SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.21 issue2Association of force and physical activity level with bone mineral density in postmenopausePersonal, athletic and psychological factors in exercise behavior author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte

Print version ISSN 1517-8692

Rev Bras Med Esporte vol.21 no.2 São Paulo Mar./Apr. 2015

https://doi.org/10.1590/1517-86922015210201976 

Original Articles

Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

Gasto de energia e utilização de substrato durante vibração do corpo todo

Gasto de energía y uso de sustrato durante vibración de todo el cuerpo

Ravena Santos Raulino 1  

Fernanda Meira de Aguiar 1  

Núbia Carelli Pereira de Avelar 2  

Isabela Gomes Costa 1  

Jacqueline da Silva Soares 1  

Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda 1  

11.Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys - Healthy and Biological Sciences Faculty - Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Diamantina, MG, Brazil

22. Federal University of Santa Catarina - University Araranguá; Araranguá, SC, Brazil


ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE:

the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question.

METHODS:

VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours.

RESULTS:

the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects.

CONCLUSION:

despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

Key words: oxygen consumption; heart rate; energy metabolism

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO:

o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se a adição de vibração durante o treinamento intervalado do exercício elevaria o consumo de oxigênio VO2até o ponto necessário para controle do peso e para avaliar a influência da intensidade do estímulo vibratório para a prescrição do programa de exercícios em questão.

MÉTODOS:

o VO2 medido a cada respiração foi avaliado em repouso e durante as quatro condições experimentais para determinar o gasto de energia, o equivalente metabólico MET, a taxa de troca respiratória, o percentual de kcal da gordura e a taxa de oxidação de gordura. Oito mulheres jovens e sedentárias idade 22 ± 1 anos, estatura 163,88 ± 7,62 cm, massa corporal 58,35 ± 10,96 kg, VO2 máx 32,75 ± 3,55 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 realizaram treinamento intervalado duração = 13,3 min para os membros superiores e inferiores com vibração 35 Hz e 2 mm, 40 Hz e 2 mm, 45 Hz e 2 mm e sem vibração. As condições experimentais foram randomizadas e balanceadas em um intervalo de 48 horas.

RESULTADOS:

a adição de vibração ao exercício a 45 Hz e 2 mm resultou em aumento adicional de 17,77 ± 12,38 % do VO2, em comparação com o exercício sem vibração. Contudo, esse aumento não alterou a taxa de oxidação de gordura p = 0,42, porque a intensidade do exercício 29,1 ± 3,3 %VO2máx, 2,7 MET foi classificada como leve para indivíduos jovens.

CONCLUSÃO:

apesar a influência da vibração sobre o VO2 durante o exercício, o aumento foi insuficiente para reduzir o peso corporal e não atingiu a recomendação mínima de prescrição do exercício para controle do peso para a população do estudo.

Palavras-Chave: consumo de oxigênio; frequência cardíaca; metabolismo energético

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO:

el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si el agregado de vibración durante el entrenamiento por intervalos del ejercicio elevaría el consumo de oxígeno VO2 hasta el punto necesario para control de peso y para evaluar la influencia de la intensidad del estímulo vibratorio para la prescripción del programa de ejercicios en cuestión.

MÉTODOS:

el VO2 medido a cada respiración fue evaluado en reposo y durante las cuatro condiciones experimentales para determinar el gasto de energía, el equivalente metabólico MET, la tasa de cambio respiratorio, el porcentual de kcal de la grasa y la tasa de oxidación de grasa. Ocho mujeres jóvenes y sedentarias edad 22 ± 1 años, estatura 163,88 ± 7,62 cm, masa corporal 58,35 ± 10,96 kg, VO2 máx 32,75 ± 3,55 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 realizaron entrenamiento por intervalos duración = 13,3 min para los miembros superiores e inferiores con vibración 35 Hz y 2 mm, 40 Hz y 2 mm, 45 Hz y 2 mm y sin vibración. Las condiciones experimentales fueron aleatorizadas y balanceadas en un intervalo de 48 horas.

