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Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science

Print version ISSN 1516-635XOn-line version ISSN 1806-9061

Rev. Bras. Cienc. Avic. vol.19 no.spe Campinas Jan./Mar. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0226 

Articles

Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

LW FreitasI 

JFM MentenI 

KC ZavarizeI 

R PereiraI 

GG RomanoI 

MB LimaI 

CTS DiasII 

IDepartamento de Zootecnia, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brasil.

IIDepartamento de Estatística e Experimentação Agronômica, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days) or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days), influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

Keywords: Alternative feedstuff, biodiesel, broiler litter; nutrition, pododermatitis

INTRODUCTION

Corn is the main energy source used in poultry feeds. Approximately 80% of Brazilian corn production is used in the formulation of feeds. Corn accounts for 65-70% of poultry feed composition. It is a valuable grain also used in human foods, and its replacement in feeds by other energy sources may reduce animal feeding costs.

The use of alternative feedstuffs, particularly in poultry production, may reduce production costs and increase the availability of traditional ingredients for human foods. Among alternative feedstuffs, glycerin is an energy-rich and low-cost ingredient. The glycerin obtained from biodiesel production contains 70-80% glycerol. Literature reports a wide range of chemical composition and energy values for glycerin. This variation may be due to the lack of purity of the samples because of the methods used for biodiesel production (Zavarize et al., 2014).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, carcass and parts yield of broilers relative to glycerin feeding period.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

In total, 1,610 Cobb 500 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age.

The glycerin product added to the diets contained 83% glycerol, 0.09% ether extract, 7% ashes, and 1.8% sodium. Glycerin gross energy value was determined in a bomb calorimeter as 3,620 kcal/kg, and the metabolizable energy value (3,258 kcal AMEn/kg) used for feed formulation was calculated as 90% of the GE value.

The rearing period was divided in four phases: pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (7-21 days), grower (21-35 days), and finisher (35-42 days), as the corresponding feeds were formulated to supply the broilers' nutritional requirements proposed by Rostagno et al. (2011), as shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1 Ingredients and calculated nutritional composition of the pre-starter (1-7 days) and starter (8-21 days) diets. 

Ingredients Pre-starter Starter
Glycerin inclusion (%)
0.0 5.0 10.0 0.0 5.0 10.0
Ground corn 48.91 42.97 37.04 53.78 47.85 41.91
Soybean meal 43.58 44.58 45.57 38.55 39.55 40.54
Corn oil 3.43 3.61 3.79 3.82 4.00 4.18
Glycerin 0.00 5.00 10.00 0.00 5.00 10.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.86 1.87 1.88 1.53 1.54 1.55
Limestone 0.91 0.91 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.93
Salt 0.51 0.28 0.05 0.48 0.25 0.03
DL-methionine 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.39 0.40 0.40
L-lysine HCl 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.16 0.14 0.12
L-threonine 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04
Vitamin supplement1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Mineral supplement2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Choline chloride 60% 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
Anticoccidial agent3 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Growth promoter4 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
Calculated values
ME, kcal/kg 2.960 2.960 2.960 3.050 3.050 3.050
CP, % 23.92 23.89 23.86 22.07 22.05 22.02
Ca, % 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.84 0.84 0.84
Available P, % 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.40 0.40 0.40
Na, % 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21
Digestible methionine, % 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.67 0.67 0.68
Digestible Met + Cys, % 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.97 0.98
Digestible lysine, % 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.22 1.22 1.22
Digestible threonine, % 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.79 0.79 0.79
Electrolyte balance, mEq/kg 236 234 232 216 214 212

1Vitamin supplement (per kg feed): Vit. A: 9,000 IU; vit. D3: 2,500 IU;vit. E, 20 IU; vit. K3, 2,5 mg; thiamine, 1.5mg; riboflavin, 6 mg; pyridoxine, 3 mg; cyanocobalamin, 12 µg; nicotinic acid, 25 mg; pantothenic acid, 12 mg; biotin, 0.06 mg; folic acid, 0. 8 mg; selenium, 0.25 mg.2Mineral supplement (per kg feed):I, 1 mg; Fe, 50 mg; Cu, 10 mg; Co, 1 mg; Mn, 75 mg; Zn, 50 mg.3Coxistac:12% salinomycin.4Halquinol BP 80: 60% chlorohydroxyquinoline.

Table 2 Ingredients and calculated nutritional composition of the grower (22-35 days) and finisher (36-42 days) diets. 

