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Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science

Print version ISSN 1516-635XOn-line version ISSN 1806-9061

Braz. J. Poult. Sci. vol.20 no.4 Campinas Oct./Dec. 2018

https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2018-0761 

Articles

Subsequent Effect of Lysine Regimens on Egg Characteristics of Native Aseel Chicken

IDepartment of Zoology, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 54590.

IIDepartment of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 54000.


ABSTRACT

This study was planned to evaluate subsequent effects of rearing under various lysine regimens on egg quality traits in Peshawari, Mushki, Mianwali and Lakha varieties of native Aseel. Ninety six pullets and 12 cockerels (24♀ and 3♂) from each variety were randomly chosen, placed in three-tiered cage units of equal space and standard conditions were followed for their maintenance. These birds were reared on three lysine regimens (L1, L2 and L3), wherein L1 containing 1.3% lysine was given in one phase from week 1-6 of age, L2 regimens entailing 1.4 and 1.2% lysine was smeared in two phases from week 1-3 and 4-6 of age, while in L3 regimen, lysine @ 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1% in diet was fed in three phases from week 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 of age, respectively. Data were analyzed using two-way factorial ANOVA technique in SAS 9.1under randomized complete block design and significant means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Statistical analysis showed that weight of egg and shell, albumen weight, diameter and index, yolk weight and Haugh units (p≤0.05) improved significantly in L3 in Peshawari Aseel depicting the better egg quality traits. It was concluded that L3 regimen has positive impact on egg characteristics of Aseel chicken.

Keywords: Aseel; egg quality; Lysine regimens

INTRODUCTION

Poultry eggs are a cheaper source to meet the nutritive requirements of the increasing human population (Hussain et al., 2013). Chicken eggs contain approximately all the essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals as well as a rich source of energy (Ahsan-ul-Haq & Akhtar, 2002). The financial success of poultry farmer depends upon the number of eggs sold, while preference and acceptability of consumer highly depends upon egg quality parameters including egg weight, size, shell thickness, albumen height, yolk consistency and Haugh unit scores (Tumova & Gous, 2012). The egg quality characteristics are of prime importance in poultry breeding businesses (Bain, 2005) and egg quality has several aspects based on heredities, age and strains or breeds variations (Silversides et al., 2006; Onagbesan et al., 2007). The spoilage of egg is caused by deterioration of internal egg contents and their quality (Kul & Seeker, 2004), which is mainly instigated by poor and improper storage conditions (Adeogun & Amole, 2004). However, the physical configuration and chemical composition of egg reveals its stability and plays a key role during storage (Seidler, 2003).The egg size, albumen and yolk deposition, internal egg contents and quality are influenced by nutritional aspects including the levels of essential amino acids. Lysine is an important amino acid being supplemented in poultry feed and has great impact on body protein as well as egg deposition (Valerio et al., 2003). In Pakistan the eggs are mainly obtained either through commercial layer or backyard indigenous poultry farms. Among backyard chicken, Aseel is the most famous breed due to the possession of strong physical structure, stamina and resistance against diseases and is equally adjustable in all environments (Batool, 2017). Breast meat accretion in broilers has a positive role and has been well established in past studies (Sibbald & Wolynetz, 1986; Holsheimer & Ruesink, 1993; Kidd et al., 1998). Later on, Leeson & Zubair (1997) showed a decline in growth rate when feeding extra dietary lysine after feeding a deficient diet from 6 to 12 days of age. A well-defined level of dietary lysine seems necessary to be identified.

