professionals to carry out the training courses in schools, seeking to value the school as an important part in this educational context, they do not present (apparently) a deepening of the training of teachers working in MRR.

The teacher education for the SES and the support to the teacher of the regular education need to be articulated to the theoretical references recommended for this training, which comprise multiple areas of knowledge, such as personal, professional development, pedagogical and scientific knowledge, school as knowledge production space, the knowledge of experience and practice (Nóvoa, 1997; Freire, 1996). This knowledge is necessary both in the education of the teacher of regular education and in the training of the teacher who works in the SES, always in a critical-reflective perspective.

This knowledge includes the deepening of the process of inclusion of students in their needs and specificities, as well as in didactic-pedagogical methodologies, being systematized and structured by actions involving all the school staff and managers of the educational system.

3.5 Multifunctional Resource Rooms/Resource Room: context of Manaus public education network

Regarding the SES, in Resource Rooms (RR) and Multifunctional Resource Rooms (MRR), we verified that the SEMED has 31 RRs, implemented by the municipality and 46 MRRs that received equipment from the Ministry of Education. RR and MRR are available in the District Zones, as shown in Chart 2.

Chart 2 RR and MRR number by District Zones. Source: Elaborated by the authors based on data from SEMED/DEPLAN/SIGEAM/DIE, 2017. 

According to the information obtained in the Special Education Management, these RRs are considered basic (with the minimum necessary) because they do not have all the necessary resources to attend the target population of Special Education and they work with few pieces of equipment and materials. The RR implanted by the municipality are concentrated in Elementary School due to the greater demand of these students for this kind of education.

Chart 2 shows a greater concentration of Resource Rooms in the Northern District Zone, with this Zone also having the largest number of inhabitants in Manaus. The Eastern District Area is expanding and, in the last decade, increased by 20.8% of the total population, according to the 2010 IBGE7 data. Despite this fact, the Eastern District Area has no RR.

MRRs deployed by the Ministry of Education receive equipment and resources aimed at the target population of Special Education, according to the Manual de Orientação do Programa de Implantação de Salas de Recursos Multifuncionais (2010) [Guidance of the Multifunctional Resource Room Implementation Program Handbook]. These rooms present specific materials and equipment for SES aimed at the target population of Special Education.

However, it is the education managers who need to indicate the school that needs their implementation and then inform SEMED about the need for MRR implementation. In this case, the school must indicate the enrollment number of special education students in common education to receive MRR Type 1 and, if the school has blind student enrollments, the MRR Type 28.

MRRs are not implemented in all seven zones that make up the educational network, as shown in Chart 2; thus, there are few MRRs for Early Childhood Education. This service should be passed through early care, enabling access, participation and development of the learning of these students. The West Zone has the largest number of Multifunctional Resource Rooms, which is also notable for concentrating the largest number of schools in the school system - 83, according to Table 1.

However, if compared to the number of Special Education public school students enrolled in the Common Class (Chart 1), MRRs are insufficient to meet demand. Based on these data, it is necessary to follow the actions developed by the professionals who directly accompany the work carried out in the public education network of Manaus; thus, the work developed by coordinators, managers and teachers are important and constitute the link for the construction of an inclusive educational system.

Thus, we present the need for planning, monitoring and counseling of inclusion policies in the city of Manaus, since the demand of the students for the SES is increasing due to the increase of enrollments, and the MRRs implemented by the municipality are not enough to meet them. With this, the investments of the Federal Government in the municipalities and in the states are essential, as well as the monitoring and expansion of these services in order to attend all the students.

4 Conclusions

The educational and pedagogical policy of SEMED to attend the Special Education students, according to the legal documents of the municipal scope, is based on the perspective of inclusive education. However, there is disagreement with the perspective of inclusive education proposed by the National Policy on Special Education in the Perspective of Inclusive Education (PNEEPEI), since, in the investigated network, there are enrollments of students in special classes and special school, which contradicts the inclusion policy, in which everyone has the right to learn together without any kind of discrimination. Another interesting factor is the permanence of RR, which was part of the 1994 Special Education Policy already repealed.

We noted that the education network has expanded the enrollment of the target public students of Special Education in regular schools and specialized educational service; however, the Multifunctional Resource Rooms neither include all students as a result of the expansion of enrollments, nor they present information on how students are assisted in these multifunctional resource rooms. Regarding the management of schools, we highlight the mismatch of actions of school administrators in relation to SES, as they are not clear in the Pedagogical Master Plan, its functioning and its organization for students in multifunctional resource rooms.

