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Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science

Print version ISSN 1516-635XOn-line version ISSN 1806-9061

Braz. J. Poult. Sci. vol.20 no.2 Campinas Apr./June 2018

https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2017-0610 

Articles

Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oils on Oxidative Status and Intestinal Barrier Function in Broiler Chickens

L TanI  II 

D RongII 

Y YangI 

B ZhangI 

IState Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

IIGuizhou Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Research Institute, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550005, China.


ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidized soybean oils on the growth performance, metabolic oxidative status and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chickens were assigned to four dietary treatments with six replicates (cages) of 10 birds each. The dietary treatments comprised of a basal diet supplemented with 4% of: non-oxidized (fresh) soybean oil (control treatment, SNX); lowly-oxidized soybean oil (SLX) (oil heated for 10h at 200°C); moderately-oxidized soybean oil (SMX) (oil heated for 18h at 200°C); or highly-oxidized soybean oil (SHX) (oil heated for 30h at 200°C). Diets and water were offered ad libitum. The experiment was lasted 21d.The growth performance of broilers, determined from 1 to 14 d and from 1 to 21 d of age, was not affected by the dietary treatments (p>0.05). Broilers fed oxidized soybean oils presented higher corticosterone serum levels compared with those fed non-oxidized oil (p<0.05). Higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels onday14 and 21 (p<0.05), and lower total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and totalsuperoxide dismutase (T-SOD) values on day 21were obtained in the liver of broiler fed oxidized oils relative to those fed the non-oxidized oil (p<0.05). Broilers fed the highly-oxidized soybean oil had higher (p<0.05) MDA levels in the jejunum on day 21 compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. Chickens fed moderately- and highly-oxidized soybean oil presented lower (p<0.05) T-SOD activity inileal mucosa compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. Ileal mRNA expression of claudin-1 tended to be down regulated by the dietary addition of oxidized oils (p=0.056). The mRNA expression of interleukin-22 (IL-22) of broilers fed moderately-oxidized and highly-oxidized soybean oil was higher (p<0.05), and the mRNA expression of occludin and catalase was lower (p<0.05) than those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. However, the morphology of the jejunal and ileal mucosa was not influenced (p>0.05) by the dietary oxidized oil treatments. It was concluded that oxidized oils may cause oxidative stress by reducing intestinal and liver antioxidant capacity; increase intestinal permeability by reducing mRNA expression levels of tight-junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin; and cause inflammation by increasing mRNA expression level of the inflammation-related factor IL-22.

Keywords: Intestinal barrier function; inflammation-related factor; oxidative stress; heat-oxidized oil; broilers

INTRODUCTION

Oils are added into poultry diets to supply energy and essential fatty acids, as a vitamin vehicle, and to alleviated acute heat stress (Mujahid et al., 2009). Vegetable oils contain large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as soybean oil, which is susceptible to peroxidation (Liu et al., 2014). The fatty-acid composition of lipids used in animal feeds is variable. Lipids used in animal feeds may contain various concentrations of primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products, depending on their fatty-acid composition, storage length, storage conditions, and processing (Totani et al., 2007; Totani et al., 2008). Heated oils contain various amounts of peroxidation products (Zhang et al., 2012), such as 4-hydroxynonenal, hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde, and 2,4-heptadienal (Choe & Min, 2007), which influence oil odor, palatability, and quality (Paul & Mittal, 1997; Poulli et al., 2009; Smyk, 2015).

