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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Print version ISSN 1516-8913On-line version ISSN 1678-4324

Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.50 no.5 Curitiba Sept. 2007

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132007000500007 

HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH

 

Cytotaxonomic and evolutionary considerations about karyotipic data of fishes from the Iguaçu River Basin in South of Brazil

 

 

Daniel Luis Zanella KantekI, *, Roger Raupp CiprianoI; Vinícius AbilhoaII; Roberto Ferreira ArtoniIII; Marta Margarete CestariI

ILaboratório de Citogenética Animal; Departamento de Genética; Universidade Federal do Paraná; pastelson@yahoo.com 81531-990 - Curitiba - PR - Brasil
II
GPIc, Grupo de Pesquisa em Ictiofauna; Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia; R. Prof. Benedito Conceição, 407; 82810-080; Curitiba - PR – Brasil
III
Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Campus de Uvarana; Departamento de Biologia Estrutural; Molecular e Genética; 84030-900; Ponta Grossa - PR - Brasil

 

 


ABSTRACT

The cytogenetic data available in the literature about the ichthyofauna of the Iguaçu River basin were analyzed in this review. The ichthyofauna was characterized by the high level of endemism and by the low diversity of species. Twenty-four of the eighty-one species were already karyotyped; six Characiformes, fourteen Siluriformes and four Perciformes. The chromosomal data showed the taxonomic and systematic complexity of the groups. Hypothesis related to the evolution of some Characiformes and Siluriformes groups from the Iguaçu River are proposed, as well as the utilization of karyotypic data for cytotaxonomy.

Key words: Neotropical region, fish cytogenetics, chromosome formulae


RESUMO

Nesta revisão são analisados os dados citogenéticos disponíveis na literatura relativos à ictiofauna da bacia do Rio Iguaçu, a qual é caracterizada pelo alto grau de endemismo e pela baixa diversidade de espécies. Das oitenta e uma espécies conhecidas, vinte e quatro já foram cariotipadas sendo 6 Characiformes, 14 Siluriformes e 4 Perciformes. Os dados cromossômicos evidenciam a complexidade taxonômica e sistemática dos grupos. São propostas hipóteses relacionadas à evolução de alguns grupos de Characiformes e Siluriformes do Rio Iguaçu, assim como o aproveitamento de dados cariotípicos para a citotaxonomia.


 

 

INTRODUCTION

The neotropical fauna is composed by near 8000 species and is considered as the most diverse epicontinental ichthyofauna in the world (Vari and Malabarba, 1998). Nearly 1000 species have been karyotyped so far, mostly by the Brazilian researchers (Brum and Galetti Jr., 1997; Almeida-Toledo, 1998). These studies permitted a better comprehension of some taxa with a not well-resolved taxonomy, besides establishing evolutionary relations in several groups. The ichthyofauna of the Iguaçu River basin was isolated from the Paraná River since the rise of the Iguaçu Falls 22 million years ago, that probably allowed the considerable endemism of this ichthyofauna (Sampaio, 1988; Lucinda, 1995; Garavello et al., 1997), which was estimated as 75% (Zawadski et al., 1999). Besides, the damming of some parts of the river as a result of tectonic reactivations (Bigarella et al., 1961) would have promoted alterations in the environments resulting in the low diversity of fish species in the Iguaçu River basin (Júlio Jr. et al., 1997). Nowadays, 81 species of Teleostei are known in the Iguaçu River basin (Ingenito et al., 2004), including three exotic species. This study aimed to present a review of all data about the cytogenetics of the fishes from the Iguaçu River and also on some taxonomic and evolutionary aspects of its ichthyofauna.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Table 1 shows the information available about the karyotype of fishes from the Iguaçu River basin. The nomenclature and classification of the fishes followed basically Malabarba et al. (1998), Reis et al. (2003), Ingenito et al. (2004) and the current database in FishBase systematic (Froese and Pauly, 2007). The chromosomal anatomy and morphology permit to establish the karyotype of the species, mainly using: number of chromosomes of the diploid group (2N); fundamental number (FN), which represented the number of chromosomal arms of the complement; type of chromosomes, classified in metacentrics (m), submetacentrics (sm), subtelocentrics (st) and acrocentrics (a) according to the arms relation of Levan et al. (1964); karyotypic formula, represented by the quantity of each type of chromosome. Other diagnostic data were also observed here, such as the presence of sexual chromosomes; presence of B chromosome system; cases of natural triploidy (3N), besides a marker for the ribosomal gene activity by the use of the colloidal silver in the marking of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs).