Ingredients Grower Finisher
Glycerin inclusion (%)
0.0 5.0 10.0 0.0 5.0 10.0
Ground corn 56.53 50.60 44.66 60.46 54.53 48.57
Soybean meal 35.30 36.30 37.29 31.85 32.85 33.84
Corn oil 4.82 5.00 5.17 4.77 4.95 5.13
Glycerin 0.00 5.00 10.00 0.00 5.00 10.00
Dicalcium phosphate 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.10 1.10 1.11
Limestone 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.80 0.80 0.78
Salt 0.46 0.23 0.00 0.45 0.22 0.00
DL-methionine 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.24 0.25 0.26
L-lysine HCl 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.16 0.15 0.13
L-threonine 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Vitamin supplement1 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.06
Mineral supplement2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Choline chloride 60% 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04
Anticoccidial agent3 0.05 0.05 0.05
Growth promoter4 0.005 0.005 0.005
Calculated values
ME, kcal/kg
CP, % 3.150 3.150 3.150 3.200 3.200 3.200
Ca, % 20.74 20.71 20.68 19.49 19.46 19.42
Available P, % 0.76 0.76 0.76 0.66 0.66 0.66
Na, % 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.31 0.31 0.31
Digestible methionine, % 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.20
Digestible Met + Cys, % 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.51 0.51 0.51
Digestible lysine, % 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.77 0.77 0.77
Digestible threonine, % 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.06 1.06 1.06
Electrolyte balance, mEq/kg 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.69 0.69 0.69
202 200 198 189 187 185

1Vitamin supplement (per kg feed):vit. A, 9,000 IU; vit. D3, 2,500 IU; vit. E, 20 IU; vit. K3, 2.5 mg; thiamine, 1. 5 mg; riboflavin, 6 mg; pyridoxine, 3 mg; cyanocobalamin, 12 µg; nicotinic acid, 25 mg; pantothenic acid, 12mg; biotin, 0.0.06 mg; folic acid, 0.8 mg; selenium, 0.25 mg.2Mineral supplement (per kg feed):I, 1 mg; Fe, 50 mg; Cu, 10 mg; Co, 1 mg; Mn, 75 mg; Zn, 50 mg.3Coxistac:12% salinomycin.4Halquinol BP 80: 60% chlorohydroxyquinoline.

Birds and feed residues were weekly weighed to calculate the live performance parameters (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, live weight, livability, and production efficiency index). Production efficiency index was calculated according to the equation: PEI = [(daily weight gain x livability)/ feed conversion ratio] x 100.

On day 7, one bird per replicate, with the average body weight of the replicate, was selected, identified, sacrificed by neck dislocation, and immediately frozen at -18oC. Carcass samples were freeze-dried for 170 days for subsequent determination of their dry matter content.

Litter moisture percentage was determined on days 21, 28, 35, and 42. Litter samples were collected from three different locations in each pen, distant from the feeder and drinker Litter samples were weighed and dried in a forced-ventilation oven (55°C for 72 hours), and weighed again.

On day 42, four birds per replicate were scored for pododermatitis according to a 0-1 scale as: 0 (no lesions), 1 (lesion covering up to 50% of the footpad surface), and 2 (lesion covering more than 50% of the footpad surface).

On day 48, all birds were fasted for eight hours, weighed, and sacrificed to determine carcass, parts, and abdominal fat yields. Birds were sacrificed by electrical stunning and bled. After evisceration and removal of the abdominal fat, carcasses were not placed in the chiller. Carcasses with no feet, head, neck, and offal were weighed to calculate their yield as a percentage of live weight. Carcasses were then cut up according to industrial processing methods into breast, legs (thighs and drumsticks), back, and wings; and their yields were calculated as a percentage of carcass weight. Feet, head + neck, and abdominal fat (removed from the abdominal cavity and from the gizzard) yields were calculated as a percentage of live weight.

The results obtained for performance parameters, carcass dry matter content, and carcass traits were submitted to analysis of variance using the PROC GLM of SAS statistical package version 9.2. When significant effects (p<0.05) were detected, means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level.

