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Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science

Print version ISSN 1516-635XOn-line version ISSN 1806-9061

Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic. vol.18 no.1 Campinas Jan./Mar. 2016

https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-635x1801069-072 

Articles

Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

DE Faria FilhoI 

AN DiasII 

WA CarneiroII 

CFD BuenoII 

JB Matos JúniorII 

ALC VelosoII 

PA RodriguesII 

IFaculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13.635-900, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil.

IIInstituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 39.404-547, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brasil.


Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC) inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r) broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC) with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females). Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs), and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

Keywords: Broilers; performance; carcass yield; Ricinuscommunis L

Introduction

The oil extracted from castor seeds (Ricinuscommunis L) has been used for biodiesel production. The oil is extracted by mechanical means or with solvents, yielding castor seed cake and castor meal, respectively. Castor cake corresponds to approximately 55% of the castor seed weight (Azevedo & Lima, 2001), i.e., each metric ton of processed castor seed yields 550 kg of castor seed cake.

The nutritional composition of castor seed byproducts, reported by Moreira et al. (2003), Rostagno et al. (2011), and Matos Júnior et al. (2011), indicates their potential use in animal feeds, including poultry diets. Castor seed byproducts have been typically used as crop fertilizers due to the presence of toxic products and allergens in castor seeds. However, there currently are efficient methods available to detoxify castor seed byproducts (Anandan et al., 2005; Oliveira, 2008).

The dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs may reduce feed costs, which account for the largest part of production costs. The inclusion of up to 10% detoxified castor seed meal to starter (Ani & Okorie, 2004; Ani & Okorie, 2005) and finisher (Ani & Okorie, 2008) broiler diets did not impair broiler performance. However, considering that castor byproducts need to be detoxified and that their nutritional composition may widely vary, further studies need to be conducted to allow nutritionists to decide whether this product can be safely included in animal feeds.

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the dietary inclusion of different levels of detoxified castor seed cake on the performance and carcass yield of broilers.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at the Poultry Sector of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Two hundred and fifty day-old Cobb-500(r) broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0% DCC dietary inclusion) with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females). Birds were housed in galvanized-iron cages (96-cm long x 48-cm wide x 63-cm high). Between 1-21 days, the experimental unit consisted of one cage housing 10 birds (housing density of 21.70 birds/m2). Between 22-40 days, the experimental unit consisted of two cages housing five birds each (housing density of 10.85 birds/m2).

The ingredient and calculated nutritional composition of the starter (1-21 days) and grower (22-40 days) diets is presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal were formulated to contain equal levels of metabolizable energy, crude protein, total methionine+cystine, calcium, available phosphorus, and sodium. The treatments consisted of the dietary inclusion of detoxified castor seed cake (DCC) at the levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%.

Table 1 Experimental diets fed during the starter phase (1-21 days of age) 

Ingredients Detoxified castor seed cake (%)
0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
Corn 55.10 53.29 51.48 49.68 47.87
Soybean meal 37.40 36.59 35.78 34.98 34.17
Detoxified castor seed cake 0.00 2.50 5.00 7.50 10.00
Soybean oil 3.57 3.95 4.33 4.71 5.09
DL-methionine 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.27
Dicalcium phosphate 1.72 1.71 1.70 1.69 1.68
Calcitic limestone 0.99 0.75 0.50 0.26 0.01
Salt 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50
Premix* 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Energy and nutrients Calculated values (on as fed basis)
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg) 3020 3020 3020 3020 3020
Crude protein (%) 21.50 21.50 21.50 21.50 21.50
Total methionine+cystine (%) 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
Total lysine (%) 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.15 1.14
Total threonine (%) 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.87
Total tryptophan (%) 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.30
Total valine (%) 1.03 1.05 1.07 1.09 1.11
Total isoleucine (%) 0.94 0.96 0.99 1.01 1.03
Total arginine (%) 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.59 1.64
Available phosphorus (%) 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43
Calcium (%) 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91
Sodium (%) 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Crude fiber (%) 2.98 3.72 4.47 5.22 5.97

*Guaranteed levels per kg product: vitamin A 167,000 IU; vitamin D 335,000 IU; vitamin E 2,500 mg; vitamin K 417 mg; vitamin B1 250 mg; vitamin B2 835 mg; vitamin B6 250 mg; vitamin B12 2,000 mcg; folic acid 100 mg; biotin 9 mg; niacin 5835 mg; pantothenic acid 1,870 mg; choline 116,670 mg; copper 1,000 mg; iodine 170 mg; iron 8,335 mg; manganese 10,835 mg; zinc 7,500 mg; selenium 35 mg; coccidiostats 13,335 mg; growth promoter 13,335 mg; antioxidant 2,000 mg; excipient qsp 1,000 g.

