SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.25 número2Idosos vivendo com HIV – comportamento e conhecimento sobre sexualidade: revisão integrativaAtenção à Crise em saúde mental: centralização e descentralização das práticas índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados




Links relacionados


Ciência & Saúde Coletiva

versão impressa ISSN 1413-8123versão On-line ISSN 1678-4561

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.25 no.2 Rio de Janeiro fev. 2020  Epub 03-Fev-2020 


Storage and disposal of pharmaceuticals at home: a systematic review

Viviane Macedo Constantino1

Brisa Maria Fregonesi1

Karina Aparecida de Abreu Tonani1

Guilherme Sgobbi Zagui1

Ana Paula Contiero Toninato1

Eliana Roldão dos Santos Nonose1

Luciana Aparecida Fabriz1

Susana Inés Segura-Muñoz1

1Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitário. 14040-900 Ribeirão Preto SP Brasil.


This study’s objective was to analyze Brazilian and international scientific evidence on the reasons people store medication at home and the disposal methods used. This systematic literature review includes studies published from 2001 to 2016 and indexed in PubMed, Lilacs and Elsevier’s Scopus Database, using the following key words: Disposal of medicines in household, Disposal of drugs expired, Residential expired drugs, Management of expired medications in household. Thirty-three studies were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies reveal that the main reasons people keep a stock of medicines at home include the possibility of future use, leftovers from previous treatments, and self-medication. Inappropriate disposal methods prevail, such as throwing medicines in the household trash or flushing them into the sewer. Some countries have adopted programs to educate on proper storage and disposal of medicines, though only one study describes a national program guiding these practices that is free of charge. Evidence shows there is a need to implement public policies intended to provide guidance on the proper storage and disposal of medicines at home.

Key words Medication storage; Solid waste collection; Collection routes; Housing


Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a evidência científica nacional e internacional existente sobre o motivo do estoque e a forma de descarte dos medicamentos no domicílio. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura de 2001 a 2016 nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs e Elsevier’s Scopus Database, utilizando os seguintes unitermos: "Disposal of medicines in household", "Disposal of expired drugs", "Residential expired drugs", "Management of expired medications in household". Foram selecionados 33 estudos originais após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Os estudos analisados demonstraram que os principais motivos de estoque no domicílio foram: automedicação; guarda para uso futuro e sobras de tratamentos anteriores. E quanto ao descarte dos medicamentos, prevalecem práticas inadequadas, como descarte no lixo comum e na rede de esgoto. Alguns países têm adotado programas de orientação sobre o armazenamento e o descarte correto, no entanto, foi apenas encontrado um estudo que descreve um programa nacional gratuito, para orientar essas práticas. A partir das evidências cientificas verificou-se a importância do incentivo para a elaboração e a implementação de políticas públicas voltadas para o uso e descarte adequado de medicamentos no domicílio.

Palavras-chave Armazenamento de medicamentos; Coleta de resíduos sólidos; Rotas de coletas; Habitação


Technological development has enabled various advancements in the sciences, especially in the field of health. In this context, advancements in the fields of pharmaceutical sciences and medicine stand out because they expanded the possibilities and quantity of medications available for commercialization and consumption1.

Medications are efficacious in treating numerous diseases and are essential to care for the health of the population. Estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO), however, indicate that 50% of all medications are prescribed, administered or used wrongly2. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 80 million antibiotic prescriptions are inappropriately prescribed every year3.

In 2016, the Pan American Health Organization issued new guidelines on the rational use of medications, including how to store medications at home4. Even though these guidelines propose the rational use of therapeutic products, the storage of medications at home is still a common practice. In various countries around the world, the culture of keeping a supply of medications at home leads to the irrational use of medications, favoring self-medication, the occurrence of accidents, and consequent accumulation of several chemicals at home5,6.

