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Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental

Print version ISSN 1415-4714On-line version ISSN 1984-0381

Rev. latinoam. psicopatol. fundam. vol.5 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Mar. 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1415-47142002001006 

ARTIGOS

Winnicott's paradigm outlined

Zeljko Loparic

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4) starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13) shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

Key words: Paradigm; Freud; Oedipal Paradigm; Winnicott; “Baby-on-theMother’s-Lap” Paradigm

RESUMO

O objetivo principal do presente artigo é apresentar uma visão unificada da contribuição de Winnicott à psicanálise. A Parte I (seções 1-4) começa mostrando que, de acordo com certos comentadores renomados, Winnicott introduziu uma mudança paradigmática na psicanálise. A fim de mostrar que essa mudança pode ser interpretada como um Gestalt switch paradigmático no sentido de Th. S. Kuhn, faz-se uma apresentação panorâmica da teoria kuhniana da ciência e, em seguida, uma reconstrução do paradigma edipiano ou triangular de Freud (paradigma de “criançana-cama-da-mãe”). Na segunda Parte (seções 5-13), é mostrado que, já nos anos 20, Winnicott constatou a existência de anomalias insuperáveis no paradigma edipiano e, por essa razão, iniciou a pesquisa que poderia ser chamada de revolucionária, no sentido de Kuhn, buscando um novo quadro geral para a psicanálise. Essa pesquisa terminou com a elaboração, especialmente na última parte da vida de Winnicott, do paradigma alternativo dual ou de “bebê-no-colo-da-mãe”. Essa matriz é descrita com certos detalhes, especialmente a relação paradigmática dual bebê-mãe e a teoria-guia de amadurecimento pessoal. As observações finais dizem respeito à herança winnicottiana e ao futuro da psicanálise.

Palavras-Chave: Paradigmas; Freud; paradigma edipiano; Winnicott; paradigma “bebê-nocolo-da-mãe”

Palavras-Chave: Paradigma; Freud; paradigma edípico; Winnicott; paradigma “bebé-en-el-regazo-de-la-madre”

RESUMEN

El objetivo principal del presente artículo es presentar una visión unificada de la contribución de Winnicott al psicoanálisis. La primera parte (secciones 1-4) comienza recordando que, de acuerdo con ciertos comentadores reconocidos, Winnicott introdujo un cambio de paradigma en el psicoanálisis. Con objeto de mostrar que ese cambio puede ser interpretado como un Gestalt switch paradigmático, en el sentido de Th. S. Kuhn, se realiza una presentación panorámica de la visión kuhniana de ciencia y, a continuación, una reconstrucción del paradigma edípico o triangular de Freud (el del “niño-en-la-cama-de-la-madre”). En una segunda parte (secciones 5-13) se demuestra que, ya en los años ’20, Winnicott constató la existencia de anomalías insuperables del paradigma edípico y, por esa razón, inició lo que podría denominarse investigación revolucionaria para un nuevo marco disciplinal del psicoanálisis. Esa investigación culminó con la elaboración, especialmente en la última fase de su vida, de un paradigma alternativo madre-bebé o paradigma dual. Este nuevo paradigma es descrito con cierto detalle, especialmente la relación paradigmática dual madre-bebé y la teoría-guía de Winnicott de maduración personal. Los comentarios finales están dedicados a las cuestiones sobre la herencia winnicottiana y el futuro del psicoanálisis.

ABSTRACT

L’objectif principal de cet article est de présenter une vue unifiée de la contribution de Winnicott à la psychanalyse. Dans la première partie (sections 1-4), je montre que selon certains commentateurs renommés, Winnicott aurait introduit un changement paradigmatique dans la psychanalyse. Dans le but de faire voir que ce changement peut être interprété comme un “paradigm switch” au sens de Th. S. Kuhn, je présente la conception kunienne de la science et, ensuite, je reconstruis le paradigme Oedipien ou Triangulaire de Freud (de “l’enfant-au-lit-de-la-mère”). Dans le deuxième Partie (sections 5-13), je montre que déjà dans les années 20 Winnicott a découvert des anomalies insurmontables dans le paradigme Oedipien et, pour cette raison, a commencé une recherche révolutionaire dans le but de trouver un quadre général alternatif pour la psychanalyse. Cette recherche a terminée par l’introduction, surtout dans la dernière période de la vie de Winnicott, du paradigme alternatif “bébé-au-gironde-la-mère”. Ce nouveau paradigme est décrit dans ses traits généraux, l’attention spéciale étant donnée à la relation paradigmatique binaire entre le bébé et sa mère, aussi bien que la théorie-guide winnicottienne de maturation personnelle. Les remarques finales concernent les questions de l’héritage winnicottien et de l’avenir de la psychanalyse.

Key words: Paradigme; Freud; paradigme oedipien; Winnicott; paradigme binaire “bébé-au-giron-de-la-mère”

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Received: April 2001; Accepted: January 2002

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