The consumption of oxidized phosphatidylcholine can cause damage to organs and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels in the visceral organs of rats (Al-Orf, 2011). The end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mice and human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells (Awada et al., 2012). In multiple animal species (Hayam et al., 1997; Kumagai et al., 2004; Yue et al., 2011; Ehr et al., 2015), oxidized oils decrease feed intake, depress growth, and even cause disease. Feeding oxidized fish oil impaired the growth performance and induced oxidative stress in Litopenaeus vannamei (Yang et al., 2015). Feeding auto-oxidized capelin oil impaired growth rates, antioxidant activities, and increased the occurrence of deformed fish in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenserbaeri) larvae (Fontagné et al., 2006). Feeding oxidized fats impaired growth performance by increasing gastrointestinal epithelium cell turnover and hepatic cell proliferation, and increasing the concentration of immunoglobulins in intestinal tissue of broilers and pigs (Dibner et al., 1996). Feeding heat-oxidized lipids impaired the metabolic oxidative status of young pigs by depleting serum α-T and increasing serum TBARS (Liuet al., 2014).

The biological mechanisms to explain these observations are largely unknown and little information has been reported regarding the effect of feeding oxidized soybean oil on the intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens. The following study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxidized soybean oil on the performance, metabolic oxidative status, and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fish Oil Preparation

Fresh soybean oil was purchased from the supermarket and stored in a freezer at -30°C until use. In order to oxidize soybean oil, vesicles containing the required amount of fresh soybean oil were heated to 200°C for either 10h, 18h, or 30h to produce low-oxidized soybean oil (SLX), moderately-oxidized soybean oil (SMX) or highly-oxidized soybean oil (SHX), respectively. The processed oils were stored at -30°C prior to their addition to feed. No antioxidant was added before or during the manufacturing of the experimental diets.

The oils were analyzed for their peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AV), according to ISO methods ISO 3960:2001 IDT (ISO, 2001) and ISO 6885:2006 IDT (ISO, 2006), respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrationwas analyzed according to the method of Sidwell et al. (1953). Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and vitamin E(VE) content of oils were detected by HPLC methods (Cabuk & Kokturk, 2013). Analytical standards of BHA, BHT, TBHQ, and VE were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Sigma-Aldrich, USA).

Birds, Housing and Diets

All experimental procedures were reviewed and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

A total of 240 one-day female broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery, and assigned to four treatments with six replicate cages of 10 birds each, according to a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a basal diet based on corn-soybean meal which formulated to meet or exceed the recommended nutritional requirements of broilers (NRC, 1994; Table 1). No antibiotic growth promoters or antioxidants were added to the basal diet. The experimental diets were produced by adding 4% of four different soybean oil products. The soybean oil products included: fresh soybean oil (control treatment, SNX), lowly-oxidized soybean oil (SLX), moderately-oxidized soybean oil (SMX), and highly-oxidized soybean oil (SHX). The trial lasted 21 days during which birds had ad libitum access to feed and water. Initial environmental temperature (day 1) was 31°C, and daily reduced by 0.5°C until 21°C was reached. Continuous lighting was provided during the entire experimental period.

Growth Performance

Birds and feed offered were weighed per pen on the day of hatch, and day14 and day 21. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for each period.

Table 1 Ingredients and calculated nutritional composition of the basal diet. 

Ingredient (g/kg) 1 to 21d
Corn 531.80
Soybean meal 385.00
Choline chloride, 50% 2.60
Vitamin premix1 0.30
Trace minerals2 2.00
Soybean oil 40.00
L-Lysine, 99% 0.80
DL-Methionine, 98% 1.90
Dicalcium phosphate 20.00
Limestone 12.50
Sodium chloride 3.10
Calculated nutrient levels
Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg 2961
Crude protein3, g/kg 211.0
Calcium, g/kg 10.1
Available phosphorus, g/kg 4.6
Lysine, g/kg 12.1
Methionine, g/kg 5.0

1The vitamin premix provided the following per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A, 9500 IU; vitamin D3, 2500IU; vitamin E, 30 IU; vitamin K3, 2.65 mg; vitamin B1, 2 mg; vitamin B6, 6 mg; vitamin B12, 0.025 mg; biotin, 0.0325 mg; folic acid, 1.25 mg; pantothenic acid, 12 mg; nicotinic acid 50 mg.