RESULTADOS:

el agregado de vibración al ejercicio a 45 Hz y 2 mm resultó en aumento adicional de 17,77 ± 12,38 % del VO2, en comparación con el ejercicio sin vibración. Sin embargo, ese aumento no alteró la tasa de oxidación de grasa p = 0,42, porque la intensidad del ejercicio 29,1 ± 3,3 %VO2máx, 2,7 MET fue clasificada como leve para individuos jóvenes.

CONCLUSIÓN:

a pesar de la influencia de la vibración sobre el VO2 durante el ejercicio, el aumento fue insuficiente para reducir el peso corporal y no alcanzó la recomendación mínima de prescripción del ejercicio para control del peso para la población del estudio.

Palabras-clave: consumo de oxígeno; frecuencia cardíaca; metabolismo energético

INTRODUCTION

Over time, our energy intake has been increasing in combination with a sedentary lifestyle, leading the population to gain body weight1. To address this high-energy intake and low-energy output, exercise and caloric restriction have been advocated for weight loss. Maintaining sufficient energetic expenditure is important for the management of body weight, and whole body vibration WBV has been widely used in esthetic and health centers as an alternative method for this2 - 5. During this exercise modality, the individual stands on a platform that generates vertical sinusoidal vibrations. Mechanical stimuli are transmitted to the body that stimulate primary endings of muscle spindles; the spindles then activate α-motor neurons, resulting in muscle contractions comparable to the tonic vibration reflex6 , 7.

Some companies have been advocating that a 10-min workout on a vibratory platform is equivalent to 1 h of traditional exercise in terms of weight loss and that a vibratory platform session of 5 min at a vibration frequency of 26 Hz is capable of producing 7800 contractions, which is not possible by conventional exercise8. However, the literature suggests that this type of training would not be enough to reduce body weight, as it provides only moderate cardiovascular stimuli similar to what is experienced during moderate walking for young9 , 10 and elderly people11 , 12. These studies evaluated the stress produced by this stimulus only during the squat exercise; there is a gap in the literature about the efficacy of vibration at achieving the minimum standards of intensity required for the prescription of physical exercise for weight management when interval exercises are performed on the vibration platform involving upper and lower limbs, as observed in esthetic and health centers.

Hazzel and Lemon13 used a body vibration 45 Hz and 2 mm exercise protocol involving several muscle groups to assess cardio respiratory stress in young people. The authors concluded that because WBV increases energy expenditure, this modality could be effective at reducing body fat. However, the authors did not calculate how much that exercise intensity represents in terms of relative perceptual exercise intensity; it was not possible to classify the intensity of the exercise to establish whether it would be enough for weight management.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects ofaddition of WBV during a session of interval exercise multiple dynamic exercises involving the upper and lower body on the capability to raise oxygen cost, increase energy expenditure and increase fat oxidation to the extent necessary for the prescription of exercise for weight management as well as to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus on this exercise prescription. We hypothesized that WBV did not achieve the minimum recommendation for exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

METHODS

This study involved eight sedentary young females, age 22.50 ± 1.69 years, height 165.88 ± 8.00 cm, weight 58.91 ± 9.08 kg and body mass index: 21.80 ± 4.76 Kg/m2. The subjects visited the exercise physiology laboratory on five separate days with a minimum rest period of 48 hours between the visits. All individuals selected for the study were considered healthy based on their responses to questionnaires Par-Q and risk factor, and none of the included participants self-reported neuromuscular or musculoskeletal injuries. The subjects were asked to report the use of any medications. Furthermore, they were instructed to refrain from the following activities prior to testing: participation in strenuous physical activity for 24 h, consumption of caffeine for 48 h, consumption of alcoholic beverages for 24 h and food intake for 2 h. The participants were asked to maintain the same dietary habits, obtain 8 h of sleep, and consume 500 ml of water 2 h prior to each experimental condition.

The participants were notified about the potential risks involved in the study and gave their written informed consent. This study was approved by the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys, Brazil.