The National Medicines Policy is currently in force in Brazil. Its objective is to ensure the population has access to essential and quality medications and it promotes the rational use of medicines7. Criteria for the prescription, dispensing, control, packaging and labeling of medicines were established by resolutions RDC 20/2011 and RDC 68/2014, ANVISA (National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance)8,9. Despite regulations concerning the rational use, control and dispensing of medications, accumulation of medications and inappropriate disposal are still a concern for public health and the environment10-12.

Various Brazilian and international studies report the presence of pharmaceuticals and active principles that contaminate the soil and water13,14. There are, however, gaps that hinder understanding the reasons the population stores medications and methods commonly used to dispose of medications1,15,16. In this context, this study’s objective was to analyze Brazilian and international scientific evidence addressing the reasons people store medicines at home and how they usually dispose of them.


This Systematic Literature Review adopted the methodological approach described by Olsen17 and adapted by Ferreira et al.18, which includes: the establishment of the research problem; a relevance test establishing inclusion and exclusion criteria; the databases and key words; and a subsequent process to select studies.

The following guiding question was adopted: What scientific evidence do Brazilian and international studies report in regard to the reasons people store medications at home and the disposal methods used?

The following inclusion criteria were established in the Relevance Test (RT)17,18: a) Studies addressing the storage and discarding of medications; b) Studies addressing medications at home; c) Studies addressing leftover medications, whether they are expired of not; d) Studies published from 2001 and 2016; and e) Studies written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Reviews, case reports, communications, monographs and abstracts were excluded.

The search for papers was conducted in June 2017 in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes Health (PUBMED) and Elsevier’s Scopus Database, using the following key words: Disposal of medicines in household OR Disposal of expired drugs OR Residential expired drugs OR Management of expired medications in household.

The search in the databases, application of RT, and selection of the full texts of papers were independently performed by two researchers in order to verify the method’s objectivity, while divergences were settled by a third researcher.

As shown in the flowchart in Figure 1, consulting the databases resulted in 268 papers, 47 of which were excluded because they appeared twice. RT was then applied to the abstracts and a total of 63 papers remained. RT was applied a second time, now using the full texts, and 33 studies remained. A qualitative analysis of these 33 papers is presented here.

Source: Adapted from Olsen17.

Figure 1 Flow diagram for conducting a Systematic Literature Review (RSL). 


Thirty-three studies were included in this review, 9 (27.3%) of which were conducted in Brazil; 4 (12.1%) in the United States of America; 3 (9.1%) in the United Kingdom; 2 (6.1%) in New Zealand and Serbia; and 1 (3.0%) study was conducted in India, Mexico, Qatar, Kuwait, Africa, Costa Rica, Ireland, Colombia, Portugal, Nigeria, Australia, and Venezuela.

Evidence was organized in a synoptic table according to author(s), year, periodical, geographical location, reasons people store medicines, and disposal methods (Chart 1).

Chart 1 Synopsis of studies addressing the reasons people store medications at home and disposal methods. 

