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Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science

versão impressa ISSN 1516-635Xversão On-line ISSN 1806-9061

Braz. J. Poult. Sci. vol.20 no.4 Campinas out./dez. 2018

https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2018-0732 

Articles

Laying Performance and Egg Quality of Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Castor Meal and Enzyme Complex

IUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco Ringgold standard institution - Zootecnia.

IIEmbrapa / CNPSA.


ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets formulated with corn plus soybean meal (CSM) or with 21% autoclaved castor meal (ACM), with the addition of two enzyme complexes (EC1 and EC2), on the performance and egg quality of laying quail. Two hundred and sixteen quails were selected by egg production and weight uniformity and distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments (in a 2 × 3 cross-factorial arrangement) and six replicates with six birds each. Three CSM and three ACM diets supplemented withEC1, EC2, or unsupplemented were established. The trial lasted three cycles of 21 days. Feed intake, laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, and feed conversion per dozen eggs did not differ. The use of ACM diet reduced egg (EW), yolk (YW), and eggshell (SW) weights, egg specific gravity and increased yolk color. However, EW and YW were similar among quails fed diets containing CSM and ACM when supplemented with CE1.The use of enzyme complex containing xylanase, b-glucanase, and phytase is recommended when 21% autoclaved castor mealis included in the diet of laying quails.

Keywords: Autoclaved castor meal; enzymes; laying quails; protein source

INTRODUCTION

With the development of the poultry industry, major advances have been achieved, providing alternatives to make feed compounding more efficient and economical. Enzymes have an effect on diet cost reduction and contribute to reducing antinutritional effects of ingredients, improving the diet digestibility and poultry performance (Olukosi et al., 2007), especially when alternative feedstuffs, such as castor (Ricinus communis L.), are used in the feed.

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the most traditional crops grown in the Brazilian northeast semi-arid region. After being pressed, castor seeds generate the castor cake, a high-protein and high-fiber solid extract residue. Its high protein content (30.9%, according to Matos Júnior et al. (2011) renders it an attractive alternative for animal feed, but the presence of toxic and allergenic compounds, such as ricin and2S albumins, have made its use impractical on a large commercial scale (Severino et al., 2012). However, according to Anandan et al. (2005), the heat and pressing treatment of the meal associated with chemical agents such as CaO or Ca(OH)2 may inactivate ricin and the allergen compound CB-1A, identified by Youle & Huang (1978) as 2S albumins, in beans and castor seeds.

Defatted castor seed meal has a high concentration of insoluble fiber, which can reduce the nutrient digestibility as well as the performance of poultry (Santos et al., 2015). Based on Brazilian literature castor cake, expected average composition is 60% total carbohydrates, 10% non-fibrous carbohydrates, 50% neutral detergent fiber, 40% acid detergent fiber, and 25% lignin. As stated by Costa et al. (2004), the insoluble fiber percentage in the castor cake and defatted castor meal can vary between 43 and 51%, given the processing variability and different castor varieties. The insoluble-fiber fraction has low digestibility in poultry, increases endogenous nutrient loss, and simultaneously reduces the presence of potentially metabolizable nutrients in the diet, thereby preventing the action of enzymes on the digest and reducing the energy concentration of the feed. The effects of fiber are associated with viscosity, which can increase as a result of the non-starch polysaccharide content, especially its b-glucan and arabinoxylan fractions (Tavernari et al., 2008). Increases in viscosity may reduce nutrient digestion in the small intestine (Jaroni et al., 1999). According to Chotinsky et al. (2015), the exact effects of viscosity have not been established, but possible mechanisms include reduced rates of diffusion of endogenous enzymes and nutritional substrates.

However, the use of exogenous enzymes can reduce the viscosity of the digesta (Bharathidhasan et al., 2009) as well as improve the nutrient utilization (Jaroni et al., 1999).

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets formulated with corn plus soybean meal or with 21% autoclaved castor meal, plus the addition of two enzyme complexes, on performance and egg quality of laying quails.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in Recife, Brazil 8°03’28” S latitude and 34°52’58” W longitude, at 9m (asl). Procedures involving animals were performed according to the Institutional Committee on Animal Use (license no. 043/2012). Two hundred and sixteen quails of 39 days of age were housed in 36 galvanized-wire cages (33 × 25 × 20cm) in a room with temperature control set at 22°C. After reaching peak egg production, the selected quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, six replicates, and six birds per experimental unit. The selection and distribution criteria were uniformity in body weight and production. At the beginning of the experiment, quails had an average weight of 160.1g and egg laying rate above 90%. The trial period lasted 63 days (21-day cycles) and quails received 17 h of light per day. Temperature was monitored once a day, using maximum and minimum thermometers. The quails were fed a mash diet twice daily, and water was provided ad libitum.

