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Ciência & Educação (Bauru)

Print version ISSN 1516-7313

Ciênc. educ. (Bauru) vol.7 no.2 Bauru  2001

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-73132001000200001 

ARTIGOS

 

Para uma imagem não deformada do trabalho científico

 

 

Daniel Gil Pérez I; Isabel Fernández MontoroII; Jaime Carrascosa AlísIII; António CachapuzIV; João PraiaV

IProfessor Catedrático, Departamento de Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales, Universidade de Valencia, Espanha, (e-mail: daniel.Gil@uv.es)
IIProfessora Catedrática de Física e Química, Instituto de Enseñanza Secundária "Vicent Andrés Estellés", Valencia, Espanha (e-mail: isabel.fdez@soc.ccoo.es)
IIIProfessor Catedrático de Física e Química, Instituto de Enseñanza Secundária "Cid Campeador", Valencia, Espanha (e-mail: jcalis@ctv.es)
IVProfessor Catedrático, Departamento de Didáctica e Tecnologia Educativa, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. (e-mail: cachapuz@dte.ua.pt)
VFaculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, (e-mail: jspraia@fc.up.pt)

 

 


RESUMO

O presente artigo pretende evidenciar a importância de (re)conhecer as visões deformadas dos professores sobre o trabalho científico, para a partir daí poderem consciencializar e modificar as suas próprias concepções epistemológicas acerca da natureza da ciência e da construção do conhecimento científico. Afirma-se que o trabalho colaborativo de grupos de docentes, quando da realização de workshops, é bem mais produtivo e positivo do que o trabalho individual na detecção de tais visões. Enumeram-se sete visões deformadas; aliás, abundantemente referidas na literatura, aqui intencionalmente extensa. Caracterizam-se tais visões deformadas e desenvolvem-se sobre elas considerações que ajudam à reflexão. Por outro lado, referem-se as características do trabalho científico e tecem-se orientações epistemologicamente mais adequadas, por sua vez capazes de ajudar a (re)pensar e a qualificar o trabalho científico. Sugerem-se implicações para o ensino das ciências e, num contexto mais vasto, para a Nova Didática das Ciências.

Unitermos: Epistemologia, Trabalho Científico, Visões Deformadas, Ensino das Ciências.


ABSTRACT

Recent researches suggest that quite frequently science teachers perspectives about the nature of science and on scientific knowledge construction are inadequate. Researches also suggest that such inadequate perspectives may influence through science teaching the images held by students about the nature of science and of the scientific knowledge. This paper presents the main features of seven teachers' perspectives with an extensive review of related research studies. Alternative views based on pos-positivist frameworks are then outlined as well as their implications for science teaching.

Keywords: Epistemology, Scientific Work, Nature of Science, Science Teaching


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Artigo Recebido em: 08/06/01
Artigo Aceito para Publicação em: 28/08/01

 

 