The study design included 1 preliminary session followed by 4 randomized and balanced-order experimental conditions, which were separated by 2 days between sessions figure 1.

Figure 1. Flow chart of study. 

The preliminary session included the following measures: a physical examination, anthropometric measurements height and weight and peak oxygen consumption evaluation VO2peak using a progressive test on a Monark standard ergometer cycle Maxx, Hidrofit, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In accordance with the study of Avelar and colleagues11, to avoid any possible effect of anxiety or motor learning on the oxygen consumption during the experimental conditions, each volunteer was familiarized with the vibration platform and the exercise protocol prior to testing. Furthermore, considering that the study was designed in a randomized and balanced order, any possible acquisition/learning of the whole body vibration on physiological variables was minimized during the follow-up.

The test Balke Protocol consisted of cycling initially at 25 W and increasing by 25 W every 2 minutes until fatigue. The test was completed when subjects could no longer maintain the required power despite verbal encouragement from the researcher. To measure oxygen consumption, a K4b2 portable gas analysis system Cosmed, Italy was used to transmit breath-by-breath data to a computer. The system was calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Prior to testing, each volunteer was familiarized with the vibration platform and the exercise protocol to avoid any possible effect of anxiety on the physiological variables during the experimental conditions.

The study consisted of four experimental conditions that included the administration of an exercise protocol without vibration or with vibration amplitude: 2 mm at different frequencies 35 Hz, 40 Hz or 45 Hz figure 1. To minimize the circadian influence, the participants were tested for all experimental conditions at the same time each day12. The distribution of experimental conditions was randomized and balanced and separated by 48 hours between sessions.

Before the start of the experimental procedures, the subjects completed a dietary recall and were questioned regarding compliance with the pre-test guidelines.

The exercise session consisted of dynamic exercises involving the major muscle groups of the arms triceps, abdominals and legs quadriceps, calves and gluteus; ten repetitions were performed for each muscle group. The subject was instructed to perform a 3-second isometric contraction of the muscle in two pre-set angles using 1 second to change position, so that each bout of exercise lasted 8 seconds and was repeated 10 times. Therefore, each muscle group was exercised for 80 seconds. Between sets, the participant was instructed to rest for 80 seconds on the vibration platform in the standing position. The total exercise session, including the exercise and rest between sets, lasted 13.3 minutes. The choice of this protocol was based on clinical reports stating that a session of 10-min on a vibration platform is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise8.

Before initiating the exercise series, the joint angle was measured for each volunteer using a universal goniometer, and a barrier was imposed to limit the angle of the completion of the exercise Triceps: 0-90º, abdominals: 45-90º, quadriceps: 10-60º, calves: 0-20º and gluteus: supine hip extension. For temporal control of each exercise, an examiner, through verbal command, was instructed to indicate the maintenance of each predetermined angle. In addition, participants were instructed on proper body positioning i.e., the correct positioning of the feet, spine, arms and head during the exercises.

The vibratory exercise was performed using a commercial-model vibration platform FitVibe, GymnaUniphy NV, Bilzen, Belgium, which produces vertical synchronous vibration in both legs while the platform moves predominately in the vertical direction. This results in simultaneous and symmetrical movement of both sides of the body during exposure8. Even for the exercise modality in which vibration was not used, the individual was asked to stand on the vibration platform; however, in this case, the device was switched off.

Exercises

Triceps: The volunteer sat on a mat that was positioned in front of the platform, with the hands placed beside the body, supported on the base of the platform and with legs extended. The movement was performed to achieve 90° flexion and full extension of triceps in a closed kinetic chain, holding for 3 seconds in each position 3 seconds in extension and 3 seconds in flexion.

Quadriceps: The subject stood on the vibratory platform with bare feet separated by a distance of 14 cm from the axis of vibration. The squat exercises consisted of a semi-full knee flexion 10° to 60° and the maintenance of each posture in isometric contraction for 3 seconds.

