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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Print version ISSN 1516-8913On-line version ISSN 1678-4324

Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.57 no.4 Curitiba July/Aug. 2014

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132014005000009 

Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

First Report of Citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil

Rúbia de Oliveira Molina 1   * 

William Mário de Carvalho Nunes 2  

Luciano Grillo Gil 1  

Dirlene Aparecida Moreno da Fonseca Rinaldi 3  

José Croce Filho 3  

Regina Célia Zonta de Carvalho 3  

1Instituto Agronômico do Paraná; Londrina - PR - Brasil

2Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Maringá - PR - Brasil

3Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Paraná; Maringá - PR - Brasil

ABSTRACT

The citrus blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi Ashby, (Hemiptera Aleyrodidae) is an important pest that occurs in citrus groves, native to south-east Asia. In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, this is a quarantine pest (A2) under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA) and is not widespread in the country. The insect can infest more than 300 host plants, including cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but mostly occurs in the plants of the genus citrus. This paper is the first report of citrus blackfly in the State of Paraná.

Key words: Citrus; Citrus pest; Aleyrodid

INTRODUCTION

The blackfly Aleroucanthus woglumi is an important pest that occurs in the citrus crops, native to south-east Asia (Dietz and Zetek 1920), and is widespread throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania (Oliveira et al. 2001; Eppo 2012). The blackfly is an insect from the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha, comprising an important agricultural family Aleyrodidae, subfamily Aleyrodinae, genus Aleurocanthus (Nguyen and Hamon 2003; Gallo et al.2002). In Brazil, its only one species is known A. woglumi Ashby. Taxonomic studies have shown Aleurocanthus punjabensis Corbertt and A. husaini known as synonymously to A. woglumi Ashby (Eppo nº 103) species. It is commonly known as "mosca-negra dos citros", "mosca prieta de los citrilos", "citrus blackfly" or "aleurode noir des agrumes". It's the first occurrence was reported in 1913 in Jamaica, spreading to Cuba in 1916 and Mexico in 1935 (Smith et al. 1964). In the United States, its dissemination covers central and southern Florida, from Cross Creek to Key West (Nguyen and Hamon 2003). In South America, it is present in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Guiana, Suriname and Brazil (Cunha 2003).

In Brazil, the blackfly is a quarantine pest (A2). It is not widespread and is under official control IN 52, 2007 (MAPA 2013). It was first reported in the state of Pará in 2001 (Oliveira et al. 2001). Later on it was detected in Amazonas in 2004 (Ronchi-Teles et al. 2009); in Maranhão in 2003 and 2004 (Lemos et al. 2006); in Amapá in 2006 (Jordão and Silva 2006). In São Paulo, its occurrence was reported in 2008 (Pena et al. 2008); in 2009 in Paraíba (Lopes et al. 2010) and in Roraima (Correia et al. 2011).

The blackfly has more than 300 host plants (Oliveira et al. 1999), which include cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds, but it mostly occurs in the plants of the genus Citrus, Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) and avocado (Persea americana Mill (Drees and Jackman 1998). Pena et al. (2009), based on laboratory studies in Brazil proved that the most favorable host plant of A. woglumi is the Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia) when compared to sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and mango (Mangifera indica). However, according to the recent Normative Instruction nº 23, from April 29thof 2008, the following plants are subjected to the insect infestation: Poplar (Populus spp.), White Mulberry (Morus spp.), Ardisia (Ardisia swartz Swartz.), Banana Tree (Musa spp.), Common Box (Buxussem pervirens Sabamiki), Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.), Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), Night-Blooming Cestrum (Cestrum nocturnum Linn.), Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Soursop (Annona muricata L.), Grumichama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), Chinese Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosasinensis L.), Plumeria (Plumeria rubra L.), Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), Laurus (Laurus nobilis L.), Papaya (Carica papaya L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.), Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), Orange Jessamine (Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack.), Pear (Pyrus spp.), Sugar-apple (Annonas quamosa L.), Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Rose (Rosa spp.), Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota L.) and Common Grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.), (MAPA 2012).

The insect can harm the citrus production due to the way it feeds, sucking out the sap from the Phloem, therefore removing the nutrients and possibly debilitating the plant and injecting toxins (Silva et al. 2011). This insect also eliminates secretions with a high dosage of sugars, which favors the appearance of saprotrophic fungi in the leaves of the plant, an example is the sooty mold (Campinodium citri Berk and Desm) (Oliveira et al. 1999). This fungus is known for growing thick and dark on the leaves and fruits of citric plants, possibly impairing the photosynthesis due to the decrease of solar incidence. Economically speaking, the commercialization of these fruits naturally can be compromised, as there is a depreciation of the fruits contaminated by the fungi due to the alteration in its appearance.

The objective of this work was to report the first occurrence of the blackfly in a commercial citrus orchard in the State of Paraná.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The species A. woglumi was identified for the first time in Paraná in a phytosanitary inspection under the inspection Terms 64158 (MAPA) in 05/13/2011. The blackfly was collected in leaf samples sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) Pera variety, in an commercial orchard eight year old, located on the Onze Irmãos road in the city of Mandaguaçu, PR; coordinates UTM -23,385389 Latitude and 52,082657 Longitude. The identification was done in the Diagnostic Center "Marcos Enrietti" (CDME), the official laboratory of the department of Inspection and Agricultural Defense of the Paraná State Department of Agriculture and Supply (SEAB).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The presence of all the developmental phases of A. woglumi was observed: (Fig. 1A) eggs (in a spiral posture), (Fig. 1B) nymphs (1st, 2nd and 3rd instars), (Figs. 1C and D) adults. The pupae were macerated, clarified and assembled on permanent slides with Canada balsam (approximately 20 slides with 3 to 5 pupae/slide). The assembly process was done according to Martin (1987). The adults and the leaves containing postures and nymph stages were set in 70% alcohol. The identification occurred through the electronic key identification (Martin 1987).

Figure 1 Blackfly in the citrus Aleurocanthus woglumi, A-eggs, B-nymphs, C e D-Adult. 

Due to the importance of citric plantations in the state of Paraná and the variety of host plants of this insect, also taking in account the damage caused to the plants due to their feeding system, it is indispensable to pay attention to the control of this insect in the northwest region of Paraná. There is an imperious need for further studies to comprehend the behavior, biology and control methods of this pest.

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Received: May 16, 2013; Accepted: December 09, 2013

*Author for correspondence: rubiamolina@iapar.br

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