Author(s) (Year) Periodical Geographical location Reason to store medications Disposal methods
Bound; Voulvoulis19 (2005) Environ Health Perspect United Kingdom Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Fanhani et al.20 (2006)Arq. Ciênc. Saúde UNIPAR Brazil Self-medication; leftover from previous treatment Did not address disposal methods.
Ekedahl21 (2006)Pharm World Sci Sweden Expired medication; death; leftover from previous treatment; clinical improvement; change of treatment. Did not address disposal methods.
Jiménez et al.22 (2006)Rev. costarric. salud pública Costa Rica Keep for future use; lack of adherence to treatment. Regular trash flushed into the sewer; disposed in the soil;pharmacies/health facilities
Seehusen and Edwards23 (2006)J Am Board Fam Med United States of America Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities
Abahussain et al.24 (2006) Med Princ Pract Kuwait Changed or abandoned treatment. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Bound et al.25 (2006) Environ Toxicol Phar United Kingdom Keep for future use. Solo; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities; and donations.
Musson et al.26 (2007) J Air Waste Manag Assoc United Kingdom Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Margonato et al.27 (2008) Cad Saúde Pública Brazil Excess purchase/ Self-medication. Did not address disposal methods.
Bueno et al.28 (2009) Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl Brazil Keep for future use; donation; self-medication. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; disposal in the soil; pharmacies/health facilities.
Braund et al.29 (2009) Pharm World Sci New Zealand Change of treatment; lack of adherence to treatment. Did not address disposal methods.
James et al.30 (2009) Ann Pharmacother New Zealand Excessive supply; change of treatment; lack of adherence to treatment; death; leftover from previous treatment. Did not address disposal methods.
Kotchen et al.31 (2009) J Environ Manag United States of America Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Gupta et al.32 (2011) Int J Pharm Sci Res Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer.
Kheir et al.33 (2011) Drug Healthc Patient Saf Qatar Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Sasu et al.34 (2012) Waste Manag Res Africa Keep for future use. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; heat; pharmacies/health facilities.
Beckhauser et al.35 (2012) Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl Brazil Leftover from previous treatments Did not address disposal methods.
Laste et al.36 (2012) Ciênc Saúde Colet Brazil Self-medication Did not address disposal methods.
Kusturica et al.37 (2012) Int. J. Clin Pharm. Serbia Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; burned; pharmacies/health facilities.
Wieczorkiewicz et al.38 (2013) Ann. Pharmacother. United States of America Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Iob et al.39 (2013) Infarma - Ciências Farm. Brazil Leftover from previous treatment; keeps for future use. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; burn; pharmacies/health facilities.
Vellinga et al.40 (2014) Sci. Total Environ. Ireland Keeps for future use; lack of knowledge about proper disposal; donation. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Lehardt et al.41 (2014) UNOPAR Cient Ciênc Biol Saúde. Brazil Keeps for future use. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities.
Gracia-Vásquez et al.42(2014) Int J Clin Pharm Mexico Excessive prescription; self-medication; free samples; change of treatment or non-adherence to treatment; death. Household trash; flushed into the sewer
Pinto et al.43 (2014) Eng. Sanit. Ambient. Brazil Did not address the storage of medications Household trash; flushed into the sewer; pharmacies/health facilities; recyclable waste.
Lystlund et al. 44 (2014) J Am Pharm Assoc. United States of America Clinical improvement; change of treatment; free samples. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; dispose in the soil.
kusturica et al.45 (2015) Cent. Eur. J. Public Health Serbia leftover from previous treatment; self-medication. Did not address disposal methods.
Piveta et al.46 (2015) Semina: Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde Brazil Keep for future use. Household trash; collection sites; flush into the sewer.
Bergen et al.47 (2015) Australian Prescriber Australia Death; change of treatment; lack of confidence in the safety and efficacy of treatment. Proper disposal: National take-back program and elimination of unwanted pharmaceuticals.
Quijano-Prieto et al.48(2016) Rev Salud Pública Colombia Clinical improvement; treatment was suspended. Household trash; collection sites.
Dias-Ferreira et al.49 (2016) Waste Manag Res Portugal Keep for future use; leftover from previous treatment; excessive prescription. Pharmacies/health facilities; household trash; flushed into the sewer; recyclable waste.
Banwat et al.50 (2016) Trop J Pharm Res Nigeria Self-medication; leftover from previous treatment; keep for future use. Household trash; flushed into the sewer; burned.
Correia; Marcano51 (2016) Rev Int Contam Ambie Venezuela Self-medication; leftover from previous treatments; keep for future use. Household trash; flushed into the sewer.

As shown in Chart 1, the studies show that the main reasons to store medication include: keeping for future use 12 (36.4%); leftover from previous treatment 12 (36.4%); and self-medication 9 (27.3%). The disposal routes more frequently mentioned were: household trash 22 (66.7%) and the sewer 21 (63.6%).