Calf: The subject stood on the vibration platform, with hands placed on the control panel, with feet 28 cm apart and with knees flexed at 20º. The volunteer performed the plantar flexion of approximately 20º and remained in position for 3 seconds, returning to neutral position for another 3 seconds.

Abdominal: The subject sat on the vibration platform with feet resting on the floor and to perform voluntary isometric trunk flexion between 90° and 45°, holding the isometric contraction for 3 seconds in each position.

Gluteus: Lying on a mat in front of the vibration platform with feet resting on the base unit of vibration platform 28 cm between the feet and with hands beside the body, the subject performed hip extension until the gluteus aligned with the femoral diaphysis; the isometric contraction was held for 3 seconds before returning to the starting position and holding for another 3 seconds.

Oxygen consumption VO2 was measured at rest and during the four experimental conditions. To measure oxygen consumption, a K4b2 portable gas analysis system Cosmed, Italy was used to transmit breath-by-breath data to a computer. The system was calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

To measure resting VO2, the volunteers were rested, awake and in a seated position and remained in a closed room with the lights off and the curtains drawn for ten minutes11. The VO2 data were collected breath-by-breath during this period; however, the data used in analysis consisted of the mean values recorded in the final five minutes of the resting period. Immediately afterwards, the volunteers were asked to assume the correct position on the vibration platform where they remained until VO2 had returned to their resting values. After the data had been collected during the resting phase, the volunteers were asked to perform one of the four experimental conditions: 1. exercise without whole body vibration, 2. exercise with whole body vibration at 2 mm of amplitude and 35 Hz of frequency, 3. exercise with whole body vibration at 2 mm of amplitude and 40 Hz of frequency, 4. exercise with whole body vibration at 2 mm of amplitude and 45 Hz of frequency.

The energy expenditure kcal/day, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat % and rate of fat oxidation g/min were calculated from VO2 and RER, assuming that protein breakdown contributes little to energy metabolism14. The metabolic equivalent MET was estimated by considering that 1 MET corresponds to 3.5 mLO2.Kg- 1.min- 1.

Statistical Analysis

The statistical software program SPSS(r) IBM(r), Chicago, IL, USA version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. The significance level was defined as p ≤ 0.05. First, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used to verify the normalcy of the data. Next, the differences between conditions were tested using repeated measures ANOVA. Tukey's post hoc test was used to verify the differences among the conditions. To assess the size of the differences among experimental conditions, we analyzed the magnitude of the effects.

RESULTS

The energy expenditure and mean oxygen consumption at rest were 1.30 ± 0.11 kcal.kg- 1.h- 1 and 4.74 ± 0.74 mLO2.kg- 1.min- 1, respectively.

During the exercise protocol without whole body vibration, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption increased significantly to 2.32 ± 0.37 kcal.kg- 1.h- 1 and 8.14 ± 1.29 mLO2.kg- 1.min- 1, respectively, compared with the resting values p < 0.05 table 1.

Table 1. Mean ± standard deviation and percentage % of energy expenditure kcal.kg-1.h-1 and maximum oxygen consumption ml.kg.min-1 at rest and during different experimental conditions N = 8. * P  

Energy expenditure (kcal.kg-1.h-1) Oxygen consumption (mL.Kg.min-1)
Mean ± Standard deviation
(minimum-maximum)
Mean ± Standard deviation
(minimum-maximum)
% of maximum value
Maximum Value 9.36 ± 1.01 (7.73-11.34) 32.75 ± 3.55 (27.06-39.07) 100
Rest 1.30 ± 0.11 (0.99-1.43) 4.74 ± 0.74 (4.02-5.35) 13 ± 3
Without WBV 2.32 ± 0.37* (1.93-3.06) 8.14 ± 1.29* (6.95-10.77) 24 ± 2*
WBV (35 Hz, 2mm) 2.65 ± 0.40* (2.17-3.28) 9.27 ± 1.41* (7.58-11.48) 28 ± 5*
WBV (40 Hz, 2 mm) 2.64 ± 0.35* (1.99-3.06) 9.24 ± 1.22* (6.95-10.44) 28 ± 3*
WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm) 2.71 ± 1.01* ¥ (2.30-3.25) 9.49 ± 3.55* ¥ (8.06-11.36) 29 ± 3* ¥