Castor meal was provided by the Biodiesel Unit located in Pesqueira-PE, Brazil. The castor meal was homogenized with 6% CaO; subsequently, water was added at a 1:1 ratio by weight with homogenization until forming uniform wet mixture. This mixture was placed in vats (to a height of 25cm) that were placed on the autoclave. The mixture was autoclaved at a pressure of 1.23kgf cm−2, at 104 °C, for 90 min. Each of the vats placed in the autoclave had its upper part open and unobstructed, allowing the exit of steam. After processing, the autoclaved castor meal was sun-dried for later storage and milling. The procedures were adapted from recommendations of Anandan et al. (2005) and Cobianchi et al. (2012).

Treatments were established as a cross-factorial arrangement, as follows: corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM); CSM plus enzyme complex EC1; CSM plus enzyme complex EC2; 21% autoclaved castor meal (ACM); ACM plus EC1 (ACMEC1); and ACM plus EC2 (ACMEC2). The chemical composition of the ingredients used in the diets (corn, soybean meal, and autoclaved castor meal) was analyzed (Table 1).

Table 1 Chemical composition of ingredients used in diets and calculated percentage composition of experimental diets according to diet type with or without autoclaved castor meal and addition of enzyme complexes. 

Component Ingredient (g kg−1 as fed)
Corn (grain) Soybean meal autoclaved castor meal
Crude protein 72.90 449.80 279.20
AMEn (Kcal kg−1) 3440 2330 2267
Crude fiber 17.3 53.70 276.20
Ash 12.7 58.30 58.50
Crude fat 36.5 16.60 96.80
Calcium 0.30 2.40 49.50
Total phosphorus 2.50 5.60 8.90
Available phosphorus 0.60 2.20 2.80
Total arginine 3.5 33.20 22.90
Total histidine 2.10 11.90 4.00
Total isoleucine 2.40 21.50 12.50
Total leucine 8.70 34.80 19.10
Total methionine + cysteine 3.00 6.10 7.60
Total methionine 1.50 6.10 4.30
Total lysine 2.10 27.70 5.60
Total threonine 2.90 18.00 0.80
Total tryptophan 0.50 6.40 4.10
Total valine 3.40 22.30 12.70

Enzyme complexes 1 and 2 were included in the amounts of 50and 75gt−1, respectively, according to the recommendation of the manufacturers. Enzyme complex 1 had the following enzyme content: 160U xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8), 215U beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6), and 500FTU phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) per kilogram of feed. Enzyme complex 2 included the following enzymes: 300U xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8), 4000U protease (EC 3.4.21.62), and 400 a-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) per kilogram of feed.

Because both EC are active in different substrates, given their different compositions, we evaluated their effects on the measured parameters so as not to individualize the isolated effect of the present enzymes. In the formulation of the diets (Table 2), we adopted the recommendations of nutritional requirements described by Silva & Costa (2009), while the ingredient composition was based on Rostagno et al. (2011). The level of autoclaved castor meal was established in an experiment performed previously in which we identified that laying quail performance declined if levels equal to or greater than 21% were used.

Table 2 Composition and calculated analysis of experimental layer quail diets formulated with corn plus soybean meal or 21% autoclaved castor meal, with and without enzyme complex (EC). 