2The trace mineral premix provided the following per kilogram of complete diet: copper, 8 mg (CuSO4·5H2O); zinc, 75mg (ZnSO4); iron, 80 mg (FeSO4); manganese, 100 mg (MnSO4·H2O), selenium, 0.15 mg (Na2SeO3); iodine, 0.35 mg (KI).

3Analyzed.

Sample Collection

On days14 and 21, one bird per cage was randomly selected and sacrificed by venous administration of sodium pentobarbital (30mg/kg of body weight) in order to collect blood, jejunal mucosa, ileal mucosa, and liver samples. After the intestines were removed, the digestawas flushed with 4% saline solution, and the mucous membrane was gently scraped to obtain the samples, which were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -35°C until analysis. On d 14 only, a portion of the ileal mucosa sample was immediately frozen and stored at -80°C for mRNA determination. Additionally, on d 14 and d 21, the right lobe of the liver was extracted and stored at -35°C for evaluation of oxidative stress enzyme activity and MDA concentration. On d 14, blood samples were collected by jugular exsanguination. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3000×g for 10 min at 4°C, and stored at -35°C until analysis.

Serum analysis

Serum corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit (Beijing Sino-uk Institute of Biological Technology, Beijing, China) by an automatic biochemical analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Japan).

Oxidative Stress Enzyme Analysis

Intestinal (jejunal/ileal) mucosa and liver samples (~1 g) were homogenized in 10 mL ice-cold saline solution and centrifuged at 20,000×g for 10 min at 4°C. After appropriate dilution, the supernatant fractions were assayed for total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX activities), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels using enzymatic kits (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China). In order to prevent possible enzyme degradation, the samples were kept on ice throughout detection.

Intestinal morphology analysis

The fixed intestinal samples were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin wax, cut into 3-µm sections, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Villus height and crypt depth of 10 randomly selected complete villi per sample were measured at x40 magnification. Villus height was estimated by measuring the vertical distance from the villus tip to villus crypt junction. Crypt depth was measured as the vertical distance from the villus crypt junction to the lower limit of the crypt. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was then calculated from these measurements.

Gene Expression Analysis

Total RNA was extracted from ileal mucosa (~100mg) using trizol reagent, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, California, USA). The purity of the isolated total RNA was determined by measuring its optical density at 260 and 280nm. Samples of the extracted total RNA (2 mg) were reverse transcribed using a reverse transcription kit (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, California, USA). The expression levels of targeted genes were measured according to quantitative real-time PCR assay with a 7300 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) using Fast Start Universal SYBR Green Master (Roche) after generation of standard curves for each of five selected gene products: claudin-1, occludin, interleukin-22 (IL-22), catalase (CAT), and β-actin. The primer pairs for the amplification of the appropriate cDNA fragments are listed in Table 2. The PCR program consisted of an initial denaturation step for 10 min at 95°C, an amplification step (40 cycles of 1 min at 95°C), an annealing and extension step for 5 min at 60°C, and a final extension step for 10 min 72°C. All measurements were carried out in triplicate, and values were averaged. The PCR products from each primer pair were subjected to a melting curve analysis in order to confirm amplification specificity. The expression levels of the target genes were calculated using the comparative threshold cycle method (Livak & Schmittgen, 2001) and data were expressed as values relative to the control group.

Table 2 Oligonucleotide primers used for quantitative real-time PCR of ileal mucosa tissue samples. 

Gene Primer fragment Accession number
β-actin 5’-GGATTGGAGGCTCTATCCTGG-3’ NM_205518.1
5’-GTTTAGAAGCATTTGCGGTGG-3’
Claudin-1 5’-GATGCGGATGGCTGTCTTTG-3’ NM_001013611.2
5’-GCTGGGTGGGTAGGATGTTTC-3’
Occludin 5’-GCCGTAACCCCGAGTTGGAT-3’ NM_205128.1
5’-TGATTGAGGCGGTCGTTGATG-3’
IL22 5’-ACCCGTATGCTGAGGATGTGG-3’ NM_001199614.1
5’-CTTGTTCCCTCCCTTCTTTGG-3’
CAT 5’-AGCAGGTGCCTTTGGCTATT-3’ NM_001031215.1
5’-CGAGGGTCACGAACTGTATCA-3’

Statistical Analysis

Data on growth performance were analyzed per pen basis. All other data were analyzed per individual bird. Data were subjected to Levene’s test for homogeneity of variances before further statistical analysis, and expressed as mean values and associated standard errors. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using the procedures of SPSS Version 18.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Differences among means were identified using Duncan’s multiple-range test. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05.