To quantify the percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during the interval exercise protocol without and with whole body vibration at three different intensities, oxygen consumption was measured during a progressive test until fatigue; a mean value of 32.75 ± 3.55 mLO2.kg- 1.min- 1 was obtained that represented 100%. The addition of WBV with a frequency of 45 Hz and an amplitude of 2 mm to the exercise protocol resulted in 29 ± 3 % of the maximal oxygen consumption, and only this intensity of whole body vibration promoted an additional increase in energy expenditure p = 0.04 and in VO2 p = 0.00 compared to the exercise protocol without vibration table 1. However, this increase did not change the rate of fat oxidation p = 0.42, respiratory exchange ratio p = 0.80, energy expenditure p = 0.14 or percent of calories from fat p = 0.17 compared to the exercise protocol without vibration, as the exercise intensity approximately 2.7 MET was classified as light for young people table 2.

Table 2. Mean ± standard deviation of the respiratory exchange ratio RER, energy expenditure EEM, rate of fat oxidation, energetic expenditure from fat and percentage of calories from fat, measured at rest and during experimental conditions N = 8. * P  

Variables Rest Without WBV
(minimum-maximum)
WBV 35 Hz
(minimum-maximum)
WBV 40 Hz
(minimum-maximum)
WBV 45 Hz
(minimum-maximum)
p
value
Effect size
RER 0.85 ± 0.03
(0.82-0.03)
0.84 ± 0.05
(0.79-0.92)
0.85 ± 0.07
(0.74-0.96)
0.83 ± 0.04
(0.76-0.9)
0.85 ± 0.04
(0.79-0.89)
0.80 0.17
EEM (Kcal/day) 2.06 ± 0.38
(1.54-2.67)
2.29 ± 0.37
(1.93-2.88)
2.60 ± 0.46
(1.90-3.12)
2.60 ± 0.50
(2.00-3.34)
2.68 ± 0.47
(2.02-3.28)
0.14 0.64
Rate of fat oxidation (g/day) 124.11 ± 29.01
(75.12-169.64)
177.23 ± 58.36
(95.06-258.40)
214.95 ± 114.01
(65.43-395.88)
223.48 ± 71.03
(102.91-331.28)
212.13 ± 62.14
(134.68- 299.77)
0.42 0.41
Fat (Kcal/day) 1184.68 ± 267.33
(1043.13-1594.61)
1484.00 ± 803.92
(893.56-2428.95)
2020.52 ± 1071.72
(615.08-3721.29)
2124.38 ± 668.12
(968.52-3114.06)
1994.04 ± 584.09
(1266.04-2817.86)
0.17 0.61
% of calories from fat 50.71 ± 13.75
(29.81-66.62)
53.12 ± 16.68
(25.22-72.04)
52.29 ± 21.09
(22.79-87.79)
56.51 ± 14.51
(31.86-79.74)
51.69 ± 13.07
(36.68-70.70)
0.80 0.17

DISCUSSION

The main finding of this study was that the intensity of the vibratory stimulus increased energetic expenditure and oxygen consumption during an interval exercise protocol involving multiple dynamic exercises in the upper and lower body, but this augmentation failed to reach the minimum levels of intensity for exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population and was limited to approximately 2.7 METs.

The addition of whole body vibration was able to significantly increase oxygen consumption only at the intensity of 45 Hz and 2mm. These results are in agreement with the data obtained in the study of Wakeling et al.15 in which the authors tested the hypothesis that the increase in muscle activity of the lower limbs produced by the whole body vibration minimizes tissue resonance in response to vibration at frequencies of 10 Hz to 50 Hz natural frequency of sural triceps, quadriceps and anterior tibial in the relaxed state and active, respectively. The authors showed that the peaks of EMG activity occurred when the frequency of vibration produced by vibrating platform was near the natural frequency values ​​of muscle tissue in activity approximately 50 Hz. These results suggest that the frequency of 45 Hz may have increased muscle activity in order to promote the spread of vibration damping and, therefore, have produced a significant increase in oxygen consumption compared to the same exercise performed without the addition of whole body vibration. Furthermore, data from our group16demonstrated a dose-response curve of the effectiveness of vibratory stimulation on muscular performance muscular strength and anaerobic performance only for the frequency of 45 Hz.