Maintaining the Special School indicates that an inclusive education policy has not yet been established as students remain excluded from regular education. Thus, we perceive the need for actions that allow the inclusion of these students in educational institutions, with the necessary support for the development of their abilities and potentialities. In this way, the construction of an inclusive school goes through the specific qualification in the theme addressed by the entire technical team.

Despite the mismatches between what is established by PNEEPEI and the local reality, it cannot be denied that there is an inclusive education process in progress. Building an inclusive school requires follow-ups and discussions involving the whole school community, as well as parents or guardians.

4Sphinx Léxica data analysis software includes advanced features that allow to thoroughly investigate interviews, speeches, books, messages, etc., through powerful text-splitting, hypertext-browsing, automatic indexing and repeated sections. Data can be collected by searching the software, or by importing existing databases. Retrieved on September 18, 2017 from http://bit.ly/2hcNQm2.

5The General Regiment of the Teaching Units of the Municipal Public Network of Manaus [Regimento Geral das Unidades de Ensino da Rede Pública Municipal de Manaus] recommends, in its Chapter III, on the management in schools in Art. 103 The school management will be exercised by effective professionals of the teaching profession, being responsible for the management of the administrative activities, pedagogical and financial aspects in the teaching unit. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from http://bit.ly/2gKWrgc.

6Art. 62. The education of teachers to work in Basic Education will take place at High Education level, in full licensing teaching undergraduate course, admitted as a minimum training for the exercise of teaching in Early Childhood Education and in the first five grades of Elementary Education, the one offered in the middle level, in the normal modality (Law No. 13,415, 2017).

7Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from http://bit.ly/2zFxQBL.

8The Type 2 Room contains all the features of the Type 1 Room, plus accessibility features for visually impaired students (Guidance of the Multifunctional Resource Room Implementation Program Handbook, 2010).

REFERENCES

Baptista, C. R. (2013). Ação Pedagógica e Educação Especial: para além do AEE. In D. M. Jesus, C. R. Baptista, & K. R. Caiado (orgs.), Prática pedagógica na educação especial: multiplicidade do atendimento educacional especializado (pp. 43-62). Araraquara: Junqueira & Marin. [ Links ]

Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. (1994). Investigação qualitativa em Educação: fundamentos, métodos e técnicas. Portugal: Porto Editora. [ Links ]

Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996. [ Links ]

Gil, A. C. (2010). Como elaborar projetos de pesquisa. São Paulo: Atlas. [ Links ]

Glat, R. (2011). Educação inclusiva para alunos com necessidades especiais: processos educacionais e diversidade. In M. D. Longhini (org.), O uno e o diverso na educação (pp. 75-92). Uberlândia: EDUFU. [ Links ]

Glat, R., & Pletsch, M. D. (2010). O papel da universidade no contexto da política de educação inclusiva: reflexões sobre a formação de recursos humanos e a produção de conhecimento. Revista Educação Especial, 23(28), 345-356. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X2095Links ]

Lei nº 9.394, de 20 de dezembro de 1996. Estabelece as diretrizes e bases da educação nacional. Recuperado em 15 de fevereiro de 2019 de http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/LEIS/L9394.htmLinks ]

Lei nº 13.146, de 6 de julho de 2015. Institui a Lei Brasileira de Inclusão da Pessoa com Deficiência (Estatuto da Pessoa com Deficiência). Recuperado em 15 de fevereiro de 2019 de http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2015/lei/l13146.htmLinks ]

Lei nº 13.005, de 25 de junho de 2014. Aprova o Plano Nacional de Educação - PNE e dá outras providências. Recuperado em 15 de fevereiro de 2019 de http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2011-2014/2014/Lei/L13005.htmLinks ]

Lei nº 13.415, de 16 de fevereiro de 2017. Altera as Leis Nos 9.394, de 20 de dezembro de 1996, que estabelece as diretrizes e bases da educação nacional, e 11.494, de 20 de junho 2007... Recuperado em 20 fevereiro de 2019 de http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2017/Lei/L13415.htmLinks ]

Lück, H. (2009). Dimensões de gestão escolar e suas competências. Curitiba: Positivo. [ Links ]

Lüdke, M., & André, M. E. D. A. (1996). Pesquisa em educação: abordagem qualitativa. São Paulo: E. P. U. [ Links ]

Manual de Orientação do Programa de Implantação de Salas de Recursos Multifuncionais. (2010). Brasília: MEC/SEESP. [ Links ]