Household storage of medicines

The reasons people store medicines at home are diverse, among which, the following stand out: potential use in the future; acquisition without medical prescription; change of treatment or change in dosage; leftover from previous treatment; patient’s death; lack of adherence or treatment abandonment; excess supply and prescription of excessive dosage; free samples; and the possibility to donate to other people20-22,24,27-30,34-36,39,40,42,44,46-51.

The accumulation of medicines at home may lead to misuse and expose the population to the potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals26,41,43,51. Such behavior reflects a persistent culture in different regions of the world in which the risk arising from inappropriate use of active principles and/or adverse responses associated with the intake of certain medications is trivialized39.

The sale of medications in quantities greater than that specified by medical prescriptions also induces people to store medicines at home. Strategies encouraging the fractional sale of medications, according to dosage prescribed, are necessary given the generation and accumulation of residue and contamination of the environment13,35,39,43,52-54.

Other determinant factors are prescription and dispensing errors or successive changes of treatments that force patients to make excessive purchases of medications and the need felt to keep them afterwards because of economic costs, intending to use them in the future or give them to others in order to avoid waste of money.

Intense publicity campaigns encourage the purchase and storage of medicines because they create expectations of cure and relief39. The distribution of free samples as provided by pharmaceutical labs is also a preponderant factor leading to the maintenance of "small pharmacies" at home13,43,52,55-59. Keeping pharmaceuticals at home is a public health problem that should be discouraged to minimize potential disease in the population20,22,27,32,35-40,44,60.

Educational actions implemented among the population are measures that can discourage the maintenance of medicines at home and self-medication39. In this sense, qualified healthcare workers can provide guidance as to the correct use and storage of medications at home and help educate the population21,23,25,27,34,36,40,44.

Disposal of medicines at home

The studies listed in this review indicate that the main methods used to dispose of medications at home are: the household trash; flushing into the sewer; returning to pharmacies/healthcare facilities; disposing in the soil; and burning them19,22-26,28,31-34,37-44,46-51.

The management of household pharmaceuticals disposal is a world challenge. Tons of residue are collected daily and most are improperly managed, causing undesirable and irreversible effects on the environment16,51,52,59,61. Disposing of medications in the sewer or in the soil, by combining them with urban waste, represent a threat to human health, to the integrity of the environment and biodiversity of the planet1,25,33,41,49,51,62.

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the soil and water, especially antibiotics, estrogen, antineoplastic and immunosuppressant agents, may generate potentially toxic byproducts that do not easily decompose, with teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects in animal and human populations19,22,35,37,38-40. Disposal by fire, a common procedure in rural households, also represents risks to human health and to the environment due to the emission of pollutant toxic gases37.

In an attempt to decrease the environmental impact caused by the inappropriate disposal of residues in Brazil, ANVISA implemented RDC 222 in 2018 to regulate good practices of Health Services Residue Management and determined that the residues of pharmaceuticals disposed by (or seized from) health services, pharmacies, drug stores, and distributors of medicines need to be treated or discarded in hazardous waste landfills – Class I63. However, there is no national public policy regulating the collection and the household disposal of pharmaceuticals. Such regulation is individually implemented by some cities and states, such as in Rio Grande de Sul (in the cities of Passo Fundo and Porto Alegre), Amazonas, Paraíba, Mato Grosso (in Cuiabá), Acre, and Paraná, or through educational actions and specific strategies, such as the Shared Conscious Disposal Program adopted by companies, consumers, and public agents that establish collection sites, where the population can discard medications64-66.

International studies report programs intended to collect and properly dispose of medicines, such as the "Take-back Program" developed and implemented in New Zealand, Ghana, the United States, Ireland, and Sweden. These programs are intended to sensitize the community about the importance of choosing environmentally-friendly options to dispose household medicines, as well as encourage the return of expired and/or unused medications21,26,30,34,44. Only Australia adopted a public policy to appropriately dispose of medications at a national level free of charge, the so-called National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines (NATURUM), which was implemented in 1998 and is available in all Australian pharmacies47.