Pododermatitis scores were analyzed by the PROC FREQ of SAS statistical package version 9.2, and treatment means were compared by the test of Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). When significant effects were determined, means were submitted to the Chi-square test (c2).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 3 presents the performance results obtained. The statistical analyses showed that the diet with the inclusion of 5% glycerin promoted significantly better performance (p<0.05) until broilers were 21 days old, in agreement with the findings of Bernardino et al. (2014), Zavarizeet al.(2012), Silva et al. (2012), and Dourado et al. (2010). In addition, consistent with studies evaluating the addition of increasing glycerin levels (up to 10%) in broiler diets (Zavarize et al ., 2012; Menten et al., 2008; Fernandes et al ., 2010), no negative effect of the inclusion of up to 8% of glycerin was detected on broiler performance, suggesting that glycerin can be included in broiler diets, provided its chemical composition. Mandalawi et al. 2014 showed that raw glycerin from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw glycerin depends primarily on its glycerol content. However, when high glycerin levels were added to the diet (20 and 25%), Simon et al. (1997) performance impairment was observed. Guerra et al. (2011) obtained worse feed conversion ratios due to high feed intake when broilers were fed a diet with 10% glycerin relative to lower levels of glycerin inclusion. On the other hand, Cerrate et al. (2006) obtained lower feed intake in broilers fed diets of 10% of glycerin compared with 5%, and attributed this result to the reduced flow of the feed in the feeders, which consequently limited feed intake.

Table 3 Performance parameters measured in the periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of the rearing period of broilers fed with glycerin. 

Parameters Treatments1 p value CV8 (%)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
1-7 days
BW², g 204b 212a 209ab - - 0.0014 2.03
WG³, g 158b 166a 163a - - 0.0007 2.49
FI4, g 167 170 169 - - 0.5456 2.69
FCR5 1.059b 1.022a 1.035ab - - 0.0059 2.25
L6, % 99.4 99.5 98.9 - - 0.3752 1.18
Carcass DM, % 39.84 37.12 36.58 - - 0.3058 10.87
1- 21 days
BW², g 1116 1142 1106 1116 1126 0.0996 2.2
WG³, g 1069 1096 1059 1069 1080 0.0935 2.28
FI4, g 1484ab 1481ab 1513a 1448b 1438b 0.0034 2.42
FCR5 1.388ab 1.352a 1.428b 1.345ª 1.341a <0.0001 2.44
L6, % 96.9ab 97.8a 91.6b 96.9ab 96.3ab 0.0184 3.63
1-42days
BW², g 3218 3280 3211 3278 3277 0.4892 2.88
WG³, g 3172 3234 3165 3232 3231 0.4857 2.92
FI4, g 5177 5279 5272 5274 5299 0.6006 2.68
FCR5 1.634 1.632 1.666 1.632 1.64 0.349 2.02
L6, % 89.9 87.6 79.7 90.10 86.0 0.058 7.52
PEI7 417 a 413a 363b 425 a 403ab 0.0111 7.45

1Treatments: T1 - control diet (no glycerin inclusion); T2 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T3 -diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T4 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days; and T5 - diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days. 2BW:body weight on day 42. 3WG: weight gain.4FI:feed intake.5FCR:feed conversion ratio.6L:Livability.7PEI:production efficiency index.8CV:coefficient of variation.9Carcass dry matter:Carcass dry matter after freeze-drying.a,b Means in the same row followed by different superscripts are different by the test of Tukey (p<0.05).

Whole carcass dry matter content of the broilers sacrificed with seven days of age are shown in Table 3.There was no effect of dietary glycerin inclusion (p>0.05) on whole carcass dry matter content of broilers sacrificed with seven days of age. Previous studies indicated that the inclusion of high glycerin levels in starter broiler diets increased weight gain during the first days of rearing; however, when fed during the entire rearing period, performance losses were observed (Simon et al., 1997; Cerrate et al, 2006; Silva et al., 2012). This result suggests that the use of glycerin does not promote water retention in the carcass, but true weight gain.

Carcass trait results are shown in Table 4. The was no effect of the treatments (p>0.05) on carcass and parts yield. These results are consistent with the findings of Guerra et al. (2011), Silva et al. (2012), and Gianfelici (2009), using a maximum level of 10% of glycerin in broiler diets. This indicates that glycerin can be added up to this level in the diet with no adverse effects on carcass yield or commercial parts yields. However, Cerrate et al. (2006) observed that broilers fed diets containing 2.5 and 5% of glycerin, presented higher carcass and breast yields compared with those fed a standard diet.

Table 4 Carcass and parts yields of 49-d-old broilers fed with different glycerin levels. 

Treatments2 BW2, g CY3, % BrY4, % WY5, % LY6, % BY7, % AF8, %
T1 3872 72.34 42.39 10.23 32.66 14.12 1.32
T2 3931 72.11 42.95 10.00 32.35 14.40 1.48
T3 3889 72.15 42.78 10.16 32.27 14.48 1.43
T4 4150 72.65 43.75 9.80 31.92 14.17 1.29
T5 4001 72.72 43.62 10.21 31.65 14.35 1.40
p value 0.4091 0.1875 0.1798 0.2873 0.5307 0.6896
CV9 (%) 1.76 4.87 6.49 4.95 5.49 33.85

1Treatments: T1 - control diet (no glycerin inclusion); T2 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T3 -diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T4 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days; and T5 - diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days. 2BW:body weight on day 48; 3CY:carcass yield; 4BrY:breast yield; 5WY:wing yield; 6LY:leg yield; 7BY:back yield; 8AF:abdominal fat; 9CV:coefficient of variation.