Experimental diet
Corn soybean meal 21% autoclaved castor meal
Without EC EC1 EC2 Without EC EC1 EC2
Ingredient (g kg−1 as fed)
Corn 453.220 452.650 452.360 388.400 387.830 388.240
Soybean meal (45%) 413.810 413.980 414.060 287.100 287.270 287.130
Autoclaved castor meal 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 210.000 210.000 210.000
Limestone 69.250 69.250 69.250 43.970 43.970 43.970
Soybean oil 37.220 37.570 37.750 42.020 42.370 42.070
Dicalcium phosphate 15.230 15.230 15.230 13.770 13.770 13.770
Vitamin supplement1 1.800 1.800 1.800 1.800 1.800 1.800
Mineral supplement1 1.200 1.200 1.200 1.200 1.200 1.200
Salt (NaCl) 5.860 5.860 5.860 5.880 5.880 5.880
DL-methionine (99%) 1.410 1.410 1.410 1.610 1.610 1.610
Choline chloride (60%) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
L-lysine HCl (78%) 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.620 2.620 2.620
L-threonine (98.5%) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.630 0.630 0.630
Enzyme complex 12 0.000 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.050 0.000
Enzyme complex 23 0.000 0.000 0.075 0.000 0.000 0.075
Calculated composition (g kg−1 as fed)
AMEn (Kcal kg−1) 2850 2850 2850 2850 2850 2850
Calculated crude protein 220.000 220.000 220.000 220.000 220.000 220.000
Analyzed crude protein 208.100 209.800 211.300 196.400 206.700 207.200
Crude fiber 30.060 30.050 30.050 80.350 80.340 80.350
Fat 60.250 60.570 60.730 79.610 79.920 79.650
Calcium 31.500 31.500 31.500 31.500 31.500 31.500
Available phosphorus 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000 4.000
Total lysine 12.410 12.410 12.410 12.000 12.000 12.000
Total methionine + cysteine 8.010 8.010 8.010 8.000 8.000 8.000
Total methionine 4.600 4.600 4.600 4.830 4.830 4.830
Total threonine 8.760 8.760 8.760 8.600 8.600 8.600
Total leucine 18.340 18.340 18.340 17.380 17.380 17.380
Total tryptophan 2.870 2.870 2.870 2.890 2.890 2.890
Sodium 2.500 2.50 2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500

AMEn - apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen.1Provides per kg of product: Fe - 50,000 mg; Co - 200 mg; Cu - 8,500 mg; Mn - 75,000 mg; Zn - 70,000 mg; Se - 250 mg; I - 1,500 mg; folic acid - 500 mg; pantothenic acid - 13.5 g; niacin - 30 g; vit. A - 10,000,000 IU; vit. D3 -2,000,000 IU; vit. K3 - 4,000 mg; vit. B2- 5,000 mg; vit. B6 - 2,000 mg; B12 - 10,000 µg; vit. E - 20,000 mg. 2Minimal activity provided per gram of EC1: EC 3.2.1.8 - 3,200 U; EC 3.2.1.6 - 4,300 U; EC 3.1.3.26 - 10,000 FTU. 3Minimal activity provided per gram of EC2: EC 3.2.1.8 - 1,500 U; EC 3.4.21.62 - 20,000 U; EC 3.2.1.1 - 2,000 U.

Diets were formulated using a single nutritional matrix, regardless of EC addition. This formulation procedure is named “over the top” (Scheideler et al., 2005), and we used it in this experiment to determine whether EC has the ability to repair possible negative effects from the use of ACM.

For performance evaluation, eggs were counted and weighed daily and feed leftovers and average egg weight were quantified weekly to determine egg production per day (laying rate, %), feed intake (FI, g day−1), egg weight (EW, g), egg mass (EM, g day−1), feed conversion per egg mass (FCEM, g of egg g of diet−1), and feed conversion per dozen eggs (FCDZ, g of diet 12 eggs−1).

Egg quality was determined by measuring EW; eggs specific gravity (ESG); albumen height (mm); Haugh unit (HU); weights of yolk (YW, g), eggshell weight (SW, g), and albumen weight (AW, g); percentages of yolk, albumen, and shell; shell thickness (ST, mm); and yolk color (YC, DSM/Roche Yolk fan).

Eggs were weighed daily and a representative sample of average weight of eggs, per experimental unit, was obtained from the last three days of each cycle to determine EW. After 63 days, mean values from 18 eggs per experimental unit were generated (2 eggs day−1, 3 days cycle−1, three cycles). Specific gravity was measured by immersing the egg in saline solutions; for this step, ten solutions were prepared in labeled cans with densities ranging from 1.050 to 1.100g cm−3, with a gradual increase of 0.005g cm−3, using distilled water at an average temperature of 22°C and salt (NaCl).

Haugh unit was established by the following procedure: after identification for EW determination, eggs were broken individually and contents were placed on a flat glass plate surface without inclination (on a stand with adjustable legs for leveling)to determine albumen height, which was measured to the nearest tenth of a millimeter using a digital caliper. Egg weight and albumen height (h, mm) values were used in the formula HU=100 log (h + 7.57 − 1.7 EW0.37), according to Zita et al. (2013). To determine the percentages of shell and yolk, yolks were separated and weighed manually and shells were subsequently dried in a forced-air oven at 105°C for 24 h and weighed. Albumen weight was obtained as the difference between EW with SW and YW.