Despite of great genetic potential, Aseel is mostly kept for rooster fighting since long and its rearing, proliferation and commercialization is not preferred due to poor growth at early ages, egg production, distorted clutches and broodiness, yet it could be more economical and profitable with respect to quality egg production by adopting better house management, feed and feeding strategies (Usman et al., 2014). Keeping in view the eminence of lysine and the prominence of Aseel, the current research project was, therefore designed to improve egg quality features by applying lysine regimens during early ages in the varieties of indigenous Aseel, namely Lakha, Mianwali, Mushki and Peshawari.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This experiment was conducted at the Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Center (ICGRC), Ravi campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore to estimate the subsequent impacts of rearing with three different lysine feeding regimens on egg quality characteristics among four varieties of indigenous Aseel chicken, namely Lakha, Mianwali, Mushki and Peshawari. Initially 1 day-old chicks (n=240), including 60 birds of each variety were selected at random, tagged and subdivided into three groups A, B and C and offered three various lysine regimens i.e., L1 (1.3% lysine), L2 (1.4, 1.2% lysine) and L3 (1.5, 1.3, 1.1% lysine), respectively. L1 constituting 1.3% lysine was offered in one phase from week 1-6, 1.4 and 1.2% lysine in L2 was offered in two phases from week 1-3 and 4-6, while 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1% lysine in L3 was offered in three phases from week 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6, respectively. Lysine regimens and their composition are mentioned in Table 1 (A and B) and the feed was prepared from Hi-Tech Industries (Pvt) Pakistan. The study was based on the hypothesis that phase-vise supplementation of lysine and other nutrients as per growth needs of birds will enhance initial growth performance which might sustain the improved egg production and quality traits as subsequent impact. These Aseel birds after brooding under various lysine regimens were equally offered normal broiler-grower (7-16 weeks), layer-developer (17-20), pre-breeder/layer (21-24 weeks) and breeder/layer (25-43 weeks) feed with 20.02, 15.46, 16.50, 17.50% and 3020, 2913, 2850, 2750kcal/kg CP and ME, respectively, formulated and prepared as per standards of NRC (1994) and recommendations as provided by Leeson & Summers (2005). For estimation of egg quality traits, 96 Aseel birds, including 24 pullets and 12 cockerels including 3 of each variety were randomly chosen and placed in three tiered equally spaced cage units, equipped with easily removable and slanted trays for collecting fecal wastes and eggs, respectively. The factorial arrangement according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) was applied to 4 (varieties) × 3 (treatments/lysine regimens) × 8 [replicate/pullet (1 bird in each replicate)], where in each bird was given a status of an individual experimental unit and 1 cockerel was available for mating with 8 pullets of respective variety under coops. During the whole egg laying period, limited feed and duration for feeding was practiced and most priority was given to the care and welfare of experimental birds by following the instructions as provided by the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee. The egg quality was defined as the an egg that showed acceptability toward the consumer. Seventy two eggs (fresh collection) including 18 from each variety, comprising 6 eggs/treatment group/4 weeks (72×4=288 eggs in total/4 phases) were selected and used for egg quality traits analysis. Egg weight was measured by using an electrical weighing balance capable of measuring up to 0.1g and shell thickness was recorded by using micrometer screw gauge. Digital Vernier caliper was used to measure yolk height and width, and single observation was based on average of three measurements. The pH of albumen and yolk of the eggs was determined by digital pH meter, while albumen and yolk indices and Haugh unit scores were calculated by using the following formulae:

Albumenindex(%)=(albumenheight/albumenwidth)×100

Yolkindex(%)=(yolkheight/yolkwidth)×100

HaughUnit=100[@Log{(H+7.57)(1.7)(W0.37)}]

Where;

H = Observed height of the albumen in mm

W = Weight of egg (g)

Table 1A Chemical composition of experimental diets. 

Ingredients Dietary lysine levels (%)
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Corn 59.08 59.08 59.08 59.08 59.08
Sunflower Meal (24%) 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9
Soya bean Meal (44%) 7.04 7.04 7.04 7.04 7.04
Rapeseed Meal 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Fish Meal (52%) 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Poultry by-product Meal 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Molasses 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Limestone 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14
Lysine Sulphate 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5
Mono Calcium Phosphate 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Vitamin-Mineral Premix* 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Sodium Chloride 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
Alimet (Novus) 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17
Betaine HCl 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Threonine 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

*Vit-Min premix supplied per 1 kg of diet: Vit. A 12000 IU; Vit. D3 2200 ICU; Vit. E 10 mg; Vit. K 32 mg; Vit. B1 1 mg; Vit. B2 4 mg; Vit. B6 1.5 mg; Vit. B12 10 µg; nicotinic acid 20 mg; folic acid 1 mg; pantothenic acid 10 mg; biotin 50 µg; choline chloride 500 mg; copper 10 iron 30 mg; manganese 55 mg; zinc 50 mg; iodine 1 mg; selenium 0.1 mg.