1 Trabalhos em que se critica a visão empírico-indutivista e ateórica da ciência: Nadeau e Désautels (1984); Hodson (1985); Otero (1985); Bronowski (1987); Giordan e De Vecchi (1987); Gould (1987); Selley (1989); Brickhouse (1989); Jacoby e Spargo (1989); Cleminson (1990); Koballa, Crawley e Shrigley (1990); Burbules e Linn (1991); Gallagher (1991); Brickhouse (1990); King (1991); Loving (1991); Matthews (1991); Solomon (1991); Gaskell (1992); Hodson (1992a); Lederman (1992); Linder (1992); Stinner (1992); Tobin, Tippins e Gallard, (1994); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Désautels et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Hodson (1993); Pomeroy (1993); Ruba e Harknerss (1993); Ruggieri, Tarsitani e Vicentini (1993); Acevedo (1994); Brickhouse (1994); Duschl (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Lakin e Wellington (1994); Praia e Cachapuz (1994a y b); Roth e Roychoudhury (1994); Solomon, Duveen e Scott (1994); Tobin, Tippins e Hook, (1994); Cachapuz (1995b); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Hewson, Kerby e Cook (1995); Jimenez (1995); Kouladis e Ogborn (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Praia (1995); Gil (1996); Hashweeh (1996); Thomaz et al. (1996); Campos e Cachapuz 1997; Praia e Marques (1997); Boersema (1998); Cobern e Loving (1998); Dawkings e Glatthorn (1998); Hammerich (1998); Lederman e Abd-El- Khalick (1998); Matson e Parson (1998); McComas (1998a y 1998b); McComas e Olson (1998); McComas et al. (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Nott e Wellington (1998); Paixão e Cachapuz 1998b; Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Porlán et al. (1998); Praia e Cachapuz (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Sutton (1998); Yerrick, Pedersen e Arnason (1998); Lederman (1999); Lemberger, Hewson e Park (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz 1999; Sanmartí e Tarin (1999); Sperandeo-Mineo (1999); Izquierdo, Sanmartí e Espinet (1999); Cachapuz et al. (2000a, b y c); Cobern (2000); Glasson e Bentley (2000); Irwin (2000); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000 a y b); Campanario, Moya e
Otero, (2001); Paixão e Cachapuz (2001);
2 Trabalhos que mencionam a visão rígida (algorítmica, exata, infalível,...) da ciência: Aikenhead (1984); Hodson (1985); Porlan (1989); Gallagher (1991); Gaskell (1992); Hodson (1992a) (1992b); Linder (1992); Tobin, Tippins e Gallard, (1994); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Hodson (1993); Acevedo (1994); Brickhouse (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Lakin e Wellington (1994); Pedrinaci (1994); Praia e Cachapuz (1994a y b); Solomon, Duveen e Scott (1994); Tobin, Tippins e Hook (1994); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Praia (1995); Gil (1996); Hashweeh (1996); Thomaz et al. (1996); Praia e Marques (1997); Boersema (1998); Cobern e Loving (1998); Dawkings e Glathorn (1998); Hammerich (1998); Lederman e Abd-El-Khalick (1998); Matson e Parson (1998); McComas (1998a y1998b); McComas e Olson (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Nott e Wellington (1998); Paixão e Cachapuz (1998b); Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Porlán et al., 1998: Praia e Cachapuz (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Sutton (1998); Yerrick, Pedersen e Arnason (1998); Lederman (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (1999); Sanmartí e Tarin (1999); Cachapuz et al. (2000 a, b y c); Cobern (2000); Glasson e Benteley, 2000; Irwin (2000); Campanario, Moya e Otero, (2001); Paixão e Cachapuz (2001);
3 Trabalhos que incluem referências relativas a uma visão aproblemática e ahistórica (dogmática e fechada) da ciência: Otero (1985); Gagliardi e Giordan (1986); Giordan e De Vecchi (1987); Porlán (1989); Cleminson (1990); Koballa, Crawley e Shrigley (1990); García Cruz (1991); Linder (1992); Stinner (1992); Tobin, Tippins e Gallard, (1994); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Acevedo (1994); Brickhouse (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Lakin, e Wellington (1994); Pedrinaci (1994); Praia e Cachapuz (1994), Roth e Roychoudhury (1994); Solomon, Duveen e Scott (1994); Tobin, Tippins e Hook (1994); Abrams e Wandersee (1995); Cachapuz (1995b); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Praia (1995); Gil (1996); Hashweeh (1996); Thomaz et al. (1996); Campos e Cachapuz 1997; Boersema (1998); Dawkings e Glathorn (1998); Matson e Parsons (1998); McComas (1998a e 1998b); McComas e Olson (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Paixão e Cachapuz 1998b; Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Porlán et al., 1998; Sutton (1998); Yerrick, Pedersen e Arnason (1998); Lederman (1999); Praia e Coelho (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Sanmartí e Tarin (1999); Sperandeo-Mineo (1999); Cachapuz et al. (2000 a, b y c); Cobern (2000); Glasson e Bentley (2000); Irwin (2000); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000 a y b); Moya e Otero, (2001); Paixão e Cachapuz (2001).