Shell thickness was assessed including membranes, using the same eggs broken to determine albumen quality. Shells were washed and then allowed to dry overnight at room temperature. After drying, eggshell thickness measurements were carried out on two different sites in the central cross-sectional eggshell area using a digital caliper. For colorimetry, two evaluators with normal vision used the DSM/Roche® color fan (yolk fan) in which YC was compared with the color scale (ranging between one and fifteen) of the fan.

The main effect of factors and their interaction were assessed by analysis of variance. Means were compared by applying two Dunnett’s test (at 5% probability) using as a reference either CSM diet (Dunnett’s test 1) or ACM diet (Dunnett’s test 2). Dunnett’s test 1 allows for a comparison of all other treatments with CSM, while Dunnett’s test 2 allows for a comparison of ACMEC1 and ACMEC2 with ACM. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.4).

RESULTS

During the trial period, the average recorded temperature was 27.4 ºC, with a minimum of 24.8 ºC and a maximum of 30.0 ºC. Average relative humidity was 68.3%.

The results are shows in Table 3 and 4. Most parameters showed no significant difference (p>0.05), and the following fit into this condition: FI, laying rate, EM, FCEM, FCDZ, ST, HU, AW, and percentages of yolk, albumen, and shell.

Table 3 Means (±standard deviation) for performance laying quails fed diets containing corn and soybean meal (CSM) or containing 21% autoclaved castor meal, with or without enzyme complex (EC), descriptive probability level for Dunnett’s mean tests of significant parameters, and description of the variance analysis. 

Corn soybean meal 21% autoclaved castor meal
Without EC EC1 EC2 Without EC EC1 EC2
FI (g day−1) 26.81±0.36 26.78±0.23 26.84±0.49 26.57±0.48 27.02±0.53 26.08±0.13
Laying rate (%) 88.04±2.45 90.18±2.40 90.59±1.07 88.75±3.34 91.14±1.52 90.21±1.87
EW (g) 10.99a±0.12 10.80±0.18 10.74±0.13 10.42b±0.13 10.61±0.11 10.28b±0.04
EM (g day−1) 9.67±0.27 9.75±0.35 9.73±0.20 9.24±0.31 9.67±0.35 9.27±0.22
FCEM (g g−1) 2.78±0.09 2.77±0.12 2.77±0.08 2.89±0.11 2.80±0.08 2.82±0.06
FCDZ (g dz−1) 367.1±12.2 357.9±11.8 355.9±8.9 361.8±15.2 356.4±10.2 347.4±6.22
Descriptive probability level (P) for means using Dunnett’s test 1 or Dunnett’s test 2
EW1 (g) - 0.6729 0.4287 0.0089 0.1178 0.0012
EW2 (g) - - - - 0.6657 0.8830
Analysis of variance (P)
CV (%) Enzyme complex Diet Enzyme complex × Diet
AFI (g day−1) 3.65 0.5468 0.4360 0.4580
Laying rate (%) 6.08 0.5754 0.8201 0.9557
EW (g) 2.88 0.1838 0.0003 0.2640
EM (g day−1) 6.65 0.6281 0.1638 0.7474
FCEM (g g−1) 8.18 0.8403 0.4513 0.9211
FCDZ (g dz−1) 7.61 0.5663 0.6064 0.9574

Means followed by lowercase letters in the same row differ (p<0.05) by Dunnett’s test using CSM diet as control. CV - coefficient of variation. AFI - average feed intake; EW - egg weight; EM - egg mass; FCEM - feed conversion per egg mass; FCDZ - feed conversion per dozen eggs. 2Minimal activity provided per gram of EC1: EC 3.2.1.8 - 3,200 U; EC 3.2.1.6 - 4,300 U; EC 3.1.3.26 - 10,000 FTU. 3Minimal activity provided per gram of EC2: EC 3.2.1.8 - 1,500 U; EC 3.4.21.62 - 20,000 U; EC 3.2.1.1 - 2,000 U.

Table 4 Means (±standard deviation) for egg quality of quails fed diets containing corn and soybean meal (CSM) or containing 21% autoclaved castor meal, with or without enzyme complex (EC), descriptive probability level for Dunnett’s mean tests of significant parameters, and description of the variance analysis. 

