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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

On-line version ISSN 1678-4324

Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.60  Curitiba  2017  Epub Aug 17, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4324-2017160376 

Biological and Applied Sciences

Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with other Alternative Plant Sources in the Feed on Proximate Composition of Muscle, Liver and Ovary in Tilapia (Oreochromis nioloticus)

Khalid Al-Ghanim 1  

Ahmed Al-Thobaiti¹ 

Humoud F. Alkahem Al-Balawi¹ 

Zubair Ahmed¹ 

Shahid Mahboob¹  ² 

¹Department of Zoology, College of Science, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11455, Saudi Arabia;

² Department of Zoology, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm) were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C) and reference commercial feed (D) for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein). Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

Key Words: Feed; Plant sources; muscle; liver; ovary

INTRODUCTION

The problem of quality food shortage has become critical during the present era of unprecedented population explosion. The rapid increase in world population is creating various problems. The malnutrition and shortage of food is one of the most important problem in terms of quantity and quality of animal protein [1]. Particularly, the rate of intake of animal protein is low. The demand of red meat and poultry meat has tremendously increased. In order to overcome this untoward situation and to save the population from malnutrition in developing countries, there is a dire need to explore alternate sources of animal protein.

Fish is currently considered as one of the best inexpensive alternative sources of high quality animal protein. Fish provides the comparative good quantity of an essential amino acids, minerals and fatty acids as compared to other animal sources of protein [2]. The production of quality protein from fish is based on the development of the fisheries sector. Fish provides a valuable constituent which is required for a balanced and healthy diet due to the presence of low carbohydrate and unsaturated fat contents. It is generally emphasized by the doctors to heart patients for intake of more fish because it is an excellent source of Omega 3. So the preference for fish in our diet may provide a valuable source of an animal protein for the healthy growth and development [4-7]. Fish production is expected to increase many folds and this will need higher production of fish feeds. The inclusion of plant-protein sources in fish feeds were increased due to the limited supply and an increasing cost of fishmeal being a chief constituent of fish feed [8-10]. One of the major challenges of the feed manufacturers is to reduce fishmeal levels in their feed and to substitute it with other alternative sources with and to reduce the cost of production [12].

Fisheries is relatively new sector and promising industry in Saudi Arabia. It started during the early 1980s, when a few farmers started culture tilapia in small water reservoirs. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a major fish produced from such resources until 2000. Later shrimp, large quantities of shrimp were produced commercially. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is mainly cultured in freshwater, where it is also used for agricultural crop irrigation (Fisheries Statistics, 2008). An optimal dietary protein level in fish feed is an important for fish growth and quality of protein. The objective of this study was to investigate an effect of replacement of fish meal with other alternative source protein on proximate composition in muscle, liver and ovary of Oreochromis niloticus in the local conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Culture facility, experimental fish and growth trial

The study was conducted in ten glass aquaria (100 L capacity) containing 70 L of dechlorinated tap water for a period of 15 days. Fingerlings of tilapia were procured from King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Total 200 live female specimens of Oreochromis niloticus (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm) were stocked in each aquarium. Water was renewed four times per week. Water was continuously aerated with air pumps. The quality of the water was kept constant. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen were maintained at 22 °C and 7.5 mg L−1. pH and ammonia were monitored during the experimental period.

2.2 Preparation of Feed:

Three iso-protein (40 % crude protein) were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal and bagasse kenna meal (Table 1). Fish feed was prepared in the form of pellets (2mm, diameter), dried at 60 °C and stored at 4 °C using commercial manufacturing technology [11]. The prepared feed was stored in plastic lined paper bags at room temperature until fed. The control fish fed with a commercial tilapia feed (40 % crude protein) purchased from Arasco, Saudi Arabia. At the beginning of the feeding trial, all fish were starved for 24 h and pooled in a big tank. At the beginning of the experiment 5 fishes were sacrificed for the proximate composition of fish flesh. Fish were fed at 3 % body weight daily to apparent satiation twice a day (8:00 and 15:00) for 12 weeks. Uneaten diets were removed / siphoned 1 h after feeding and then dried and re-weighted.

Table 1 : Composition of experimental feed (Crude Protein 40%) 

Feed ingredients/1000gm Feed-A Feed-B Feed-C
Fish meal 189.7 151.76 113.82
Soybean meal 170.0 170.0 207.94
corn gluten meal 175.5 213.44 213.44
wheat gluten meal 203.0 203.0 203.0
Bagasse kenna mix 211.8 211.8 211.8
Lysine 30.0 30.0 30.0
Glycine 10.0 10.0 10.0
Methionine 5.0 5.0 5.0
Vitamin premix 5.0 5.0 5.0
Total (g) 1000 1000 1000

Seven fish specimen was collected from each experimental group and washed in tap dechlorinated water then fish was weighed and slaughtered by giving a longitudinal cut from the ventral side to remove viscera. Fish flesh from the dorso-lateral side was removed and analyzed for its moisture, protein and lipid contents. Liver and ovary were also removed for proximate analysis by following methods described by [12].