4 Trabalhos em que se presta atenção a uma visão exclusivamente analítica da ciência: Matthews (1991); Hodson (1992a); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Praia (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Gil (1996); McComas e Olson (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Lemberger, Hewson e Park (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000b).
5 Trabalhos que se referem a uma visão meramente acumulativa e de crescimento linear dos conhecimentos científicos: Porlán (1989); Cleminson (1990); Fillon (1991); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Ruggieri, Tarsitani e Vicentini (1993); Brickhouse (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Pedrinaci (1994); Cachapuz (1995b); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Praia(1995); Gil (1996); Hashweeh (1996); Thomaz et al., (1996); Boersema (1998); Matson e Parson (1998); McComas (1998a e 1998b); McComas e Olson (1998); McComas et al. (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Nott e Wellington (1998); Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Izquierdo, Sanmartí e Espinet (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (1999); Cachapuz et al. (2000a, b y c); Irwin (2000); Campanario, Moya e Otero, (2001); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000b); ..
6 Trabalhos em que se critica a visão individualista e elitista da ciência: Aikenhead (1984); Gagliardi e Giordan (1986); Penick e Yager (1986); Cleminson (1990); Hodson (1992a); e (1992b); Newton e Newton (1992); Stinner (1992); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Ruggieri, Tarsitani e Vicentini (1993); Brickhouse (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Lakin e Wellington (1994); Tobin, Tippins e Hook (1994); Abrams e Wandersee (1995); Fernández e Orozco(1995); Hewson, Kerby e Cook (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Praia (1995); Gil (1996); Thomaz et al. (1996); Mattews (1997); Roth e Lucas (1997); Boersema (1998); Cobern e Loving (1998); Dawkings e Glathorn (1998); Hammerich (1998); Lederman e Abd-El-Khalick(1998); Matson e Parsons (1998); McComas (1998 a e b); McComas e Olson (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Nott e Wellington (1998); Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Sutton (1998); Yerrick, Pedersen e Arnason (1998); Meitchtry (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (1999); Praia e Coelho (1999); Sanmartí e Tarin (1999); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000b); Campanario, Moya e Otero, (2001).
7 Trabalhos que se referem a uma visão descontextualizada e socialmente neutra do trabalho científico: Aikenhead (1984); Gagliardi e Giordan (1986); Brush (1989); Cleminson (1990); García Cruz (1991); Gaskell (1992); Hodson (1992a e 1992b); Linder (1992); Carrascosa et al. (1993); Gil (1993); Guilbert e Meloche (1993); Ruba e Harknerss (1993); Ruggieri, Tarsitani e Vicentini (1993); Acevedo (1994); Brickhouse (1994); Furió (1994); Gil (1994a); Abrams e Wandersee (1995); Fernández e Orozco (1995); Orozco e Fernández (1995); Gil (1996); Thomaz et al. (1996); Campos e Cachapuz 1997; Matthews (1997); Boersema (1998); Cobern e Loving (1998); Dawkings e Glatthorn (1998); Lederman e Abd-El-Khalick (1998); Matson e Parsons (1998); McComas (1998a e 1998b); McComas e Olson (1998); McComas et al (1998); Meitchtry (1998); Nott e Wellington (1998); Paixão e Cachapuz 1998b; Porlán e Rivero, (1998); Spector, Strong e La Porta (1998); Sutton (1998); Yerrick, Pedersen e Arnason (1998); Izquierdo, Sanmartí e Espinet (1999); Lederman (1999); Meitchtry (1999); Praia e Coelho (1999); Sanmartí e Tarin (1999); Glasson e Bentley (2000); Cachapuz et al. (2000 a, b y c); Paixão e Cachapuz (2000b); Paixão e Cachapuz (2001);