The increase in oxygen consumption during whole body vibration exercise at a frequency of 45 Hz was also obtained in the study of Hazell and Lemon13, in which the authors used an exercise protocol involving the same muscle groups and at the same vibratory intensity as the present study. The authors observed that the vibratory stimulus was sufficient to increase VO2 and heart rate in young sedentary participants and inferred that this type of training could reduce body fat. However, as the authors did not calculate exercise intensity in terms of relative perceptual exercise intensity, it was not possible to classify the intensity of exercise to establish whether it would be enough for weight management.

The current literature has indicated exercise intensities around 45% to 65% of the maximal oxygen consumption for weight management1. Since the addition of whole body vibration with a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm to the interval exercise protocol resulted in an intensity of only 29% of the maximal oxygen consumption, which is classified as light-intensity [37-45% of maximal oxygen consumption], this method, even when associated with interval exercise, would not reach the intensity threshold for weight loss1. Moreover, considering that the addition of whole body vibration during a session of interval exercise did not modify the proportion of used energy substrates, this addition probably did not provide additional benefit to increased mobilization of body fat and consequently reduction of fat percentage compared to a session of interval exercise without vibration. However, since light-intensity exercise uses predominantly fat as energy substrate, longer duration of light-intensity exercise could mobilize free fatty acids to the supply of substrate used contributing for the maintenance of fat balance17.

Current ACSM1 guidelines on intervention strategies for weight management suggest that moderate-intensity [3.0-5.0 metabolic equivalents, 46-63% of maximal oxygen consumption] aerobic exercise of 150 to 250 min/week results in modest weight loss. Given this, even the addition of WBV with a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm to the interval exercise protocol resulted in an intensity of only 2.7 metabolic equivalents and 29% of the maximal oxygen consumption, which is classified as light-intensity [2.0 - 2.9 metabolic equivalents, 37-45% of maximal oxygen consumption]. Thus, this method, even when associated with interval exercise, would not promote a sufficient exercise intensity to lose weight1.

According to McArdle et al. 18, moderate-intensity exercise 65% VO2max elicits a higher rate of fat oxidation compared to exercise at 25% VO2max and 85% VO2max. The exercise intensity in the current study was classified as very-light < 37% VO2max in all experimental situations, and the rate of fat oxidation was not modified by the vibratory stimulus. Furthermore, there was no difference in the respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure or percent of calories from fat among experimental conditions free fatty acids being the predominant energetic supply mobilized17. The addition of whole body vibration to interval exercise did not bring additional benefit to the mobilization of body fat and, consequently, a reduction in percentage of fat when compared to exercise without vibration.

In relation to the daily energetic cost needed for weight management, ACSM1 guidelines recommend an additional energetic expenditure from exercise of 400 or more kcal*day- 1. The additional caloric expenditure from the use of vibration 45 Hz and 2mm was 15.74 kcal/session; it would be necessary to perform interval exercise with vibration 45 Hz and 2 mm for approximately 6 hour/day meet the standards recommended for weight loss. Therefore, the data from this study do not support the speculations advocated by some companies that a 10-mim workout on a vibratory platform is equivalent to 1 h of traditional exercise8, suggesting that practitioners should opt other therapeutic modalities for this purpose.