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The cytogenetic studies in the fishes from the Iguaçu River are still scarce. Most of the available data are found in the abstracts published in the materials of symposia and congresses. However, tendencies of karyotypic evolution might be seen as well as the use of karyotypic data for the taxonomy and systematic might be done. In neotropical fishes, pioneer data for the cytotaxonomy were presented by Bertollo et al. (1978) for Hoplias malabaricus. These data were also systematized in a checklist for the karyotypic diversity of neotropical fishes by Oliveira et al. (1988). Only twenty-four of the eighty-one species recognized at the moment for the Iguaçu River have been karyotyped (Table 1). Six of these species corresponded to Characiformes (25,00%), fourteen to Siluriformes (58,33%) and four to Perciformes (16,67%). However, this number was probably higher because in some other studies the individuals were not identified at the level of species.

Characiformes

For this order, most of the available studies are about species of the genus Astyanax. According to Sampaio (1988), Almiron et al. (2002), 0Azpelicueta et al. (2002) and Ingenito et al. (2004), the Iguaçu River contained at least ten species of Astyanax. Astyanax altiparanae, found all over the upper Paraná River basin, had its origin in the Iguaçu River mainly through introductions, as determined by Prioli et al. (2002) through molecular markers. The cytogenetic data showed that this might have occurred more than once through different stocks. The Astyanax of the Iguaçu River received the denominations Astyanax sp. B, A. sp. C, A. sp. D, A. sp. E and A. sp. F. Although these taxonomic entities were not nominal species yet, they were easily distinguished from each other and are clearly diagnosed in the reference literature (Severi and Cordeiro, 1994; Garavello et al., 1997; Ingenito et al., 2004; Kantek et al., 2007).

Checking the data from Table 1, interpopulation differences could be identified in the nucleolus organizing region (NORs) of the species Astyanax sp. B, Astyanax sp. C and. A. altiparanae, suggesting an absence of gene flow between the samples from different places. Besides, in Astyanax sp. B and A. altiparanae, there were also differences in the fundamental number (FN) and in the karyotypic formula. Ribeiro (2004), using C-banding in Astyanax sp. B, observed high differences in the quantity of heterochromatins comparing samples from the middle and upper Iguaçu River. These information emphasized the taxonomic and systematic complexity of the group.

The samples of Oligosarcus longirostris also differed in the NORs as well as in the fundamental number (FN) and karyotypic formula significantly.

Hoplias malabaricus was an example of the complex species. Seven different karyotypic types (cytotypes A, B, C, D, E, F, G) were identified for this taxon all over its distribution (Bertollo et al., 2000). The cytotypes A and B were found in the Iguaçu River, and according to Vicari et al. (2006), one of these types could be found in the basin even before the geographic isolation 22 million years ago. However, Dergam et al. (1998), using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) molecular markers, considered that the samples from the Iguaçu River were originally from the Tibagi River. Sampaio (1988) suggested that the Characiformes were already very differentiated before the isolation of the Iguaçu River. The idea that the cytotype A of H. malabaricus could already be found in the basin before the isolation corroborates this hypothesis.

The diploid number varied from 2n = 42 (H. malabaricus) to 2n = 54 (Glandulocauda melanopleura), and the modal number was 2n = 50. According to Oliveira et al. (1988), Brum and Galetti Jr (1997), Fenocchio et al. (2003b) and Carvalho et al. (2002), the modal number for the order were 2n = 54. This discrepancy might be a result of the small number of taxa analyzed until now.