Table 1B Calculated nutritional composition of experimental diets. 

Nutrients (%) Dietary lysine level %
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Metabolize Energy (k calories/kg) 2746.99 2753.69 2760.39 2767.09 2773.79
Dry Matter 87.17 87.36 87.56 87.76 87.96
Crude Protein 17.06 17.18 17.29 17.40 17.51
Crude Fiber 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93
Ash 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09
Either Extract 3.59 3.59 3.59 3.59 3.59
Calcium 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Chloride 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22
Sodium 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16
Total phosphorus 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68
Potassium 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71
Digestible phosphorus 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
Linoleic Acid 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42
Lysine 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
Methionine 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Methionine+Cystine 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78
Digestible Arginine 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Digestible Tryptophan 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
Digestible Threonine 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.57
Digestible Lysine 0.99 1.09 1.20 1.31 1.41
Digestible methionine 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42
Digestible Methionine + Cystine 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67
Threonine 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67
Tryptophan 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19
Arginine 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Cystine 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
Digestible Cystine 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26
Valine 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82
Digestible Valine 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71
Histidine 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43
Digestible Histidine 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37
Phenylalanine 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78
Digestible Phenylalanine 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67
Leucine 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44
Digestible Leucine 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.21
Isoleucine 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66
Digestible Isoleucine 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58

The collected data was analyzed by SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.1) software through facto-rial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) technique (Steel et al., 1997) and results were mentioned as means and their standard errors. The comparison of treatment means was done through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (Duncan, 1955) and results were considered as significant at p≤0.05. Following statistical model was employed:

Yijk=µ+Bi+Tj+Bi×Tj+εijk

Where,

Yijk = Dependent Variable

µ = Population Mean

Bi = Effect of ith Block (i =1, 2, 3, 4; Lakha, Mushki, Mianwali, Peshawari)

Tj = Effect of jth Treatment (j = 1, 2, 3; dietary lysine regimens L1, L2, L3)

Bi × Tj = Interaction Effect

Ԑijk = Residual effect associated with kth observation of jth treatment in ith block NID ~ 0, s2

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The impact of lysine regimens, Aseel varieties and the interactions of both on various egg quality traits have been presented in Table 2-4. Significant (p≤0.05) variations were found in egg weight and length both in lysine regimens and Aseel varieties, and interactions among them. The birds reared in L3 and L2 showed egg weight and length 45.58±0.37, 45.35±0.34g and 51.00±0.21, 50.97±0.28 mm, respectively compared to L1 lysine regimen. Among Aseel varieties, Peshawari led in egg weight and length than other varieties. These differences can be attributed to yolk protein contents most of which is considered to consist of lysine (Murphy, 1994). Like our study, phase feeding regimen for lysine amino acid was employed during phase I (week 20-43) and phase II (week 44-63) of Dekalb Delta hens by Novak et al. (2004), wherein, significantly (p≤0.02) increased egg weights (59.02 to 60.21g) were observed during phase II when lysine intake was increased. Our findings of egg weights are in close agreement with the results of Batool et al. (2017), where three lysine phase feeding regimensL1 (1.3), L2 (1.4,1.2), L3 (1.5,1.3,1.1% lysine) were implemented to Aseel varieties during rearing phase and significantly (p≤0.05) higher average egg weight was subsequently observed during production in Aseel birds reared under three phased lysine regimen i.e., L3.

Table 2 Impact of various lysine regimens, Aseel varieties and their interactions on egg quality traits in native Aseel pullets. 