Corn soybean meal 21% autoclaved castor meal
Without EC EC1 EC2 Without EC EC1 EC2
SG 1.074a±0.001 1.074±0.001 1.077±0.001 1.071b±0.001 1.071b±0.001 1.072b±0.001
ST (mm) 0.130±0.002 0.133±0.002 0.133±0.002 0.132±0.002 0.131±0.003 0.131±0.002
HU 87.70±0.20 87.90±0.21 88.07±0.20 88.21±0.17 88.17±0.21 88.04±0.20
YC 4.25a±0.04 4.26±0.06 4.31±0.05 4.52b±0.04 4.44b±0.03 4.51b±0.05
YW (g) 3.89a±0.08 3.79±0.06 3.76±0.06 3.61b±0.07 3.68±0.05 3.58b±0.04
AW (g) 6.27±0.07 6.18±0.13 6.13±0.14 6.05±0.11 6.18±0.07 5.93±0.07
SW (g) 0.88a±0.02 0.87±0.03 0.87±0.03 0.81b±0.02 0.81b±0.01 0.82b±0.02
Yolk (%) 35.23±0.50 34.97±0.32 34.92±0.50 34.52±0.62 34.52±0.42 34.69±0.46
Albumen (%) 56.78±0.67 57.04±0.28 56.95±0.67 57.74±0.70 57.91±0.47 57.40±0.50
Eggshell (%) 7.99±0.19 7.99±0.13 8.06±0.26 7.75±0.19 7.57±0.07 7.92±0.14
Descriptive probability level (P) for means using Dunnett’s test 1 or Dunnett’s test 2
Yolk1 (g) - 0.7037 0.4747 0.0237 0.1242 0.0105
Yolk2 (g) - - - - - 0.8991 0.9965
Analysis of variance (P)
CV (%) Enzyme complex Diet Enzyme complex × Diet
SG 0.16 0.9035 <0.0001 0.9898
ST (mm) 4.21 0.8356 0.7794 0.4691
HU 0.53 0.8425 0.1048 0.3500
YC 2.50 0.3330 <0.0001 0.6027
YW (g) 4.00 0.4166 0.0017 0.4218
AW (g) 4.12 0.2227 0.0641 0.4170
SW (g) 6.22 0.9068 0.0015 0.8732
Yolk (%) 3.63 0.9629 0.2326 0.8712
Albumen (%) 2.43 0.8528 0.1077 0.8867
Eggshell (%) 5.38 0.4338 0.0505 0.6965

Means followed by lowercase letters in the same row differ (p<0.05) by Dunnett’s test using CSM diet as control. CV - coefficient of variation. SG - specific gravity; ST - shell thickness; HU - Haugh unit; YC - yolk color; YW - yolk weight; AW- albumen weight; SW - eggshell weight. 2Minimal activity provided per gram of EC1: EC 3.2.1.8 - 3,200 U; EC 3.2.1.6 - 4,300 U; EC 3.1.3.26 - 10,000 FTU. 3Minimal activity provided per gram of EC2: EC 3.2.1.8 - 1,500 U; EC 3.4.21.62 - 20,000 U; EC 3.2.1.1 - 2,000 U.

Significant effects were observed (p<0.05) for EW, YW, SG, YC, and SW, and these effects resulted from the use of diets with autoclaved castor meal, compared with the CSM diet, by Dunnett’s test. Specific gravity was greater in eggs produced by quails receiving CSM diets as compared with eggs from quails fed ACM diets, conversely to YC results.

Shell weight differed significantly (P=0.0015) as affected by diet formulation. Because CaO was used in the castor meal processing, the amount of calcium added via limestone in ACM diets was reduced, and a reduction of 7% was observed in the SW of quail fed ACM diets.

The use of EC had no effect (p>0.05) on the evaluated parameters, and there was also no interaction with diet type (p>0.05). Enzyme complexes failed to influence some of the effects provided with the use of ACM, but this applies to ESG, YC, and SW.

DISCUSSION

The observed temperatures are above thermal comfort range quoted by Rosa et al. (2011). However, cage density (137.5cm2 bird−1) combined with temperature did not affect performance. Coefficients of variation were below values reported by Leal et al. (2014).

Although it is considered a fibrous food, 21% autoclaved castor meal did not influence the evaluated parameters. A steady FI is the main parameter measured in animal trials to confirm adequate processing of castor cake and meal (Bueno et al., 2014). The mean performance values are comparable to those reported by Barreto et al. (2007) for the initial laying phase; however, they differ from those reported by Hemid et al. (2010), who evaluated the production of quails at the same age.