RESULTS

Chemical Characteristics of the Experimental Soybean Oils

The concentrations of PV, MDA, p-AV, BHA, BHT, TBHQ, VE in the four experimental soybean oils are shown in Table 3. BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were not detected in any of the oils. As expected, with increased duration of heating, the peroxide value of the oil gradually increased. Compared with the SNX oil, the concentration of MDA and p-AV in the three oxidized oils increased.

Table 3 Biochemical analysis of the experimental oils1

Value
Item SNX SLX SMX SHX
PV (meq/kg) 3.69 25.37 56.83 73.21
MDA (ug/kg) 5.76 53.30 42.91 32.96
p-AV 2.01 280 289 292
BHA (mg/kg) ND2 ND ND ND
BHT (mg/kg) ND ND ND ND
TBHQ (mg/kg) ND ND ND ND
VE (mg/kg) 2218 380 139 ND

1SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h).PV = peroxide value; p-AV = p-anisidine value; MDA = malondialdehyde; BHA = butylated hydroxyanisole; BHT = butylated hydroxytoluene;TBHQ = tertiary butylhydroquinone;VE = vitamin E.

2ND = not detected

Growth Performance

Different oxidation level of soybean oil did not affect broiler growth performance from 1 to 14 d of age and from 1 to 21 d of age (p>0.05, Table 4).

Table 4 Growth performance of broilers fed diets with the inclusion of fresh soybean oil (SNX), lowly-, moderately-, or highly-oxidized soybean oil (SLX, SMX and SHX) 1, 2

1 to 14 d 1 to 21d
Treatment BWG(g) FI (g) FCR BWG (g) FI (g) FCR
SNX 253 308 1.22 607 790 1.31
SLX 240 298 1.24 622 812 1.31
SMX 232 293 1.27 599 792 1.32
SHX 253 319 1.26 629 848 1.35
SEM 5.60 5.50 0.01 10.47 12 0.02
p-value 0.487 0.394 0.816 0.752 0.359 0.796

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). BWG = body weight gain, FI = feed intake, FCR = feed conversion ratio. SEM = standard error of the mean.

2 Soybean oils were incorporated into the diet at a level of 4%.

a,bMeans in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p< 0.05).

Metabolic Oxidative Status

The serum concentration of corticosterone was affected (p<0.05) by dietary oil treatment (Table 5). Chickens fed oxidized soybean oil, regardless of the oxidation levels in soybean oil, presented significant higher corticosterone serum levels compared with those fed the non-oxidized soybean oil diet.

Table 5 Serum corticosterone levels and liver levels of antioxidant-related compounds and enzymes of broilers fed diets with fresh or oxidized soybean oils1, 2

14d 21d
Treatment Serum CORT (ng/mL) MDA (nmol/mg prot) T-AOC (U/mg prot) GSH-PX (U/mg prot) T-SOD (U/mg prot) MDA (nmol/mg prot) T-AOC (U/mg prot) GSH-PX (U/mg prot) T-SOD (U/mg prot)
SNX 8.46b 0.743bc 1.635 14.93 187 0.753b 1.738a 10.93 186a
SLX 13.88a 0.625c 1.424 16.93 180 0.712b 1.625ab 11.04 168ab
SMX 13.43a 0.796ab 1.594 15.18 173 0.632b 1.345c 11.13 154bc
SHX 12.86a 0.885a 1.606 15.57 185 1.089a 1.388bc 10.48 141c
SEM 0.52 0.029 0.048 0.45 2 0.057 0.053 0.15 5
p-value 0.000 0.006 0.141 0.417 0.134 0.014 0.012 0.443 0.000

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h). Serum CORT = serum corticosterone; MDA = malonaldehyde; T-AOC = totalantioxidant capacity; GSH-PX = glutathione peroxidase; T-SOD = total superoxide dismutase. mg prot =milligram protein. SEM = standard error of the mean.

2Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%.

a,bMeans in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05)

Liver MDA and T-AOC concentrations and GSH-PX and T-SOD activities were shown in the Table 5. The content of MDA in the liver on days 14 and 21, and T-AOC and T-SOD activities on day 21were affected by dietary oil treatment (p<0.05). Chickens fed highly-oxidized soybean oil presented higher (p<0.05) MDA levels compared with those fed the non-oxidized soybean oil diet. Both SMX- and SHX-fed birds presented lower (p<0.05) T-AOC and T-SOD levels in the liver on day 21 compared with the SNX-fed birds. The oxidation levels of soybean oil did not affect T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH-PX levels in liver on day 14 (p>0.05).

The concentrations of MDA in jejunum on day 21 were affected (p<0.05) by dietary oxidized oil treatment (Table 6). The jejunum of chickens fed highly-oxidized soybean oil had higher (p<0.05) MDA concentrations on day 21 compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil diet. Dietary oxidized oil treatment did not influence the metabolic oxidative status of the jejunal mucosa on day 14 (p>0.05).

Table 6 Levels of antioxidant-related compounds in the jejunal mucosa of broilers fed diets with fresh or oxidized soybean oils1, 2

14d 21d
Treatment MDA(nmol/ mg prot) T-AOC(U /mg prot) T-SOD(U /mg prot) MDA(nmol/ mg prot) T-AOC(U /mg prot) T-SOD(U /mg prot)
SNX 0.393 2.034 88 0.228b 1.770 80
SLX 0.548 1.716 93 0.262ab 2.042 73
SMX 0.264 1.853 89 0.277ab 2.097 80
SHX 0.456 2.192 104 0.320a 2.080 73
SEM 0.052 0.079 4 0.011 0.076 2
P-value 0.389 0.158 0.362 0.017 0.394 0.306

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h). MDA = malonaldehyde; T-AOC = total antioxidant capacity; T-SOD = total superoxide dismutase. mg prot =milligram protein. SEM = standard error of the mean.

2Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%.

a,bMeans in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

The activities of T-SOD in the ileal mucosa both on days 14 and 21 were affected (p<0.05) by dietary oxidized oil treatment (Table 7). Chickens fed moderately- and highly-oxidized soybean oil presented lower (p<0.05) T-SOD activity in the ileal mucosa compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil diet. The different oxidation levels of soybean oils did not affect MDA concentrations on days 14 and 21 or T-AOC activity in the ileal mucosa on days 14 and 21 (p>0.05).

Table 7 Levels of antioxidant-related compounds in the ileal mucosa of broilers fed diets with fresh or oxidized soybean oils1, 2

14d 21d
Treatment MDA(nmol/ mg prot) T-AOC(U /mg prot) T-SOD(U /mg prot) MDA(nmol/ mg prot) T-AOC(U /mg prot) T-SOD(U /mg prot)
SNX 0.206 1.351 87a 0.202 1.756 92a
SLX 0.199 1.280 82a 0.191 1.712 83ab
SMX 0.165 1.280 77ab 0.188 1.654 77b
SHX 0.150 1.404 72b 0.230 1.594 74b
SEM 0.011 0.028 2 0.024 0.043 2
p-value 0.208 0.341 0.025 0.160 0.603 0.013

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h). MDA = malonaldehyde; T-AOC = total antioxidant capacity; T-SOD = total superoxide dismutase. mg prot =milligram protein. SEM = standard error of the mean.

2Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%.

a,bMeans in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

Intestinal morphology

The intestinal morphology of the jejunum and ileum were not significantly affected (p>0.05, Table 8 and 9) by dietaryoxidized-oil treatments.