2.4 Statistical analysis

“The data were subjected to statistical analysis by using Minitab software. The differences among treatments were tested using ANOVA followed by the DMR test.”

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The final average body weight after trial 12 weeks of Oreochromis niloticus in experimental diets and reference diets were recorded as 110.88± 2.58, 102.66 ± 3.29 and 87.72 ± 3.66 g and 86.40 g's ± 2.75 g, respectively. The fish fed with commercial diet exhibited higher water contents compared to the experimental feeds. In O. niloticus total protein content was recorded as 63.44±3.81, 64.03±4.18, 62.75±3.65 and 63.02±3.42 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and D, respectively. The minimum and maximum protein contents were recorded in fish fed with diet C and diet B, respectively (Table 3). There was non-significant (P <0.05) difference in protein contents in the fish fed with diets A, C and D. The fish fed with diet B exhibited higher protein contents compared to the experimental feed. In O. niloticus total fat content was recorded as 3.12±0.38, 1.76±0.41 1.81±0.26 and 2.32±0.39 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and D, respectively. The minimum and maximum fat contents were recorded in fish fed with diet B, and diet A, respectively (Table 3). There was significant (P <0.05) difference in total fat contents in the fish fed with diets A, B, C and D. The fish fed with diet A exhibited higher total fat contents compared to the experimental feeds. In O. niloticus total ash content was recorded as 26.48±2.72, 26.10±3.44, 26.32±3.62 and 26.03±3.51 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and D, respectively. The minimum and maximum ash contents were recorded in fish fed with diet D and diet A, respectively (Table 3). There was non-significant (P <0.05) difference in total ash contents in the fish fed with an experimental feed and diet D. In O. niloticus carbohydrate content was recorded as 1.64±0.22, 2.21±0.41, 2.82±0.51 and 1.21±0.0.33 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and D, respectively. The minimum and maximum ash contents were recorded in fish fed with diet D and diet C, respectively (Table 3). There was significant (P <0.05) difference in carbohydrate contents in all the experimental and control diet for accumulation of carbohydrate. The fish fed with diet C accumulated maximum ash contents compared to the other experimental feeds.

Table 2: Chemical composition of experimental feeds 

Chemical constituents Feed-A Feed-B Feed-C Feed-D
Dry matter 90.19±2. 66b 97.77±2.71a 97.11±2.54a 93.09±0.8b
Moisture 9.82±1.62a 2.24±1.66c 2.90±1.22c 6.91 ±0.28b
Crude protein 40.06±2.36a 40.05±2.70a 40.02±2.74a 40.36± 2.76a
Crude fat 1.93±0.28b 2.28±0.64a 2.25±0.77a 1.84±1.32b
Total carbohydrates 33.63±3.16b 41.53±3.46a 39.88±2.88a 34.63±0.19b
Ash 6.47±0.81a 6.94±0.92a 7.71±0.68a 5.71± 0.62b
Fiber 7.18±1.02a 6.98±1.12a 7.06±1.41a 6.12±0.13b
Gross energy (Kcal/g) 340.24±4.6 340.80±5.22 340.57±6.23 316.52±5.24

Means with different letters for each fish in a column are highly significantly different (P<0.01). S.E. =standard error

Table 3: Proximate composition from dry matter of muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. Fed with different experimental diets 

Chemical constituent (%) Feed-A Feed-B Feed-C Reference feed- D
Crude protein 63.44±3.81b 64.03±4.18a 62.75±3.65b 63.02±3.42b
Fat 12.12±0.38a 10.76±0.41c 11.81±0.26c 12.32±0.39b
Ash 23.48±2.72b 23.10±3.44b 24.32±3.62a 23.03±3.51a
Carbohydrates 1.64±0.22c 2.21±0.41b 2.82±0.51a 1.21±0.0.33d

Means with different letters for each fish in a column are highly significantly different (P<0.01). S.E. =standard error