The findings reveal that simply implementing collection sites or take-back programs is not sufficient if the population is not educated to change its perceptions and day-to-day habits1,25,39,43,49. The population needs to receive health education to learn and recognize proper practices for keeping and discarding medicines. Practices that favor ecologically proper methods to dispose of medicines should be encouraged in the population not only for today’s but also future generations25,41,50.

Final considerations

The studies show that the storage of medications at home is a common practice in various countries, a situation that facilitates self-medication. The methods used to dispose of pharmaceuticals present risks to public health, considering that the main routes used to discard medicines include throwing them in the household trash and flushing them into the sewer.

The expansion of health education programs is essential to sensitizing the population regarding safe ways to store and discard medicines, given the challenge these problems represent for human health and the environment.


1 Lunardelli A, Machado ID, Monteiro SC. Programa de descarte apropriado do rejeito medicamentoso como ferramenta institucional educacional. Rev Eletr Farm 2017; 14(1):32-38. [ Links ]

2 World Health Organization (WHO). Essential medicines and health products. Geneva: WHO; 2017. [acessado 2017 Ago 14]. Disponível em: ]

3 Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC). Antibiotic Prescribing and Use. 2018. [acessado 2018 Mar 25]. Disponível em: ]

4 Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (OPAS). Uso racional de medicamentos: fundamentação em condutas terapêuticas e nos macroprocessos da assistência farmacêutica. Brasília: Organização Pan-americana de Saúde/Organização Mundial de Saúde; 2016. (boletim informativo) 1(12). [ Links ]

5 Yousif MA. In-home drug storage and utilization habits: a Sudanese study. East Mediterr Health J 2002; 8(2-3):422-431. [ Links ]

6 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Uso racional de medicamentos. Brasília: MS; 2014. [acessado 2017 Mar 27]. Disponível em: ]

7 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). Política Nacional de Medicamentos. Brasília: MS ; 2001. [ Links ]

8 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa). Resolução RDC nº 20, de 5 de maio de 2011. Dispõe sobre o controle de medicamentos à base de substâncias classificadas como antimicrobianos, de uso sob prescrição, isoladas ou em associação. 2011. [acessado 2018 Abr 08]. Disponível em: ]

9 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa). Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada - RDC nº 68, de 28 de novembro de 2014. Dispõe sobre a atualização do Anexo I, Lista de Antimicrobianos Registrados na Anvisa, da Resolução - RDC nº 20, de 5 de maio de 2011 e dá outras providências. 2014. [acessado 2018 Abr 08]. Disponível em: ]

10 Falqueto E, Kligerman DC, Assumpção RF. Como realizar o correto descarte de resíduos de medicamentos? Cienc Saude Colet 2010; 15(2):3283-3293. [ Links ]

11 Brasil. Lei nº 12.305, de 2 de agosto de 2010. Institui a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos; altera a Lei nº 9.605 de 12 de fevereiro de 1998 e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União 2010; 3 ago. [ Links ]

12 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa). A Anvisa e a implantação da logística reversa de resíduos de medicamentos. Brasília: Anvisa; 2014. [acessado 2017 Jul 15]. Disponível em: ]

13 Barros JF, Egea JS. Descarte de medicamentos e sustentabilidade: uma abordagem importante da produção ao uso. Encontro Nacional da Anppas [periódico na internet]. 2012. Belém - PA. [acessado 2017 Maio 13]. Disponível em: Links ]

14 Pinto EA. Impacto ambiental dos medicamentos [dissertação]. Porto: Universidade Fernando Pessoa; 2011. [ Links ]

15 Balbino EC, Balbino MLC. O descarte de medicamentos no Brasil: Um olhar socioeconômico e ambiental do lixo farmacêutico. Revista Âmbito Jurídico [periódico na internet]. [acessado 2017 Jul 15]. Disponível em: Links ]