Siluriformes

Until 1995, only one species of the genus Pimelodus was known in the Iguaçu River (Pimelodus ortmanni). Garavello and Shibatta (1995) registered a new species using morphological features (Pimelodus sp.). Isoenzyme (Renesto et al., 2000) and chromosomal (Borin and Martins-Santos, 2004) data corroborated that it was really a new species. According to Borin and Martins-Santos (2004), Pimelodus sp. was more similar to P. maculatus (collected in the Paraná River basin) than to P. ortmanni and, in this way, like in the Characiformes, these two species could exist before the rise of the Iguaçu Falls.

Silfvergrip (1998) suggested that Rhamdia voulezi and R. branneri of the Iguaçu River were synonymous of Rhamdia quelen. The similarity in the karyotypic formula supported this hypothesis (Table 1). However, there were karyotypes with simple and multiple NORs, which might be indicating that these taxa were really different species. Abucarma and Martins-Santos (2001), based on the differences in the B chromosomes, considered that R. branneri, R. voulezi and Rhamdia sp. were distinct taxonomic entities. Thus further studies would be necessary and would help to solve the taxonomy of this group.

Sato et al. (2004), based on chromosomal data, suggested that there were at least two groups of Trichomycterus cis-Andean species. The species of the Iguaçu River fit in the second group, which had two relevant features: (1) the two largest metacentric (m) pairs of chromosomes were similar in size and also were significantly bigger than the other metacentric chromosomes; and (2) the NORs were interstitial and located in a big pair of metacentric chromosomes. These features were also found in species like T. paolence (Torres et al., 1998), T. diabolus (Torres et al., 2004) and Trichomycterus aff. itatiayae (Sato et al., 2004).

The last one was collected in the Tibagi River basin, whereas the other two were originally from the Paranapanema River basin, both relatively close to the Iguaçu River basin. Chromosomal similarities and the proximity in the geographic distribution might be the evidence of a possible common origin for these species.

The Hypostomus species of the Iguaçu River could be grouped into two cladograms; one composed by species with 68 chromosomes and other by the species with 74 chromosomes. Casale et al. (2002) related these two groups to body coloration and isoenzyme patterns. Other hydrographic basins also have species with 2n = 68 and 2n = 74 chromosomes (Artoni and Bertollo, 2001), showing that the origin of these two groups was earlier than 22 million years, when there was no geographic barrier between the Iguaçu River and other basins. However, Montoya-Burgos (2003) proposed that the main geological/cladogenetic episode in the evolutionary history of the genus Hypostomus occurred between 12 and 4 million years ago. In this way, the occurrence of this genus in the Iguaçu River due to upper river captures from other basins after the formation of the Iguaçu Falls was a hypothesis that must be considered. Weitzman et al. (1988) and Ingenito et al. (2004) suggested a historical relationship (upper river captures) between the Iguaçu River and adjoining basins.

The diploid number in the order varied from 2n = 42 (Pariolius hollandi) to 2n = 74 (Hypostomus myersi and H. albopuntactus) and the modal number was 2n = 58, same data observed by Oliveira et al. (1988).

Perciformes

The data of this study agreed with the ones in the literature (Fenocchio et al., 2003b), which registered a highly conservative tendency with karyotypes composed by 2n = 48 chromosomes and simple NORs. The karyotypic formulas of the Perciforme species analyzed in the present study indicated a predominance of acrocentric chromosomes, while two armed chromosomes were more often found in Characiformes and Siluriformes. These data agreed with the chromosomal evolutionary tendencies reported by Oliveira et al. (1988) and Fenocchio et al. (2003b).

Thus, karyotypic data should be real for the cytotaxonomy of fishes from the Iguaçu River basin. These is need for the majority of the fish species already described from this region, as in Astyanax, Hoplias and Rhamdia, and the enlargement of the access to the karyotype of species not studied yet over this aspect.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) and CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for financial support.

 

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Received: October 10, 2005
Revised: April 05, 2006
Accepted: March 14, 2007.

 

 

* Author for correspondence

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