Litter moisture results are shown in Table 5. The litter of the broilers fed the diet with 10% of glycerin during the entire rearing period (1-42 days) presented higher moisture levels (p<0.05) after day 21, compared with the other treatments. Freitas et al. (2011) and Guerra et al. (2011), evaluating the inclusion of increasing glycerin level in broiler diets, also observed higher litter moisture after day 21, when the diets contained more than 10% of glycerin. Bernadino et al. (2014) found increased litter moisture when broilers were fed 7% of glycerin in the diet according to Robinson & Newsholme (1969), the digestion of glycerol, present in glycerin, is limited by the saturation of the enzyme glycerol kinase. In addition, glycerol is a highly hygroscopic molecule, carrying water during its excretion. Gianfelici (2009) and Romano et al. (2014) observed that levels higher than 7.5% of glycerin in broiler diets increased water consumption and excretion, which may have adverse effects on the field due to higher litter moisture. Glycerin is a low molecular weight hydrophilic compound, which is easily excreted by the kidneys. Silva et al. (2012) described a positive linear effect of dietary glycerin levels on litter moisture evaluated when broilers were 43 days old, and observed higher excreta moisture after the third week of rearing in broilers fed 10% of glycerin.

Table 5 Litter moisture levels on days 21, 28, 35, and 42, according to experimental treatment. 

Treatments1 21 days 28 days 35 days 42 days
T1 29.62b 32.73b 34.66bc 40.90ab
T2 34.17ab 35.30b 40.63ab 46.26a
T3 37.50a 44.14a 47.83a 47.70a
T4 29.43b 30.90b 30.29c 40.82b
T5 30.56b 32.50b 35.20bc 37.10b
Valor de P <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0032
CV2 (%) 9.69 11.15 13.19 12.06

1Treatments: T1 - control diet (no glycerin inclusion); T2 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T3 -diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T4 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days; and T5 - diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days.2CV: coefficient of variation.a,b,c Means in the same column followed by different superscripts are different by the test of Tukey (p<0.05).

The incidence of pododermatitis observed in the present study is shown in Table 6. The incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher (p<0.05) when birds were fed glycerin during the entire experimental period (1-42 days), and all birds fed 10% of glycerin were affected.

Table 6 Incidence and severity (score) of pododermatitis in the right footpad (RF) and left footpad (LF) of broilers fed with different glycerin levels at 42 days. 

Treatments1
Score T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
RF (%) 0 51.43 a 5.72 b 2.86 b 20.00 ab 31.42 ab
1 31.43 28.57 17.14 34.29 14.29
2 17.14 b 65.71 a 80.00 a 45.71 ab 54.29 ab
LF (%) 0 51.43 a 5.72 ab 0.00 b 17.14 ab 28.57 ab
1 31.43 25.71 14.29 28.57 25.72
2 17.14 b 68.57 a 85.71 a 54.29 ab 45.71 ab

1Treatments: T1 - control diet (no glycerin inclusion); T2 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T3 -diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 1-42 days; T4 - diet with 5% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days; and T5 - diet with 10% glycerin inclusion from 7-42 days. a,b Means in the same row followed by different superscripts are different by the test of Tukey (p<0.05).

The incidence of severe pododermatitis (score 2) was only 17% in the broilers not fed glycerin, whereas more than 45% of those fed diets containing glycerin during the entire rearing period (1-42 days) presented score 2. This result may be attributed to the high litter moisture in the pens of the latter, which was higher than 25%, which is the highest recommended values (UBA, 2008).

Litter moisture may greatly influence the incidence and the severity of pododermatitis (Traldi et al., 2007). Bernardi (2011) indicated that high excreta output increase litter moisture and nitrogen content, also increasing the incidence and severity of footpad lesions.

CONCLUSIONS

Diets containing 10% of glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days) or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days), influence broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency index at 42 days.

Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance; litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

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Received: April 2016; Accepted: November 2016

Corresponding author e-mail address Kelen C. Zavarize Avenida Pádua Dias, 11 - Piracicaba - São Paulo, Brazil 13418-900 Tel: (55 19) 996289003 Email:kelen_zavarize@yahoo.com.br

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