Variables Egg weight (g) Egg length (mm) Egg width (mm) Shell weight (g) Shell Thickness (mm) Albumen weight (g) Albumen height (mm)
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens (LR)
1.3 (L1) 44.36±0.25b 50.31±0.21b 38.98±0.27 5.62±0.08 0.31±0.00b 24.21±0.17b 6.52±0.12
1.4-1.2 (L2) 45.35±0.34a 50.97±0.28a 39.09±0.29 5.70±0.12 0.33±0.00a 24.91±0.28b 7.14±0.21
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) 45.58±0.37a 51.00±0.21a 39.28±0.18 5.86±0.10 0.34±0.01a 25.03±0.37a 7.53±0.12
Aseel Varieties (AV)
Lakha 44.67±0.26b 50.51±0.18b 38.98±0.15 5.52±0.06b 0.32±0.01b 24.31±0.21b 6.76±0.18
Mianwali 45.25±0.41ab 50.79±0.35ab 38.91±0.27 5.82±0.13a 0.32±0.01b 25.16±0.37a 6.97±0.18
Mushki 44.41±0.29b 50.29±0.25b 39.23±0.46 5.55±0.10b 0.32±0.01b 24.05±0.25b 7.00±0.25
Peshawari 46.06±0.45a 51.46±0.18a 39.34±0.19 6.03±0.08a 0.34±0.01a 25.34±0.36a 7.53±0.23
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens × Aseel Varieties (LR × AV)
1.3 (L1) Lakha 43.98±0.37c 50.59±0.25bcd 38.90±0.27 5.38±0.07c 0.30±0.00e 24.23±0.47cde 6.30±0.17
Mianwali 43.90±0.15c 49.58±0.15d 38.31±0.07 5.59±0.09bc 0.33±0.01bcd 24.02±0.13de 6.63±0.15
Mushki 44.96±0.68c 49.94±0.35d 39.81±0.92 5.64±0.10bc 0.33±0.01bcde 24.27±0.11cde 7.35±0.23
Peshawari 44.62±0.62c 51.16±0.22abc 38.87±0.32 5.87±0.21abc 0.31±0.01de 24.32±0.58cde 6.43±0.25
1.4-1.2 (L2) Lakha 45.06±0.28bc 50.24±0.33cd 38.92±0.34 5.48±0.07c 0.34±0.01b 24.25±0.38cde 7.02±0.23
Mianwali 45.41±0.48abc 51.21±0.33abc 38.91±0.70 5.84±0.32abc 0.31±0.00de 25.87±0.40ab 7.45±0.12
Mushki 44.20±0.48c 50.48±0.72bcd 39.27±1.05 5.46±0.25c 0.31±0.01de 24.02±0.27de 6.55±0.30
Peshawari 46.75±0.59a 51.96±0.23a 39.24±0.22 6.04±0.08ab 0.32±0.01bcde 25.51±0.35abcd 7.23±0.71
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) Lakha 44.98±0.50bc 50.70±0.41bcd 39.11±0.25 5.69±0.08abc 0.34±0.01bc 24.47±0.39cde 7.22±0.13
Mianwali 46.44±0.37ab 51.58±0.47ab 39.51±0.14 6.03±0.20ab 0.32±0.00bcde 25.59±0.67abc 6.82±0.29
Mushki 44.09±0.35c 50.45±0.19bcd 38.60±0.40 5.55±0.16bc 0.34±0.01b 23.86±0.79e 7.69±0.32
Peshawari 46.81±0.37a 51.26±0.32abc 39.90±0.16 6.18±0.06a 0.36±0.02a 26.20±0.40a 8.08±0.18
Source of Variation P-value
LR 0.0023 0.0212 0.6908 0.1223 0.0003 0.0367 0.3512
AV 0.0010 0.0037 0.6955 0.0020 0.0039 0.0041 0.3005
LR × AV 0.0159 0.0040 0.3389 0.7413 0.0877 0.0071 0.8715

Values and standard units of all parameters have been mentioned as M±SE, superscripted alphabets represent significant (p≤0.05) variations, wherein a>b>c…

Table 3 Impact of various lysine regimens, Aseel varieties and their interactions on egg quality traits in native Aseel pullets. 