Liver and gonads of O. niloticus was selected to study an effect of replacement of fishmeal in the experimental feeds on their proximate composition. In liver and ovary of O. niloticus protein content was recorded as 53.78±3.11, 54.17±3.72, 54.77±3.69 and 52.99±4.02 and 53.78±3.11, 54.17±3.72, 54.77±3.69 and 52.99±4.02 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and diet D, respectively. The minimum and maximum protein contents were recorded in the liver and ovary of fish fed with diet D and C and D and C, respectively (Table 4). There was non-significant (P <0.05) difference in protein contents in the liver and ovary of fish fed with A, B and C. In liver and ovary of O. niloticus fat content was recorded as 30.31±2.31, 28.50±2.90, 28.29±2.82 and 32.60±3.05 and 25.63±1.16, 20.30±1.24, 22.64±1.40 and 20.18±1.51 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and diet D, respectively. The minimum and maximum protein contents were recorded in the liver and ovary of fish fed with diet B and D and D and C, respectively (Table 4). There was non-significant (P <0.05) difference in protein contents in the liver and ovary of fish fed with B, C and D and B and C, respectively. In liver and ovary of O. niloticus ash content was recorded as 5.82±0.77, 5.61±0.62, 6.42±0.51 and 5.23±0.42 and 5.89±0.33, 4.85±0.40, 6.15±0.18 and 6.29±0.52a percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and diet D, respectively. The minimum and maximum ash contents were recorded in the liver and ovary of fish fed with diet D and C and B and D, respectively (Table 4). In liver and ovary of O. niloticus carbohydrate content was recorded as 9.12±1.02,11.62±1.41, 9.32±1.33 and 8.16±1.03 and 17.05±1.15,18.43±1.66,16.21±1.51 and 13.86±1.70 percent on dry matter basis after feeding with feed A, B, C and diet D, respectively. The minimum and maximum carbohydrate contents were recorded in the liver and ovary of fish fed with diet D and B and D and A, respectively (Table 4).

Table 4: Proximate composition from dry matter of liver and ovary of Oreochromis niloticus. Fed with different experimental diets 

Chemical constituent (%) Feed-A Feed-B Feed-C Reference feed-D
Liver
Crude protein 53.78±3.11a 54.17±3.72a 54.77±3.69a 52.99±4.02b
Fat 30.31±2.31a 28.50±2.90b 28.29±2.82b 32.60±3.05b
Ash 5.82±0.77b 5.61±0.62b 6.42±0.51a 5.23±0.42c
Carbohydrates 9.12±1.02b 11.62±1.41a 9.32±1.33b 8.16±1.03c
Ovary
Crude protein 52.28±2.90b 56.33±2.77a 55.47±2.54a 49.93±2.33b
Fat 25.63±1.16b 20.30±1.24c 22.64±1.40c 20.18±1.51a
Ash 5.89±0.33a 4.85±0.40b 6.15±0.18a 6.29±0.52a
Carbohydrates 17.05±1.15a 18.43±1.66a 16.21±1.51a 13.86±1.70b

Means with different letters for each fish in a column are highly significantly different (P<0.01). S.E. =standard error

The inclusion of alternative protein sources in the artificial feed for freshwater species like tilapia to reduce the cost of feed and production costs is commercially important. But, optimization of feed content with alternative source is very important which favor the growth of fish and do not effect on the body composition of fish. In this study, the O. niloticus fed with the feed containing 11.38, 15.17 and 18.97% of fishmeal in feed A, B and C. A reference commercial diet D was purchased from the local manufacturer Arassco Limited, Saudi Arabia. All the four feeds were having 40 % crude protein (Table 2). In this study 40 and 20 % replacement of fishmeal was made compared to feeding in C. carpio. In this experiment the experimental tilapia, which were fed with the fishmeal replaced with 20% of diet C in feed B with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet A, C and control. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. This was in accordance with the findings of [13] who reported that L. Schmitti larvae, when fed with A. platensis added diet, showed higher growth performance and body proximate composition. [14] also reported significantly improved growth and body composition in M. rosenbergii PL when fed with a meal containing Artemia nauplii enriched with Arthrospira. [15] mentioned that fishmeal replacement with plant sources up to 20%, significantly improved the growth performance, nutritional utilization and body proximate composition in C. carpio. It has significantly affected the protein and lipid contents in the fish's body. Our results are in line with the findings of above mentioned workers. It may be due to the reason of, soybean meal, corn gluten and bagasse kenna mix have a good quantity of protein and all the essential amino acids and fatty acids, etc., [16-17]. On the other hand, changes in the protein and lipid contents in the fish muscle might be linked to changes in their synthesis, deposition rate in muscle, liver and ovary [17-19] (The muscle protein, lipid, moisture and ash contents were not significantly affected by the replacement of fishmeal up to 40 % with alternative plant sources. Similar findings were also reported in the muscle proximate composition of Nile tilapia [21-22]. Another experiment in which fishmeal was used as the main protein source to study the dietary protein requirement of fish exhibited that body ash content was not affected by the dietary protein level [23-24]. The lipid level was observed to decrease in the O. niloticus, when fed with the diet containing 20% replacement of fishmeal in feed B. This may be due to the lipid content which was lower in soybean meal and corn gluten meal instead with the fishmeal. Liver and Ovary exhibited similar trends in their proximate composition as in muscle.

CONCLUSION

Our findings indicated that, alternative plant sources like corn gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix can be successfully used for the partial replacement of fishmeal protein in fish feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fishmeal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding of this research through the Prolific Research Group Project No. PRG- 1436-011.

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Received: February 03, 2016; Accepted: July 14, 2016

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