Matos, M. A. S. (2013). Cidadania, diversidade e educação inclusiva: um diálogo entre a teoria e a prática na rede pública municipal de Manaus. Manaus: Edua. [ Links ]

Nota Técnica nº 4, de 23 de janeiro de 2014. Orientação quanto a documentos comprobatórios de alunos com deficiência, transtornos globais do desenvolvimento e altas habilidades/superdotação no Censo Escolar. Recuperado em 18 de julho de 2018 de http://www.iparadigma.com.br/bibliotecavirtual/items/show/321Links ]

Nóvoa, A. (Ed.). (1997). Os professores e a sua formação. Lisboa: Publicações Dom Quixote. [ Links ]

Organização das Nações Unidas - ONU. (2006). Convenção Internacional do Direito das Pessoas com deficiência. 2006. Recuperado em 18 de julho de 2018 de http://bit.ly/2rV0HN9Links ]

Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura - UNESCO. (1990). Declaração mundial sobre educação para todos: satisfação das necessidades básicas. Jomtien: UNESCO. Recuperado em 18 de julho de 2018 de http://bit.ly/1EFpuZfLinks ]

Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura - UNESCO. (1994). Declaração de Salamanca e linha de ação sobre necessidades educativas especiais. Recuperado em 18 de julho de 2018 de http://bit.ly/V2IXPvLinks ]

Política Nacional de Educação Especial. (1994). Livro 1. Brasília: MEC. [ Links ]

Política Nacional de Educação Especial na Perspectiva da Educação Inclusiva (2008). Recuperado em 27 de julho de 2018 de http://portal.mec.gov.br/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download &alias=16690-politica-nacional-de-educacao-especial-na-perspectiva-da-educacao-inclusiva-05122014&Itemid=30192Links ]

Resolução nº 4, de 2 de outubro de 2009. Institui Diretrizes Operacionais do Atendimento Educacional Especializado na Educação Básica, modalidade Educação Especial. Recuperado em 23 julho de 2018 de http://portal.mec.gov.br/dmdocuments/rceb004_09.pdfLinks ]

Resolução nº 11, de 2 de junho de 2016. Conselho Municipal de Educação. Institui novos procedimentos e orientações para Educação Especial, na perspectiva da Educação Inclusiva, no Sistema Municipal de Ensino de Manaus. Recuperado em 18 julho de 2018 de http://semed.manaus.am.gov.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Resolução-Educação-Especial.pdfLinks ]

Resolução nº 038, de 3 de dezembro de 2015. Conselho Municipal de Educação. Aprova o Regimento Geral das unidades de ensino da rede pública municipal de Manaus. Recuperado em 18 julho de 2018 de http://semed.manaus.am.gov.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Regimento-Geral-das-Unidades-de-Ensino-da-Rede-Publica-Municipal-de-Manaus.pdfLinks ]

Resolução nº 466, de 12 de dezembro de 2012. Conselho Nacional de Saúde. Recuperado em 23 julho de 2018 de http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/cns/2013/res0466_12_12_2012.htmlLinks ]

Sampieri, R. H., Collado, C. F., & Lucio, P. B. (2013). Metodologia de Pesquisa. Porto Alegre: Penso. [ Links ]

Sá-Silva, J. R., Almeida, C. D., & Guindani, J. F. (2009). Pesquisa documental: pistas teóricas e metodológicas. Revista Brasileira de História & Ciências Sociais, 1(1), 2009. [ Links ]

Silva, W. L. B. (2015). Atendimento Educacional especializado nas salas de recursos multifuncionais: suporte a educação inclusiva na rede pública municipal de ensino de Petrópolis/Rio de Janeiro. In V. A. Costa (Ed.), Formação e pesquisa: articulação na educação inclusiva (pp. 177-194). Niterói: Intertexto. [ Links ]

Vieira, A. B., Effgen, A. P. S., Nogueira, J. de O., & Almeida, M. L. de. (2011). Formação de gestores de educação especial: desafios e possibilidades. Artigo apresentado no 25º Simpósio Brasileiro e Congresso Ibero-Americano de Política e Administração da Educação, São Paulo, Brasil. [ Links ]

Received: August 24, 2018; Revised: December 18, 2018; Accepted: December 20, 2018

Creative Commons License Este é um artigo publicado em acesso aberto (Open Access) sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution, que permite uso, distribuição e reprodução em qualquer meio, sem restrições desde que o trabalho original seja corretamente citado.