This study has limitations, and the results should be interpreted within the context of these limitations. First, the number of participants does not permit generalization of the results Thus, we recommend caution in the generalization of ours results. Second, it is important to emphasize that specific frequencies and amplitudes were used, and the results cannot be extrapolated to other parameters of vibration. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of vibration training on body fat loss as well as in other populations, such as overweight and obese individuals.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, despite the impact of the vibratory stimulus on the intensity and energy expenditure of the proposed interval exercise protocol, the increase obtained was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not achieve the minimum recommendation for an exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population. The reported increase in energy metabolism was via increased oxygen uptake level, which equates to a very light- to light-intensity level. However, future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of vibration training on body fat loss as well as in other populations, such as overweight and obese individuals.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa de Minas Gerais

REFERENCES

1. Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;412:459-71. [ Links ]

2. Milanese C, Piscitelli F, Zenti MG, Moghetti P, Sandri M, Zancanaro C. Ten-week whole-body vibration training improves body composition and muscle strength in obese women. Int J Med Sci. 2013;103:307-11. [ Links ]

3. Song GE, Kim K, Lee DJ, Joo NS. Whole body vibration effects on body composition in the postmenopausal korean obese women: pilot study. Korean J Fam Med. 2011;327:399-405. [ Links ]

4. Klarner A, von Stengel S, Kemmler W, Kladny B, Kalender W. Effects of two different types of whole body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition in postmenopausal women. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2011;13642:2133-9. [ Links ]

5. von Stengel S, Kemmler W, Engelke K, Kalender WA. Effect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older: a randomized-controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2012;221:119-27. [ Links ]

6. Bogaerts A, Delecluse C, Claessens AL, Coudyzer W, Boonen S, Verschueren SM. Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;626:630-5. [ Links ]

7. Delecluse C, Roelants M, Verschueren S. Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;356:1033-41. [ Links ]

8. Cochrane DJ. Vibration exercise: the potential benefits. Int J Sports Med. 2011;322:75-99. [ Links ]

9. Bogaerts AC, Delecluse C, Claessens AL, Troosters T, Boonen S, Verschueren SM. Effects of whole body vibration training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in older individuals a 1-year randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing. 2009;384:448-54. [ Links ]

10. Rittweger J, Beller G, Felsenberg D. Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in man. Clin Physiol. 2000;202:134-42. [ Links ]

11. Avelar NC, Simão AP, Tossige-Gomes R, Neves CD, Mezencio B, Szmuchrowski L, et al. Oxygen consumption and heart rate during repeated squatting exercises with or without whole-body vibration in the elderly. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;2512:3495-500. [ Links ]

12. Cochrane DJ, Stannard SR, Sargeant AJ, Rittweger J. The rate of muscle temperature increase during acute whole-body vibration exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;1034:441-8. [ Links ]

13. Hazell TJ, Lemon PWR. Synchronous whole-body vibration increases VO2 during and following acute exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;1122: 413-20. [ Links ]

14. Garatachea N, Jiménez A, Bresciani G, Mariño NA, González-Gallego J, de Paz JA. The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;212:594-8. [ Links ]

15. Wakeling JM, Nigg BM, Rozitis AI. Muscle activity damps the soft tissue resonance that occurs in response to pulsed and continuous vibrations. J Appl Physiol 1985. 2002;933:1093-103. [ Links ]

16. Avelar NC, Salvador FS, Ribeiro VG, Vianna DM, Costa SJ, Gripp F, et al. Whole body vibration and post-activation potentiation: a study with repeated measures. Int J Sports Med. 2014;358:651-7. [ Links ]

17. Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E, et al. Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol. 1993;2653 Pt 1:E380-91. [ Links ]

18. McArdle WD, Franklin IK, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. [ Links ]

Received: January 17, 2014; Accepted: September 18, 2014

Correspondence: Núbia Carelli Pereira de Avelar Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Campus Jardim das Avenidas, Rodovia Governador Jorge Lacerda, 3201, Araranguá, SC, .Brazil. 88900-000. nubia.carelli@ufsc.br

All authors have declared there is not any potential conflict of interests concerning this article.

Creative Commons License Este é um artigo publicado em acesso aberto (Open Access) sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial, que permite uso, distribuição e reprodução em qualquer meio, sem restrições desde que sem fins comerciais e que o trabalho original seja corretamente citado.