The parameters AFI, EM, FCEM, and FCDZ corroborate the data reported by Araujo et al. (2008), who did not find significant effects (p>0.05) on the evaluated variables using wheat meal and an enzyme complex in the diet of laying hens. However, the use of enzymatic complex in the study of Araujo et al. (2008) increased EW, while in the present study a slight decrease was detected in EW in comparing the 21% autoclaved castor meal diet and ACM plus EC2 in relation to CSM diet. This might have been because the diets with 21% autoclaved castor meal have a high crude fiber content (80.350 g kg−1 as fed) in comparison with CSM diet (30.060 g kg−1 as fed). According to Costa et al. (2004), the insoluble-fiber fraction has low digestibility in poultry, increases endogenous nutrient loss, and simultaneously reduces the presence of potentially metabolizable nutrients in the diet. The fibrous fraction (non-starch polysaccharide) may have promoted the increased viscosity in the digestive tract, which, according to Jaroni et al. (1999), may have reduced the digestibility of the nutrients.

Yolk, albumen, and shell percentages were close to those cited by Tolik et al. (2014), and the average ST (0.132mm) was 15% lower than that reported by Barreto et al. (2007) but within the range of 0.130 to 0.280mm stated by Genchev (2012).

With inclusion of autoclaved castor meal in the diets, a 10.2% relative increase in oil addition in these diets was necessary, which may be partially the cause of increased YC. However, the main influence may be the black color of castor seed coat in variety BRS Nordestina used in this experiment and possibly the presence of higher carotene concentration when compared with CSM diets. Sultana et al. (2007) stated that there may be effects on shell quality for different sources of calcium. Additionally, the main effect of SW and ESG reduction in eggs from quails subjected to ACM is assumed to be due to partial unavailability of calcium from CaO, which may have reacted with castor meal during autoclaving.

Santos et al. (2015) evaluated a differently pro-cessed castor seed meal at the levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and also found a decrease in EW and YW at the inclusion level of 20% when compared with CSM diet. However, in the present trial, Dunnett’s test 1 (Table 3) revealed that values ​​for ACMEC1 diet did not differ from those observed for CSM. The same effects detected for EW were also detected for YW. Thus, the use of EC did not provide differences when added to CSM diets, but comparing CSM diet with ACMEC1, EW and YW could be recovered, which was not the case with EC2. This effect can be the response of EC1 with supplementation of xylanase, b-glucanase, and phytase and lower concentration of cellulase, pectinase, and protease (secondary role), which acted by increasing the use of non-starchy polysaccharides contained in the autoclaved castor meal, generating a similar result for EW and YW. According to Babalola et al. (2006), b-xylanase addition in broiler diets containing boiled castor seed meal improved apparent nitrogen and fiber absorption as well as feed transit time. However, EC2 did not improve EW or YW in ACM diet, because it contains only amylase, xylanase and protease, probably having reduced the intensity of action on the fibers present in the autoclaved castor meal or even some indirect detrimental effect on endogenous enzyme production.

According to Olukosi et al. (2007), various enzyme complexes are used in animal feed to increase the bioavailability of nutrients. Lima et al. (2011) evaluated the effect of phytase in CSM diets for laying quails and concluded that production performance and egg quality were improved. However, in the present experiment, because of the formulation strategy (“over the top”), the effects of EC1 containing phytase in CSM diet were not observed. Bayram et al. (2008) evaluated the effect of adding xylanase in CSM diets for laying quails and also observed no differences in egg production or quality. Pernollet (1978), in turn, stated that castor bean meal has crystalloid and globoid protein body ultra-structures that are absent in soybean meal. In the autoclaved castor meal, the phytin (containing phytate) is located in globoids when present in protein bodies. The differences between the ability of EC to act on the substrate composed of autoclaved castor bean meal may be the reason for the more prominent action of EC1 in ACM diet, and this led to effects on EW and YW.

The use of EC1 in diets with 21% autoclaved castor meal, even if diets are formulated using the “over the top” criteria, may recover EW and YW to values equivalent to the production of quails receiving CSM diets. In this case, the recommendation of EC1 use rests on economic viability when eggs are sold by weight.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of enzyme complex containing xylanase, b-glucanase, and phytase is recommended when 21% autoclaved castor meal is included in the diet of laying quails.

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Received: January 12, 2018; Accepted: March 16, 2018

Corresponding author e-mail address Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco Ringgold standard institution - Zootecnia, Rua manuel de Medeiros s/n Dois Irmãos Recife, Recife 52171-900, Brazil. Phone: (81)33206573 Email:maria.mmarques@ufrpe.br

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