16 Mazzer C, Cavalcanti OA. Introdução à gestão ambiental de resíduos. Infarma Ciênc Farmac 2004; 16:11-12. [ Links ]

17 Olsen J. Meta-analysis or collaborative studies. JOEM 1995; 8:897-902. [ Links ]

18 Ferreira PC, Piai KA, Takayanagui AMM, Segura-Muñoz SI. Aluminum as a risk fator for Alzheimer´s dissecasse. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem 2008; 16(1):151-157. [ Links ]

19 Bound JP, Voulvoulis N. Household disposal of pharmaceuticals as a pathway for aquatic contamination in the United Kingdom. Environ Health 2005; 113(12):1705-1711. [ Links ]

20 Fanhani HR, Correa MI, Lourenço EB, Fernandes ED, Billó VL, Lorenson L, Spiguel PKS, Galoro JLF, Takemura OS, Andrade OG. Avaliação domiciliar da utilização de medicamentos por moradores do jardim Tarumã, município de Umuarama - PR. Arq Cienc Saúde da Unipar 2006; 10(3):127-131. [ Links ]

21 Ekedahl ABE. Reasons why medicines are returned to Swedish pharmacies unused. Pharm World Sci 2006; 28:352-358. [ Links ]

22 Jiménez H, Guillermo L, Sáenz RB. Medicamentos subutilizados em el ámbito comunitario, área salud coronado, Costa Rica. Rev Costarric Salud Pública 2006; 15(28):50-61. [ Links ]

23 Seehusen DA, Edwards J. Patient Practices and Beliefs Concerning Disposal of Medications. J Am Board Fam Med 2006; 19(6):542-547. [ Links ]

24 Abahussain EA, Ball DE, Matowe WC. Practice and opinion towards disposal of unused medication in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract 2006; 15:352-357. [ Links ]

25 Bound JP, Kitsou K, Voulvoulis N. Household disposal of pharmaceuticals and perception of risk to the environment. Environ Toxicol Phar 2006; 21(3):301-307. [ Links ]

26 Musson SE, Townsend T, Seaburg K, Mosa J. A continuous collection system for household pharmaceutical wastes: a pilot project. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2007; 57(7):828-835. [ Links ]

27 Margonato FB, Thomson Z, Paoliello MMB. Determinantes nas intoxicações medicamentosas agudas na zona urbana de um município do Sul do Brasil. Cad Saude Publica 2008; 24(2):333-341. [ Links ]

28 Bueno CS, Weber D, Oliveira KR. Farmácia caseira e descarte de medicamentos no bairro Luiz Fogliatto do município de Ijuí - RS. Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl 2009; 30(2):201-210. [ Links ]

29 Braund R, Gn G, Matthews R. Investigating unused medications in New Zealand. Pharm World Sci 2009; 31:664-669. [ Links ]

30 James TH, Helms ML, Braund R. Analysis of medications returned to community pharmacies. Ann Pharmacother 2009; 43:1631-1635. [ Links ]

31 Kotchen M, Callao’s J, Wheeler K, Wong C, Zahller M. Pharmaceuticals in wastewater: Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for a disposal program. J Environ Manag 2009; 90:1476-1482. [ Links ]

32 Gupta J, Alam N, Bhardwaj A, Amin F. Prospective survey study on assessment and education of home medicine cabinet in general population of community. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(5):1237-1243. [ Links ]

33 Kheir N, Hajj MSE, Wilbur K, Kaissi RML, Yousif A. An exploratory study on medications in Qatar homes. Drug Healthc Patient Saf 2011; 3:99-106. [ Links ]

34 Sasu S, Kümmerer K, Kranert M. Assessment of pharmaceutical waste management at selected hospitals and homes in Ghana. Waste Manag Res 2012; 30(6):625-630. [ Links ]