Table 2 Experimental diets fed during the grower phase (22-42 days of age) 

Ingredients Detoxified castor seed cake (%)
0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
Corn 58.87 57.06 55.25 53.44 51.64
Soybean meal 32.74 31.93 31.13 30.32 29.51
Detoxified castor seed cake 0.00 2.50 5.00 7.50 10.00
Soybean oil 4.79 5.17 5.56 5.94 6.32
DL-methionine 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.21
Dicalcium phosphate 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.45 1.44
Calcitic limestone 0.99 0.75 0.50 0.26 0.01
Salt 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48
Premix* 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Energy and nutrients Calculated values (on as fed basis)
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg) 3150 3150 3150 3150 3150
Crude protein (%) 19.70 19.70 19.70 19.70 19.70
Total methionine+cystine (%) 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.86
Total lysine (%) 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.02
Total threonine (%) 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.80
Total tryptophan (%) 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27
Total valine (%) 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.02
Total isoleucine (%) 0.85 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.94
Total arginine (%) 1.31 1.36 1.40 1.45 1.50
Available phosphorus (%) 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
Calcium (%) 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Sodium (%) 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
Crude fiber (%) 2.79 3.54 4.28 5.03 5.78

*Guaranteed levels per kg product: vitamin A 167,000 IU; vitamin D 335,000 IU; vitamin E 2,500 mg; vitamin K 417 mg; vitamin B1 250 mg; vitamin B2 835 mg; vitamin B6 250 mg; vitamin B12 2,000 mcg; folic acid 100 mg; biotin 9 mg; niacin 5835 mg; pantothenic acid 1,870 mg; choline 116,670 mg; copper 1,000 mg; iodine 170 mg; iron 8,335 mg; manganese 10,835 mg; zinc 7,500 mg; selenium 35 mg; coccidiostats 13,335 mg; growth promoter 13,335 mg; antioxidant 2,000 mg; excipient qsp 1,000 g.

The castor seed cake was detoxified using 60g microprocessed calcium oxide for each kg of castor seed cake (Oliveira, 2008). Calcium oxide was diluted in 10 parts of water and mixed with the castor seed cake (Oliveira, 2008). Eight hours later, the castor seed cake was air-dried at environmental temperature (Oliveira, 2008). According to Oliveira (2008), this method completely eliminates ricin, which is the main toxic compound of the castor seed.

The nutritional composition of the DCC was determined according to the AOAC (2000). The following results, on as-fed basis, were obtained: 20.6% crude protein, 18.2% ether extract, 32.9% crude fiber, 9.1% non-nitrogen extract, 11.0% ashes, 3.97% calcium, 0.57% total phosphorus, and 0.05% sodium. The level of 1829 kcal metabolizable energy per kg of DCC on as-fed basis, reported by Matos Júnior et al. (2011), was adopted. The total methionine+cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, arginine, and available phosphorus values applied for the DCC were taken from Rostagno et al. (2011). The diets were formulated on total amino acid basis, as the digestible amino acid values of DCC are not known. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum and birds were managed according to the recommendations of Cobb(r)'s manual (2008).

Live performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio) were evaluated between 1 and 40 days of age. On day 40, two birds per experimental unit were selected, fasted for six hours, stunned by brain concussion and bled by severing the jugular vein. Carcasses were then scalded, plucked, and eviscerated. Carcass were weighed and their yield was calculated as a percentage of live weight. Breast, leg (drumstick+thigh), and wings were cut up, and their yields were calculated as a percentage of hot carcass weight with head and feet.

Data were verified for the presence of outliers, and then analyzed for normality of studentized residuals (Cramér-von-Mises test), and homoscedasticity (Brown-Forsythe test). After checking the compliance of these assumptions, data were submitted to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model procedure of SAS(r) software package (Littell et al., 2002). In case of significance (p<0.05), data were fit to polynomial regression equations (Freund & Littell, 2000). The optimal DCC inclusion level was determined by the first derivative of the dependent variable relative to the independent variable, equaling the equation to zero.