Variables Albumen width (mm) Albumen pH Albumen index (%) Yolk weight (g) Yolk height (mm) Yolk color Yolk pH
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens (LR)
1.3 (L1) 52.69±0.26 7.65±0.02 13.30±0.29 14.19±0.16 16.65±0.22b 5.38±0.11 6.47±0.03
1.4-1.2 (L2) 52.79±0.37 7.61±0.03 13.53±0.37 14.46±0.27 16.98±0.21ab 5.52±0.09 6.43±0.02
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) 53.09±0.41 7.66±0.04 14.19±0.15 14.41±0.14 17.22±0.15a 5.44±0.15 6.46±0.03
Aseel Varieties (AV)
Lakha 52.54±0.24b 7.68±0.03 13.25±0.30 14.61±0.18 16.55±0.17b 5.39±0.17 6.45±0.02
Mianwali 52.47±0.32b 7.66±0.04 13.49±0.23 14.00±0.26 16.91±0.20b 5.56±0.13 6.39±0.03
Mushki 52.08±0.28b 7.62±0.04 13.84±0.42 14.45±0.21 16.65±0.25b 5.33±0.17 6.49±0.02
Peshawari 54.33±0.30a 7.58±0.03 14.10±0.39 14.35±0.23 17.68±0.12a 5.50±0.06 6.48±0.03
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens × Aseel Varieties (LR × AV)
1.3 (L1) Lakha 52.91±0.14cd 7.66±0.05 13.35±0.46 14.13±0.23 16.28±0.14de 5.08±0.17 6.46±0.07
Mianwali 51.84±0.37d 7.67±0.03 12.58±0.36 13.95±0.21 16.90±0.14abcd 5.58±0.36 6.47±0.08
Mushki 52.60±0.73cd 7.60±0.06 14.13±0.36 14.62±0.43 15.81±0.17e 5.25±0.14 6.47±0.04
Peshawari 53.40±0.40c 7.66±0.04 13.09±049 14.04±0.42 17.60±0.35ab 5.58±0.08 6.49±0.04
1.4-1.2 (L2) Lakha 52.74±0.36cd 7.67±0.07 13.48±0.45 15.11±0.07 16.21±0.15de 5.67±0.22 6.42±0.02
Mianwali 51.90±0.09d 7.63±0.08 13.91±0.18 13.51±0.67 16.68±0.50bcd 5.50±0.14 6.38±0.05
Mushki 51.82±0.28d 7.58±0.07 13.58±0.49 14.35±0.35 17.32±0.20abc 5.58±0.30 6.49±0.02
Peshawari 54.70±0.33ab 7.54±0.03 13.98±1.33 14.86±0.49 17.69±0.18a 5.33±0.08 6.42±0.07
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) Lakha 51.98±0.53d 7.70±0.07 13.96±0.14 14.59±0.29 17.15±0.20abc 5.42±0.42 6.47±0.03
Mianwali 53.67±0.18bc 7.68±0.09 13.51±1.03 14.54±0.24 17.15±0.39abc 5.58±0.22 6.34±0.03
Mushki 51.82±0.35d 7.69±0.11 14.06±0.55 14.37±0.45 16.80±0.25bcd 5.17±0.44 6.51±0.04
Peshawari 54.88±0.36a 7.56±0.02 14.74±0.35 14.15±0.12 17.76±0.15a 5.58±0.08 6.53±0.07
Source of Variation P-value
LR 0.3169 0.5220 0.4726 0.5476 0.0177 0.7219 0.4559
AV <.0001 0.3577 0.6811 0.2520 <.0001 0.7018 0.1330
LR × AV 0.0029 0.8580 0.8718 0.1993 0.0274 0.6527 0.5942

Values and standard units of all parameters have been mentioned as M±SE, superscripted alphabets represent significant (p≤0.05) variations, wherein a>b>c…

Table 4 Impact of various lysine regimens, Aseel varieties and their interactions on egg quality traits in native Aseel pullets. 