Table 8 Intestinal morphology in the jejunum mucosa of broilers fed diets with fresh or oxidized soybean oils1, 2

14d 21d
Treatment Villus height (um) Crypt depth (um) Villus height/Crypt depth Villus height (um) Crypt depth (um) Villus height/Crypt depth
SNX 668 211 3.304 865 247 3.495
SLX 684 216 3.359 812 237 3.743
SMX 689 203 3.263 918 227 4.307
SHX 737 221 3.616 775 270 2.764
SEM 13.389 8.502 0.095 23.499 10.637 0.212
P-value 0.320 0.989 0.490 0.145 0.859 0.080

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h). SEM = standard error of the mean.

2Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%.

a, b Means in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

Table 9 Intestinal morphology in the ileal mucosa of broilers fed diets with fresh and oxidized soybean oils1, 2

14d 21d
Treatment Villus height (um) Crypt depth (um) Villus height/Crypt depth Villus height (um) Crypt depth (um) Villus height/Crypt depth
SNX 549 158 3.598 737 211 3.695
SLX 543 175 3.627 633 177 3.738
SMX 533 169 3.263 664 193 3.687
SHX 508 144 3.616 632 185 3.540
SEM 23.000 4.867 0.095 19.818 7.469 0.096
p-value 0.686 0.114 0.490 0.182 0.442 0.909

1Data are presented as the mean value of 10 birds per replicate cage (n = 6 replicate cages). SNX = non-oxidized soybean oil (fresh soybean oil); SLX = lowly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 10 h); SMX = moderately-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 18 h); SHX = highly-oxidized soybean oil (heated for 30 h).

2Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%

a, b Means in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05).

Claudin-1, Occludin, TNF-α, IL-22, and CAT mRNA Expression in the ileum

The mRNA expression of claudin-1 in the ileum tended (p=0.056) to be down regulated by the dietary addition of oxidized oils (Figure1). The mRNA expression of occludin, IL-22, and CAT in ileum were affected by dietary oxidized oil treatment (p<0.05). Chickens fed moderately- and highly-oxidized soybean oil had higher (p<0.05) mRNA expression of IL-22, but lower (p<0.05) mRNA expression of occludin and CAT compared with those fed the non-oxidized soybean oil diet. The mRNA expression of CAT was down regulated by oxidized soybean oil treatments (p<0.05).

Figure 1 Relative mRNA expression levels of Claudin-1, Occludin, IL-22, and CAT. Data are mean values of 6 individual birds (1 per replicate cage). SNX = birds fed non-oxidized soybean oil; SLX = birds fed lowly-oxidized soybean oil; SMX = birds fed moderately-oxidized soybean oil; SHX = birds fed highly-oxidized soybean oil. β-actin was used as an endogenous reference gene, and mRNA expression is expressed relative value to the SNX group. IL-22 = interleukin; CAT = catalase. SEM = standard error of the mean. Soybean oils were included in the diet at a level of 4%.a, b, c and d: means in the same column with different superscript letters are significantly different (p<0.05). 

DISCUSSION

The impact of dietary oxidized oil on growth had been observed in broiler chicks (Ehr et al., 2015), weaned pigs (Li et al., 2012), and different aquatic animals (Lewis-McCrea & Lall, 2007; Dong et al., 2011). Some studies reported that dietary oxidized oils impaired animal performance (Tavarez et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2015), while others did not find any negative effects (Dong et al., 2011). This may be related to differences in dietary oil content and degree of oil oxidation (Yue et al., 2010, Zhang et al., 2011). In our study, no significant effects of feeding diets with different oxidation levels of soybean oils on broiler growth performance were detected, possibly due to the low oil content of the experimental diets and their low oxidation levels.