35 Beckhauser GC, Valgas C, Galato D. Perfil do estoque domiciliar de medicamentos em residências com crianças. Rev Ciênc Farm Básica Apl 2012; 33(4):583-589. [ Links ]

36 Laste G, Deitos A, Kauffmann C, Castro LC, Torres IS, Fernandes LC. Papel do agente comunitário de saúde no controle do estoque domiciliar de medicamentos em comunidades atendidas pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Cienc Saude Colet 2012; 17(5):1305-1312. [ Links ]

37 Kusturica MP, Sabo A, Tomic Z, Horvat O, Solak Z. Storage and disposal of unused medications: knowledge, behavior, and attitudes among Serbian people. Int J Clin Pharm 2012; 34:604-610. [ Links ]

38 Wieczorkiewicz SM, Kassamali Z, Danziger LH. Behind closed doors: medication storage and disposal in the home. Ann Pharmacother 2013; 47(4):482-489. [ Links ]

39 Iob GA. Análise da forma de descarte de medicamentos por usuários de uma unidade de saúde no município de Porto Alegre. Infarma Ciênc Farm 2013; 25(3):118-125. [ Links ]

40 Vellinga A, Cormican S, Driscoll J, Furey, M, O’sullivan M, Cormican M. Public practice regarding disposal of unused medicines in Ireland. Sci Total Environ 2014; 478:98-102. [ Links ]

41 Lenhardt EH, Sólis LJB, Cintra EVCS, Botelho EHL. O descarte de medicamentos no bairro Grande Terceiro, Cuiabá-MT. UNOPAR Cient Ciênc Biol Saúde 2014; 16(1):5-8. [ Links ]

42 Gracia-Vásquez SL, Ramírez-Lara E, Camacho-Mora IA, Cantú-Cárdenas LG, GraciaVásquez YA, Esquivel-Ferriño PC, Ramírez-Cabrera MA, Gonzalez-Barranco P. An analysis of unused and expired medications in Mexican households. Int J Clin Pharm 2015; 37(1):121-126. [ Links ]

43 Pinto GMF, Silva KR, Pereira RFAB, Sampaio SI. Estudo do descarte residencial de medicamentos vencidos na região de Paulínia (SP), Brasil. Rev Eng Sanit Ambient 2014; 19(3):219-224. [ Links ]

44 Lystlund S, Stevens E, Planas LG, Marcy T. Patient participation in a clinic-based community pharmacy medication take-back program. J Am Pharm Assoc 2014; 54:280-284. [ Links ]

45 Kusturica MP, Tomic Z, Horvat O, Pavlovi N, Mikov M. Antibiotics in Serbian Households: a source of potencial health and environmental threats? Cent Eur J Public Health 2015; 23(2):114-118. [ Links ]

46 Piveta LN, Silva LB, Guidoni CM, Girotto E. Armazenamento e descarte de medicamentos por acadêmicos da área da saúde de uma universidade pública paranaense. Semina : Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde 2015; 36(1):55-66. [ Links ]

47 Bergen PJ, Hussainy SY, George J, Kong DCM, Kirkpatrick CMJ. Safe dispo sal of prescribed medicines. Australian Prescriber 2015; 38(3):90-92. [ Links ]

48 Quijano-Prieto D, Orozco-Díaz JG, Holguín-Hernández E. Patients’ knowledge and practices about unconsumed drugs disposal. An Approach to Ecopharmacovigilance. Rev Salud Publica 2016; 18(1):61-71. [ Links ]

49 Dias-Ferreira C, Valente S, Vaz J. Practices of pharmaceutical waste generation and discarding in households across Portugal. Waste Manag Res 2016; 34(10):1006-1013. [ Links ]

50 Banwat SB, Auta A, Dayom DW, Buba Z. Assessment of the storage and disposal of medicines in some homes in Jos north local government area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res 2016 May; 15(5):989. [ Links ]

51 Correia A, Marcano L. Evaluación de las rutas de entrada de competes farmacêuticos de uso doméstico al ambiente caso estudio: município Valencia, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Rev. Int. Contam Ambie 2016; 32(1):77-86. [ Links ]