Variables Yolk diameter (mm) Yolk index (%) Haugh unit score Shell (%) Albumen (%) Yolk (%)
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens (LR)
1.3 (L1) 39.52±0.18 42.24±0.67b 99.76±0.53 12.62±0.14 54.54±0.35 32.01±0.29
1.4-1.2 (L2) 39.26±0.13 43.27±0.53ab 102.09±0.87 12.58±0.21 54.81±0.58 32.00±0.53
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) 39.47±0.33 43.73±0.51a 103.79±0.48 12.83±0.16 54.76±0.47 31.79±0.44
Aseel Varieties (AV)
Lakha 39.25±0.20 42.27±0.49b 100.68±0.74 12.31±0.12c 54.37±0.34 32.80±0.32a
Mianwali 39.31±0.17 43.06±0.59ab 101.5±0.74 12.85±0.25ab 55.47±0.63 31.08±0.53b
Mushki 39.32±0.40 42.50±0.96b 101.69±1.07 12.49±0.17bc 54.08±0.55 32.59±0.41a
Peshawari 39.78±0.20 44.48±0.33a 103.65±0.90 13.08±0.13a 54.89±0.53 31.27±0.42b
Lysine Levels (%)/Regimens × Aseel Varieties (LR × AV)
1.3 (L1) Lakha 39.54±0.12 41.35±0.46bc 98.88±0.80 12.18±0.13 55.12±0.57 32.18±0.73
Mianwali 39.05±0.36 43.34±0.77ab 100.05±0.67 12.71±0.13 54.62±0.46 31.89±0.45
Mushki 40.07±0.52 39.61±0.95c 103.10±0.90 12.54±0.11 54.03±0.58 32.44±0.47
Peshawari 39.42±0.27 44.64±0.82a 99.33±0.92 13.14±0.35 54.40±0.35 31.54±0.85
1.4-1.2 (L2) Lakha 38.98±0.16 41.63±0.55abc 101.74±1.11 12.14±0.21 53.77±0.58 33.61±0.16
Mianwali 39.18±0.24 42.59±1.48abc 103.43±0.50 12.88±0.67 56.85±1.46 29.89±1.25
Mushki 39.36±0.29 44.06±0.51ab 99.84±1.44 12.35±0.47 54.28±1.08 32.56±0.44
Peshawari 39.50±0.36 44.78±0.59a 102.52±2.97 12.95±0.17 54.36±0.91 31.93±0.80
1.5-1.3-1.1 (L3) Lakha 39.24±0.59 43.82±0.72ab 102.70±0.92 12.62±0.20 54.23±0.47 32.61±0.38
Mianwali 39.71±0.20 43.26±1.12ab 100.98±1.13 12.97±0.53 54.95±1.00 31.46±0.75
Mushki 38.53±1.01 43.83±1.90ab 104.06±1.34 12.57±0.30 53.93±1.46 32.77±1.25
Peshawari 40.40±0.05 44.01±0.37ab 105.92±0.69 13.16±0.21 55.92±0.50 30.33±0.19
Source of Variation P-value
LR 0.6559 0.0997 0.3210 0.5621 0.9111 0.8916
AV 0.4226 0.0409 0.4553 0.0419 0.3005 0.0130
LR × AV 0.1272 0.0267 0.8674 0.9896 0.4397 0.2385

Values and standard units of all parameters have been mentioned as M±SE, superscripted alphabets represent significant (p≤0.05) variations, wherein a>b>c…

Regarding egg shell quality parameters shell weight (5.86±0.10g) and thickness (0.34±0.01mm) was also significantly greater in birds of L3 lysine regimen and Peshawari variety than those of other regimens and varieties, respectively. Differences in egg weight values in L1, L2 and L3 might be due to differences in ovulation and oviposition time (Gilbert, 1969; Etches, 1990; Alzenbarakji, 2011). Novak et al. (2004), in their study on Dekalb Delta laying hens also found that the percentage weight of wet shell was not affected by lysine and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA), while dry weight decreased when concentrations of lysine and TSAA were increased. According to them the decreased shell quality was associated with the increased synthesis of shell membranes rather than shell with less shell availability per unit area. However, another study proved that shell weight and percentage would not be affected when TSAA level was increased from 624 to 822mg/hen/day (Shafer et al., 1996). The same effect of increasing TSAA on shell weight was also observed by Scheideler & Elliot (1998). Albumen weight (25.03±0.37g), height (7.53±0.12mm), diameter (53.09±0.41mm) and index (14.19±0.15%) of birds reared on L3 was also significantly higher than those of L2 and L1 (Table 2 and 3). Albumen quality is inter-dependent upon many factors where temperature and storage time are the most crucial one (Samli et al., 2005). Significantly improved albumen weight was also reported by Garcia et al. (2005) in their study on Japanese quails fed with different levels of protein and lysine. As albumen height is the measure of egg quality and according to Khajali et al. (2008) the albumen height was not significantly (p≤0.05) influenced when Hy-Line W36 hens were fed with reduced CP at constant TSAA to lysine ratio. Albumen height was found to decrease when kept stored for longer periods of time (Jones & Musgroove, 2005). Significantly higher albumen height in L3 regimen is an indicator of good quality protein which was supplied through diet, while decrease in albumen height occurred as the eggs were aged (Silversides & Scott, 2001). As albumen index is a measure of the quality or freshness of an egg, and like our study, significant (p≤0.05) outcomes of albumen height, diameter, and index were reported by Muhammad et al. (2016) when Japanese quails were fed with 15, 20 and 25% CP levels. Similarly, significant variations were depicted in birds of L2 and L3 for yolk weight which was 14.46±0.27 and 14.41±0.14g (both L2 and L3 were statistically non-significant), while yolk height was higher (p≤0.05) in L3 than L2 and L1 lysine regimens. The varieties among yolk weight (14.61±0.18g) and height (17.68±0.12mm) was shown by Lakha and Peshawari, respectively (Table 3). Contrarily, non-significant impact of various lysine levels was observed in Japanese quails with respect to yolk weight, height, color and index by Muhammad et al. (2016), while significant influence was reported by Garcia et al. (2005) on yolk percentage and even increase in yolk percentage with decreased level of protein was reported by Novak et al. (2008).