Results and Discussion

There was a quadratic response of feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio during the period of 1-40 days of age as a function of DCC inclusion, with levels of 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC calculated for optimal FI, WG, and FCR, respectively (Table 3). Carcass traits were not influenced by DCC inclusion levels (Table 3).

Table 3 Feed intake (FI, g); weight gain (WG, g), feed conversion ratio (FCR, g/g), carcass yield (CY, %), breast yield (BY, %), leg yield (LY, %), and wing yield (WY, %) of 1- to 40-day-old broilers fed diets with castor seed cake inclusion (DCC, %) 

DCC FI WG FCR CY BY LY WY
0.0 3911±83 2304±31 1.700±0.054 84.20±0.33 29.95±0.68 26.60±0.24 9.10±0.26
2.5 3918±49 2283±44 1.718±0.037 84.67±0.42 30.81±0.42 26.53±0.58 9.31±0.12
5.0 3892±44 2273±24 1.713±0.027 84.23±0.50 30.80±0.31 26.70±0.25 9.00±0.07
7.5 3839±40 2143±20 1.793±0.031 83.35±0.54 30.06±0.36 26.35±0.43 9.32±0.23
10.0 3732±99 2002±53 1.865±0.041 83.07±0.49 29.17±0.42 26.27±0.54 9.50±0.22
Probability <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002 0.09 0.11 0.95 0.42
CV (%) 2.56 3.12 3.58 1.18 3.40 3.66 4.67

Mean ± standard error of the mean. CV = coefficient of variation. Carcass yield expressed as a percentage of live weight. Breast, leg, and wing yields are expressed as percentages of hot carcass weight with head and feet.

FI = -2.914 DCC2 + 11.66 DCC + 3909 (R2 = 0.81; optimal level = 2.00)

WG = - 4.114 DCC 2 + 11.38 DCC + 2298 (R2 = 0.69; optimal level = 1.38)

FCR = 0.002 DCC 2 -0.005 DCC + 1.704 (R2 = 0.37; optimal level = 1.25)

In the present study, performance and carcass traits were not influenced when levels up to 1.25% DCC were added to the diet. Literature reports indicate that up to 10% detoxified castor meal can be added in starter (Ani & Okorie, 2004; Ani &Okorie, 2005) and finisher (Ani & Okorie, 2008) broiler feeds. No negative effects of detoxified castor byproducts added to the diets of Japanese quail (Santos, 2011) and laying chickens (Bueno et al., 2014) during lay up to 10% and 5.7% on performance or egg quality were observed.

In the present experiment, feed intake was reduced when more than 2.00% DCC was included in the diet, with broilers fed 10% DCC presenting the lowest FI, which was 4.58% lower than those fed no DCC (Table 3). This result may be attributed to the low palatability and to the presence of an appetite-suppressing factor present in that feedstuff (Ani & Okorie, 2008). In addition, dietary oil and crude fiber contents also increased with increasing DCC inclusion levels (Tables 1 and 2), which may have also contributed for the FI reduction.

The weight gain reduction was proportionally higher than that of FI with the dietary inclusion of DCC. The WG of broilers fed 10% DCC was 13.1% lower compared with those fed no DCC, indicating that another factor, in addition of FI reduction, may have contributed to that result. Matos Júnior et al. (2011) determined crude protein digestibility in the same DCC used in the present experiment as 77.2%, which is lower compared with that of soybean meal (91.0%) and corn (87.0%) for broilers (Rostagno et al., 2011). Therefore, the digestible amino acid levels in the diets containing DCC possibly did not supply the broilers' requirements. The determination of the digestibility of the amino acids in DCC is suggested to allow better utilization of DCC in the formulation of poultry diets. Another factor that should be considered is the possible presence of ricin, which is the main toxic factor in DCC, although the detoxification method applied ensures the elimination of ricin (Oliveira, 2008). However, the DCC used in the present experiment was not analyzed for ricin.

Conclusions

It was concluded that the addition of detoxified castor seed cake levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair their live performance or carcass traits.

Acknowledgements

This research project was funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (process n. 47331/2007-0).

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1Ethical Considerations The experimental procedures adopted in this study were approved by the Committee on Ethics in Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, under protocol n. 59/2008.

Received: May 2015; Accepted: November 2015

Mail Address Corresponding author e-mail address Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho Rua Bom Jesus, 1101, apto 32 - Pirassununga - SP - Brasil - 13634-048 Phone: (19) 997452955 E-mail:fariafilho@usp.br

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