52 Barcelos MN, Peres AP, Pereira IO, Chavasco LSI, Freitas DF. Aplicação do método FMEA na identificação de impactos ambientais causados pelo descarte doméstico de medicamentos. Eng Ambient 2011; 8(4):62-68. [ Links ]

53 Falqueto E, Kligerman DC. Diretrizes para um programa de recolhimento de medicamentos vencidos no Brasil. Cienc Saude Colet 2013; 18(3):883-892. [ Links ]

54 Falqueto E, Kligerman DC. Análise normativa para descarte de resíduos de medicamentos - estudo de caso da região sudeste do Brasil. Rev de Direito Sanitário 2012; 13(2):10-23. [ Links ]

55 Alvarenga LSV, Nicoletti MA. Descarte doméstico de medicamentos e algumas considerações sobre o impacto ambiental decorrente. Revista Saúde 2010; 4(3):34-39. [ Links ]

56 Frigieri MC, Gasparini AR, Gasparini JC. Estudo do descarte de medicamentos e consciência ambiental no município de Catanduva-SP. Ciência & Tecnologia: FATEC Jaboticabal 2011; 2(1):38-51. [ Links ]

57 João WSJ. Descarte de medicamentos. Pharmacia Brasileira 2011; 82:14-16. [ Links ]

58 Nakazone MA, Araújo GLB, Pinheiro A, Takano C, Godoy MF, Souza DRS. Quantificação do desperdício de medicamentos na prática clínica. Arq Cienc Saúde 2006; 13(2):75-81. [ Links ]

59 Tope TRG, Araújo LEB. Contaminação do meio ambiente pelo descarte inadequado de medicamentos vencidos ou não utilizados. Hoppe & Araújo 2012; 6(6):1248-1262. [ Links ]

60 Thach AV, Brown CM, Pope N. Consumer perceptions about a community pharmacy-based medication take back program. J Environ Manag 2013; 127:23-27. [ Links ]

61 Silva SP, Lins AMSC, Santos RS. A relevância da educação ambiental no processo de gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos decorrentes do tratamento do câncer. Enciclopédia Biosfera 2012; 8(15):2367. [ Links ]

62 Abahussain EA, Ball DE. Disposal of unwanted medicines from households in Kuwait. Pharm World Sci 2007; 29:368-373. [ Links ]

63 Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa). Resolução RDC nº 222, de 28 de março de 2018. Regulamenta as boas práticas de gerenciamentos dos resíduos de serviços de saúde e dá outras providências. 2018. [acessado 2018 Abr 08]. Disponível em: ]

64 Brasil Health Service (BHS). Programa Descarte Consciente. 2014. [acessado 2017 Ago 07]. Disponível em: ]

65 Cruz MJB, Azevedo AB, Cruz HL, Bodevan EC, Araújo LU, Santos DF. Descarte de medicamentos em municípios do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Vigil Sanit Debate 2017; 5(1):84-90. [ Links ]

66 Paraná. Decreto nº 9.213, de 23 de outubro de 2013. Regulamenta a Lei nº 17.211, de 03 de julho de 2012, que dispõe sobre a responsabilidade da destinação dos medicamentos em desuso no Estado do Paraná e seus procedimentos e dá providências. 2013. [acessado 2018 Mar 20]. Disponível em: ]

Received: December 20, 2017; Accepted: June 18, 2018; Published: June 20, 2018


VM Constantino, BM Fregonesi, KAA Tonani, GS Zagui, APC Toninate, ERS Nonose, LA Fabriz and SI Segura-Muñoz participated in all stages and relevantly in the design and development of the text.

Creative Commons License Este é um artigo publicado em acesso aberto (Open Access) sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution, que permite uso, distribuição e reprodução em qualquer meio, sem restrições desde que o trabalho original seja corretamente citado.