However, contrary to our findings significant influence of protein levels with respect to yolk color was described by Gunawardana et al. (2008). Significant (p≤0.05) variations were also found in Haugh unit score among lysine regimens and Aseel varieties, among lysine regimens wherein highest score value of Haugh unit, 103.79±0.48 was found in birds reared on L3 followed by L2 (102.09±0.87) and L1 (99.76±0.53). Among varieties of Aseel, Peshawari showed the highest Haugh unit score than other varieties (Table 4). Haugh unit score is a measure of egg protein quality based on the height of its egg white (albumen). This test was introduced by Raymond Haugh in 1937 and is considered as an important industry measure of egg quality next to other measures such as shell thickness and strength (Chang & Chen, 2000). Sá et al. (2007) reported that there is no influence of varying lysine (digestible) concentrations on Haugh units. Non-significant differences were observed in lysine regimens and Aseel varieties with respect to albumen and yolk pH, yolk color, diameter as well as percent shell, albumen and yolk weight (Table 4). Gunawardana et al. (2008) demonstrated a positive impact of various dietary lysine regimens on egg composition, solids and quality of commercial brown pullets and these results were contradictory with those of Karunajeewa et al. (1987). Jardim-Filho et al. (2010) suggested a level of 600mg/kg lysine and 15.8% CP during 24-48 weeks of age for light laying hens to produce eggs of good quality. However, a level of at least 759 mg/hen/day on an average of digestible lysine or 14mg lysine/egg gram was recommended by Rocha et al. (2009) for light laying hens during 24-40 weeks of age. According to Ding et al. (2016), the change in protein source and quantity had potential effect on albumen, yolk weight and color.

The yolk percentage is a linear measure of dietary CP at each phase indicating the interrelated association with albumen synthesis at lower levels of CP. The yolk synthesis occurs in liver and is stored in ovum till ovulation and is least affected by decreasing dietary CP levels (Novak et al., 2006). Our findings of Haugh units are in close agreement with those of Shim et al. (2013) where they also reported the significant (p≤0.05) impact of balanced dietary protein levels on Haugh units in commercial layers during 47-54 and 63-70th week of age.

CONCLUSION

Based upon the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that provision of1.5, 1.3, 1.1% dietary lysine during early ages of life (1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 weeks, respectively) in Aseel birds has a positive effect on their subsequent egg traits. Additionally, the above mentioned lysine regimen (L3) interacted well with the Peshawari variety showing more pronounced improvement in egg quality. However, to achieve an improvement in persisting performance of Aseel, a detailed research work is still required.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram (Late), Ex-Dean, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, UVAS, Lahore, is greatly acknowledged for his marvelous contribution during the planning of the present research project and also the cooperation extended by UVAS administration to provide the research facilities at Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Centre, Department of Poultry Production, Ravi Campus, Pattoki.

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Received: February 21, 2018; Accepted: July 16, 2018

Corresponding author e-mail address Tahira Batool Physiology/Endocrinology laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan. Phone: +92-301-4923539 Email:tahirabatool1111@gmail.com

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