The primary physiological response of poultry when the body suffers oxidative stress is to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The response is characterized by adrenal cortical hypertrophy and increased synthesis and release of adrenal glucocorticoids, primarily corticosterone (Zhang et al., 2009). The increase in corticosterone levels by feeding oxidized oils in current study indicated that the broilers were under oxidative stress.

MDA is a lipid peroxidation marker, and increasing levels are related to lipid peroxidation and oxidation stress (Aytekin et al., 2015, Esgalhado et al., 2015). Our data showed that the dietary inclusion of highly-oxidized soybean oil increased the concentration of MDA in the jejunum and the liver, indicating lipid peroxidation in these tissues. Similar results were obtained in pigs (Ringseis et al., 2007) and broilers (Zhang et al., 2011; Liang et al., 2015). MDA level changes observed in the birds fed oxidized oils maybe triggered by free radicals of lipid peroxidation.

Other biomarkers of metabolic oxidative status are total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities. Liver T-AOC level on day 21 was reduced in SMX- and SHX-fed broilers compared with those fed SNX, but no changes in these parameters at other evaluated time points or tissues. In addition, liver T-AOC activity of SMX and SHX diet treatments was reduced between d 14 and d 21, which may suggest that their liver suffered oxidative stress (Gao et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2015). Total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) are important antioxidant enzymes that accept an electron from superoxide anion (O2-) and H2O to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Tan et al., 2015). Glutathione peroxidase (GHS-Px) may prevent cell membrane oxidative damage caused by lipid peroxides (LOOH). In the present study, T-SOD levels both inileum (d 14 and 21) and liver (d 21) and the expression of CAT gene in ileum significantly decreased when oxidized oils were fed. These results were consistent with those reported in another oxidative stress study (Liang et al., 2015). The present study demonstrated that feeding oxidized oil decreased the activity of antioxidation enzymes (T-SOD), indicating the lower capacity of scavenging free radicals, and suggested that the oxidized oil might cause metabolic oxidative stress in intestine of broiler chickens.

Claudins and occludin play a critical roles in the intestinal barrier function and paracellular permeable selectivity in the intestinal tissue (Cani et al., 2008; Lee 2015). Claudins, including claudin-1, -3, -5, -11, and -19, have been associated with a more general barrier-tightening function (Overgaard et al., 2011). Occludin influences the tight junction structure and permeability of the intestinal epithelia (Al-Sadi et al., 2011). Disruption of the tight junctions increases intestinal permeability. The mRNA expression of occludin and claudin-1 in intestines of broilers were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that feeding oxidized oils down regulated occludin and claudin-1 mRNA expression in the ileum and suggest that the regulation of occludin and claudin-1 expression by oxidized oils may be increase intestinal permeability, leading intestinal barrier dysfunction. These results were in agreement with other reports on animals suffering oxidative stress (Casselbrant et al., 2015, Nevado et al., 2015, Suzuki & Hara, 2010). According to John et al. (2011), excessive levels of reactive oxygen species in intestines may contribute to barrier dysfunction, as indicated by a disruption of composition of the tight junctions.

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is produced by activated T cells and signals through a receptor complex consisting of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 (Brand et al., 2006). In present study, the IL-22 mRNA expression in the ileum was upregulated in SMX- and SHX-fed broilers, indicating feeding oxidized oils can induce inflammation through the upregulation of IL-22 mRNA expression.

In conclusion, feeding oxidized soybean oil impaired the intestinal barrier function and induced metabolic oxidative status of broiler chickens. The results suggested that the inclusion of oxidized soybean oil in broiler feeds may induce oxidative stress in intestines, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction, which may be partially related to an increase in cytokine levels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank Yuxin Shao, Yanyan Yang, Yuanyang Dong, Xuan Liu and He Gao for their help with the experiments. This work was supported by the Yangtz River Scholar and Innovation Research Team Development Program (No. IRT0945), the Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (No. 2015DK005).

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Received: October 15, 2017; Accepted: December 21, 2017

Corresponding author e-mail address Bingkun Zhang China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Tel: +86-10-62734978 Email: bingkunzhang@126.com

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